Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 145 in total

  1. Venil CK, Sathishkumar P, Malathi M, Usha R, Jayakumar R, Yusoff ARM, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Feb;59:228-234.
    PMID: 26652368 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.10.019
    In this work, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from a pigment produced by a recently-discovered bacterium, Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497, was achieved, followed by an investigation of its anticancer properties. The bacterial pigment was identified as flexirubin following NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), UV-Vis, and LC-MS analysis. An aqueous silver nitrate solution was treated with isolated flexirubin to produce silver nanoparticles. The synthesised silver nanoparticles were subsequently characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy methodologies. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of synthesised silver nanoparticles in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated. The tests showed significant cytotoxicity activity of the silver nanoparticles in the cultured cells, with an IC50 value of 36μgmL(-1). This study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles, synthesised from flexirubin from C. artocarpi CECT 8497, may have potential as a novel chemotherapeutic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  2. Hasanpourghadi M, Pandurangan AK, Mustafa MR
    Pharmacol Res, 2018 02;128:376-388.
    PMID: 28923544 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.09.009
    Carcinogenesis, a multi-step phenomenon, characterized by alterations at genetic level and affecting the main intracellular pathways controlling cell growth and development. There are growing number of evidences linking oncogenes to the induction of malignancies, especially breast cancer. Modulations of oncogenes lead to gain-of-function signals in the cells and contribute to the tumorigenic phenotype. These signals yield a large number of proteins that cause cell growth and inhibit apoptosis. Transcription factors such as STAT, p53, NF-κB, c-JUN and FOXM1, are proteins that are conserved among species, accumulate in the nucleus, bind to DNA and regulate the specific genes targets. Oncogenic transcription factors resulting from the mutation or overexpression following aberrant gene expression relay the signals in the nucleus and disrupt the transcription pattern. Activation of oncogenic transcription factors is associated with control of cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and cell differentiation. Among different cancer types, breast cancer is one of top ten cancers worldwide. There are different subtypes of breast cancer cell-lines such as non-aggressive MCF-7 and aggressive and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, which are identified with distinct molecular profile and different levels of oncogenic transcription factor. For instance, MDA-MB-231 carries mutated and overexpressed p53 with its abnormal, uncontrolled downstream signalling pathway that account for resistance to several anticancer drugs compared to MCF-7 cells with wild-type p53. Appropriate enough, inhibition of oncogenic transcription factors has become a potential target in discovery and development of anti-tumour drugs against breast cancer. Plants produce diverse amount of organic metabolites. Universally, these metabolites with biological activities are known as "natural products". The chemical structure and function of natural products have been studied since 1850s. Investigating these properties leaded to recognition of their molecular effects as anticancer drugs. Numerous natural products extracted from plants, fruits, mushrooms and mycelia, show potential inhibitory effects against several oncogenic transcription factors in breast cancer. Natural compounds that target oncogenic transcription factors have increased the number of candidate therapeutic agents. This review summarizes the current findings of natural products in targeting specific oncogenic transcription factors in breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  3. Ramdas P, Radhakrishnan AK, Abdu Sani AA, Abdul-Rahman PS
    Nutr Cancer, 2019;71(8):1263-1271.
    PMID: 31084432 DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2019.1607407
    Tocotrienols (T3), a family of vitamin E, are reported to possess potent anti-cancer effects but the molecular mechanisms behind these effects still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate how T3 exert anti-cancer effects on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The MDA-MB-231 cells were chosen for this study as they are triple-negative and highly metastatic cells, which form aggressive tumors in experimental models. The MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with varying concentrations (0-20 µg mL-1) of gamma (γ) or delta (δ) T3 and the secretome profiles of these cells treated with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of γT3 (5.8 µg mL-1) or δT3 (4.0 µg mL-1) were determined using label-free quantitative proteomic strategy. A total of 103, 174 and 141 proteins were identified with ProteinLynx Global Server (PLGS) score of more than 200 and above 25% sequence coverage in the untreated control and T3-treated cell culture supernatant respectively. A total of 18 proteins were dysregulated between untreated control and T3 (δT3 or γT3) treated conditions. The results showed that T3 treatment downregulated the exogenous Cathepsin D and Serpine1 proteins but upregulated Profilin-1 protein, which play a key role in breast cancer in the MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings strongly suggest that T3 may induce differential expression of secreted proteins involved in the cytoskeletal regulation of RHO GTPase signaling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  4. Yip CH, Rhodes A
    Future Oncol, 2014 Nov;10(14):2293-301.
    PMID: 25471040 DOI: 10.2217/fon.14.110
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The majority of breast cancers show overexpression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs). The development of drugs to target these hormone receptors, such as tamoxifen, has brought about significant improvement in survival for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Since information about ER and PR is vital for patient management, quality assurance is important to ensure accurate testing. In recent guidelines, the recommended definition of ER and PR positivity is 1% or more of cells that stain positive. Semiquantitative assessment of ER and PR is important for prognosis and, hence, management. Even with the development of genomic tests, hormone receptor status remains the most significant predictive and prognostic biomarker.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  5. Dean SJ, Rhodes A
    Malays J Pathol, 2014 Dec;36(3):155-62.
    PMID: 25500513 MyJurnal
    The incidence of breast cancer in Malaysia and other Asian countries is on the increase, reflecting lifestyle changes some of which are known risk factors for the development of breast cancer. Most breast cancers are amenable to adjuvant therapies that target hormone receptors or HER2 receptors on the surface of the cancer cells and bring about significant improvement in survival. However, approximately 17% of Malaysian women with breast cancer, present with tumours that are devoid of these receptors and are consequently termed 'triple negative' breast cancers. These triple negative breast cancers typically occur in women of a younger age than receptor positive cancers, are predominantly of high grade tumours and the prognosis is usually poor. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the biological pathways that drive these tumours, in order that effective strategies are developed to treat these aggressive tumours. With the increasing affluence of developing countries, obesity and Type II Diabetes are also on the rise. These diseases are associated with an increased risk of developing a range of cancers including those of the breast. In particular, the metabolic syndrome has been shown to be associated with triple negative breast cancer. This article reviews some of the metabolic pathways and biomarkers which have been shown to be aberrantly expressed in triple negative breast cancer and highlights some of the ongoing work in this area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  6. Xu Y, Zhang H, Lit LC, Grothey A, Athanasiadou M, Kiritsi M, et al.
    Sci Signal, 2014 Jun 17;7(330):ra58.
    PMID: 24939894 DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.2005170
    Lemur tyrosine kinase 3 (LMTK3) is associated with cell proliferation and endocrine resistance in breast cancer. We found that, in cultured breast cancer cell lines, LMTK3 promotes the development of a metastatic phenotype by inducing the expression of genes encoding integrin subunits. Invasive behavior in various breast cancer cell lines positively correlated with the abundance of LMTK3. Overexpression of LMTK3 in a breast cancer cell line with low endogenous LMTK3 abundance promoted actin cytoskeleton remodeling, focal adhesion formation, and adhesion to collagen and fibronectin in culture. Using SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) proteomic analysis, we found that LMTK3 increased the abundance of integrin subunits α5 and β1, encoded by ITGA5 and ITGB1. This effect depended on the CDC42 Rho family guanosine triphosphatase, which was in turn activated by the interaction between LMTK3 and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), an adaptor protein that mediates receptor tyrosine kinase-induced activation of RAS and downstream signaling. Knockdown of GRB2 suppressed LMTK3-induced CDC42 activation, blocked ITGA5 and ITGB1 expression promoted by the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF), and reduced invasive activity. Furthermore, abundance of LMTK3 positively correlated with that of the integrin β1 subunit in breast cancer patient's tumors. Our findings suggest a role for LMTK3 in promoting integrin activity during breast cancer progression and metastasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  7. Jais MH, Md Zin RR, Muhd Hanapi NA, Md Ali SA
    PMID: 26469327
    Ezrin, a membrane-linking protein, has been shown to play an important role in the carcinogenesis of infiltrating breast ductal carcinoma and its strong expression has been used to predict poor prognosis in patients with breast carcinoma. In this study, we compared ezrin protein distribution pattern in benign breast disease and breast cancer molecular subtypes and evaluated their association with clinicopathologic variables. A total of 376 breast cases (142 benign and 234 malignant cases) were studied. Immunohistochemical analysis for ezrin was performed and its expression was observed in terms of its distribution, intensity, and proportion of cells reactive for ezrin. Ezrin was expressed in all benign cases and 91.7% of malignant cases. Apical staining was positively associated with benign breast disease, whereas membranous and cytoplasmic staining were more frequently observed in malignant cases, specifically of hormone receptor-positive subtypes (luminal A and luminal B). Ezrin was significantly overexpressed in luminal A, luminal B, and HER2 subtypes. Reduced ezrin expression was significantly associated with triple-negative breast cancer molecular subtype. No significant association was demonstrated between ezrin expression and Her2 gene amplification, tumor grading, or staging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  8. Emaus MJ, Peeters PH, Bakker MF, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, et al.
    Am J Clin Nutr, 2016 Jan;103(1):168-77.
    PMID: 26607934 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.114.101436
    BACKGROUND: The recent literature indicates that a high vegetable intake and not a high fruit intake could be associated with decreased steroid hormone receptor-negative breast cancer risk.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit intake and steroid hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.

