An optical decoding technique is proposed for a spectral-amplitude-coding-optical code division multiple access, namely, the AND subtraction technique. The theory is being elaborated and experimental results have been done by comparing a double-weight code against the existing code, Hadamard. We have proved that the and subtraction technique gives better bit error rate performance than the conventional complementary subtraction technique against the received power level.
An investigation on the properties of Tenun Pahang fabric performances using alternative yarns was conducted. The studies were made in order to evaluate whether the Tenun Pahang fabric could be produced economically and at the same time maintain the fabric quality. Traditional Tenun Pahang fabric uses silk for both warp and weft. For this project, two alternative yarns were used which were bamboo and modal, which were a little lower in cost compared to silk. These yarns were woven with two variations, one with the yarns as weft only while maintaining the silk warp and the other with both warp and weft using the alternative yarns. Four (4) physical testing and three (3) mechanical testing conducted on the fabric samples. The fabric samples were evaluated including weight, thickness, thread density, crease recovery angle, stiffness and drapability. The results show that modal/silk and bamboo silk fabrics are comparable in terms of stiffness and drapability, hence they have the potential to replace 100% silk Tenun Pahang.
Quantitative measurement of limb loading is important in orthopedic and neurological rehabilitation. In current practice, mathematical models such as Symmetry index (SI), Symmetry ratio (SR), and Symmetry angle (SA) are used to quantify limb loading asymmetry. Literatures have identified certain limitations with the above mathematical models. Hence this study presents two new mathematical models Modified symmetry index (MSI) and Limb loading error (LLE) that would address these limitations. Furthermore, the current mathematical models were compared against the new model with the goal of achieving a better model. This study uses hypothetical data to simulate an algorithmic preliminary computational measure to perform with all numerical possibilities of even and uneven limb loading that can occur in human legs. Descriptive statistics are used to interpret the limb loading patterns: symmetry, asymmetry and maximum asymmetry. The five mathematical models were similar in analyzing symmetry between limbs. However, for asymmetry and maximum asymmetry data, the SA and SR values do not give any meaningful interpretation, and SI gives an inflated value. The MSI and LLE are direct, easy to interpret and identify the loading patterns with the side of asymmetry. The new models are notable as they quantify the amount and side of asymmetry under different loading patterns.
Introduction: In maternal healthcare, pre-pregnancy weight is used to predict pregnancy outcomes. Since no recorded data on pre-pregnancy weight, perceived weight is used alternatively. This study examines the relationship between perceived and actual weight among non-pregnant urban Malaysian women of childbearing age and identifies differences in perceived and actual weight by selected socio-demographic characteristics.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2013 among urban Malaysian women attending public health clinics in the Klang Valley. Information on height, perceived current weight and time when their weight was last taken were obtained and actual weight was the average of two measurements (TANITA-HD-323-digital-scale). Socio-demographic data collected were age, ethnicity, education level, marital and employment status and total household income.
Results: Mean age of 371 women in this study was 28.81±5.65, 82.2% were Malays, 62.8% had tertiary education, over 75% were married and employed, with more than half from middle-income households. Overall, the mean perceived and actual weight was 59.29±11.59 and 59.20±11.90 respectively. Pearson‟s Correlation test showed a very strong positive correlation between perceived and actual weight (r=0.957;p<0.0001), ranging between 0.852 to 0.994 among subgroups; 258 (69.5%) perceived their weight accurately (±2.0 kg of actual weight), 49 (13.2%) under and 64 (17.3%) overestimated their weight.Main outliers were among younger women, Malays, tertiary educated, employed, middle-income and had weight last measured a month or more ago.
Conclusion: Strong correlation between perceived and actual weight among women in this study reassured weight perception can be used more confidently in patients‟ history taking and future research among urban Malaysian women using public health services.
Differences in wing morphology are predicted to reflect differences in bat foraging strategies. Experimental tests of this prediction typically assess the relationship between wing morphology and a measures of flight performance on an obstacle course. However, studies have lacked measures of obstacle avoidance ability true scores, which may confound interpretation of ability across the range of presented tasks. Here, we used Rasch analysis of performance in a collision-avoidance experiment to estimate the ability of bat species to fly through vegetative clutter. We refer to this latent trait as 'clutter negotiating ability' and determined the relationships between clutter negotiating ability and wing morphology in 15 forest insectivorous bat species that forage in the densely cluttered rainforests of Malaysia. The clutter negotiating ability scores were quantified based on individual responses of each species to 11 different obstacle arrangements (four banks of vertical strings 10-60 cm apart). The tasks employed for the collision-avoidance experiment were reliable and valid, although Rasch analysis suggested that the experiment was too easy to discriminate completely among the 15 species. We found significant negative correlations between clutter negotiating ability and body mass, wingspan, wing loading and wing area but a positive significant correlation with wingtip area ratio. However, in stepwise multiple regression analyses, only body mass and wing loading were significant predictors of clutter negotiating ability. Species fell into clusters of different clutter negotiating ability, suggesting a potential mechanism for resource partitioning within the forest interior insectivorous ensemble.
The objective of this project was to determine the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of bread supplemented with four different levels (control, 5%, 10%, and 15%) of pumpkin flour. The physical (weight, loaf volume, specific volume and oven spring) and chemical (moisture, protein, fat, fibre and ash) attributes were determined in the raw pumpkin, pumpkin flour (PF), control and supplemented breads. Sensory attributes were conducted on the control and supplemented breads. Increasing the level of substitution from 5% to 15% pumpkin flour significantly (p
This study is to report the proximate compositions as well as tetrodotoxin (TTX) content in the muscles of yellow puffer fish Xenopterus naritus that collected from Kg. Manggut and Kabong, Sarawak. The internal organs of 26 and 20 specimens from Kg. Manggut and Kabong respectively were removed by the local people that had skills and experiences with the preparation of yellow puffer fish. In general, the moisture contents were ranging between 75.2% and 80.6%. X. naritus from Kabong showed higher crude protein contents (88.2% dry weight) than the same species from Kg. Manggut (87.9% dry weight) and not significantly different (p>0.05). X. naritus from Kg. Manggut demonstrated a significantly higher (p
Changes of physico-chemical properties such as size, weight, moisture content, total soluble solid
(TSS), colour, pH, total acidity and sugar content of red seedless watermelon during storage at room temperature (± 28ºC; 70-80% RH) were investigated. The average weight, diameter and length of red seedless watermelon were 5.94 kg, 22.0 cm and 21.8 cm respectively. The length to diameter ratio was 1.02. The statistical analysis indicated that total soluble solids of fruit decreased significantly (p
The physical properties by natural fibre have a great importance, specifically in the structural of natural fibre which reinforces matrix. Response surface methodology with Box-Behnken (BB) design of experiment was utilized to study water absorption and melt flow index (MFI) of abaca fibre reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites. The design utilizes fraction of weight abaca fibre, maleic anhydride (MAH), and impact modifier to develop models for characteristic behaviours of water absorption and MFI of composites. Abaca fibre reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites were produced with different fibre loadings (30, 40, and 50 wt%), different compositions of coupling agent, maleic anhydried (MAH) (1, 2, and 3 wt%) and different compositions of impact modifier (4, 5, 6 wt%). The individual optimum of water absorption was found when loading abaca fibre close to 34.61 wt%, maleic anhydride 1 wt%, and impact modifier 4.01 wt%. The individual optimum of melt flow index dealt with loading abaca fibre 36.71 wt%, maleic anhydride 3 wt% and impact modifier 4.02 wt%. Meanwhile, the optimum condition for water absorption of abaca fibre reinforced HIPS composites was followed by a decreasing trend of the value of melt flow index.
Weft density and draw in plan play an important role since they affect physical properties such as fabric weight, cloth cover factor as well as seam strength. Weft density refers to the amount of weft yarn in one inch. Meanwhile, draw in plan refers to the amount of heald shaft used and the order of warp yarn through the heald. In this study, plain woven fabrics were produced by using Sulzer Rapier Loom Machine. There were two different types of weft density used which were 15 and 20 weft per centimeter (wpcm) and four draws in plan: pointed, straight, broken and broken mirror. Seams were constructed by using plain seam of Ssa-1, four stitches of stitch density and 301 lockstitches for stitch type. Subsequently, the fabric samples were tested on seam strength by using Testometric tester. As a result of this study, it is proven that weft density and draw in plan of woven plain fabric are parameters that affect the seam strength and seam efficiency. The highest increase in percentage of seam strength was obtained from straight draw in plan which increases up to 17.19% from 15wpcm to 20wpcm. Meanwhile, broken draw in plan has the lowest increase percentage for seam strength which is 6.46%. Furthermore, seam efficiency also shows straight draw in plan gives good fabric durability compared to others. Lastly, it also shows broken draw in plan has no significant effect on fabric tensile strength and seam strength.
We report a rare case of pectoralis major rupture during a body weight calisthenics exercise that was treated surgically. We highlighted the rehabilitation protocol which enabled him to regain full strength and return to his sport in three months.
Scrotal circumference (SC) and body weight (BW) measurements were obtained from 122 crossbred (SaanenxLoca; JumnaparixLocal) bucks, ranging in age from 3 to 28 months. Spermatogenesis and semeniferous tubule diameters were studied from testicular biopsies in 24 bucks. The results showed that SC increased curvilinearly and was significantly correlated with age (P<0.05). Scrotal circumference correlated more significantly with BW (P<0.001). Spermatogenesis was completed at 6-7 months with a sudden increase in tubular diameter at the same time. Since SC is an indirect measurement of testicular size, a marked increase in testicular size indicated the onset of active spermatogenesis and, hence, the possibility of using bucks for breeding at an earlier age than normally recommended. Further, SC norms obtained in this study may become useful in the evaluation of bucks for breeding soundness.
The study was aimed to determine the variation in taxonomic diversity of Polynemus paradiseus based on morphometric and meristic analyses of samples collected from three coastal rivers of Bangladesh (Payra, Tentulia and Kirtonkhola). A total of 105 individuals ranging at 10-20 cm in total length (TL) and 7.91-60.64 g in body weight (BW) were sampled using Been nets and Kachal and Veshal nets. Significant differences were observed in 24 out of 25 morphometric measurements and 6 out of 10 meristic counts among the populations. In morphometric measurements, the first discriminant function (DF1) was accounted for 78.6% and the second discriminant function (DF2) was accounted for 21.4% of among groups variability, explaining 100% of total among group variability. A dendrogram based on morphometric data showed that the Tentulia and Kirtankhola populations showed high degree of overlapping and these two populations were highly different from Payra river population. The canonical graph also showed that the populations of Tentulia and Kirtankhola rivers were more closely related comparing with Payra river population for isometric condition. These findings may provide useful information for the conservation and sustainable management of this important fish.
This paper offers a technique to create a development index among districts. To determine the weight for each criterion in the index entropy theory was used. Two approaches for criteria normalization were also suggested. The data obtained from 1991 census conducted in Peninsular Malaysia were utilized as illustration.
Kertas ini mencadangkan teknik pembinaan indeks kemajuan daerah. Teori entropy digunakan untuk menentukan pemberat bagi kriteria yang digunakan dalam pembinaan indeks. Dua pendekatan menormalkan data turut dicadangkan. Contoh pembinaan indeks dikemukakan berdasarkan kemudahan asas yang terdapat di daerah-daerah di Semenanjung Malaysia seperti yang diperoleh berdasarkan banci tahun 1991.
Okra peel exhibits numerous therapeutic effects. This study explores the potential ameliorative effects of okra peel powder on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hypercholesterolemia and cognitive deficits. Thirty-six C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6 per group): (i) control, mice fed with a normal diet; (ii) HFD, mice fed with HFD; (iii) HFD-SIM, mice fed with HFD and given simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day); (iv) HFD-OP1; (v) HFD-OP2; (vi) HFD-OP3, mice fed with HFD and okra peel (200, 400, or 800 mg/kg/day, respectively). Following 10 weeks of treatments, the mice were subjected to the Morris water maze (MWM). Parameters such as weekly average body weight, food intake, and blood lipid profiles were also recorded. The HFD group showed a profound increase in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein concentration compared to the control group. All okra-treated and HFD-SIM groups performed better than the HFD group during acquisition trials, whereas only the HFD-OP1 produced a significantly higher number of entries into the platform zone during the probe trial. In sum, all three okra doses improved the learning ability of the mice. However, only the lowest dose of okra significantly improved the spatial reference memory retention.
Feed efficiency (FE) is the amount of body weight gain for a given feed intake. Improving FE through selective breeding is key for sustainable finfish aquaculture but its evaluation at individual level is technically challenging. We therefore investigated whether individual routine metabolic rate (RMR) was a predictor of individual FE in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, a major species in European mariculture. The European sea bass has three genetically distinct populations across its geographical range, namely Atlantic (AT), West Mediterranean (WM), and East Mediterranean (EM). We compared FE and RMR of fish from these three populations at 18 or 24 °C. We held 200 fish (62 AT, 66 WM, and 72 EM) in individual aquaria and fed them from ad libitum down to fasting. FI was assessed for an ad libitum feeding rate and for a fixed restricted ration (1% of metabolic body weight·day-1, with metabolic body weight = body weight0.8). After being refed 12 wk in a common tank, individual RMR was measured over 36 h by intermittent flow respirometry. There was a significant effect of temperature whereby fish at 18 °C had greater mean FE (P < 0.05) and lower RMR (P < 0.001). There was also a significant effect of population, where AT fish had lower FE (P < 0.05) and greater RMR (P < 0.001) than WM and EM, at both temperatures. Despite these differences in temperature and population means, individual FE and RMR were not significantly correlated (P > 0.05). Therefore, although the results provide evidence of an association between metabolic rate and FE, RMR was not a predictor of individual FE, for reasons that require further investigation.