    DESIGN: A total of 335,054 female participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were included in this study (mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 9.8 y). Vegetable and fruit intake was measured by country-specific questionnaires filled out at recruitment between 1992 and 2000 with the use of standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at recruitment and study center and were adjusted for breast cancer risk factors.

    RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11.5 y (IQR: 10.1-12.3 y), 10,197 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed [3479 estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+); 1021 ER and PR negative (ER-PR-)]. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER-PR- breast cancer (ER-PR-: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.05; P-trend = 0.14), the test for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status was not significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.09). Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk.

    CONCLUSION: This study supports evidence that a high vegetable intake is associated with lower (mainly hormone receptor-negative) breast cancer risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  9. Yip Ch, Bhoo-Pathy N, Daniel J, Foo Y, Mohamed A, Abdullah M, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(3):1077-82.
    PMID: 27039727
    BACKGROUND: The three standard biomarkers used in breast cancer are the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The Ki-67 index, a proliferative marker, has been shown to be associated with a poorer outcome, and despite absence of standardization of pathological assessment, is widely used for therapy decision making. We aim to study the role of the Ki-67 index in a group of Asian women with breast cancer.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 450 women newly diagnosed with Stage 1 to 3 invasive breast cancer in a single centre from July 2013 to Dec 2014 were included in this study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between Ki-67 (positive defined as 14% and above) and age, ethnicity, grade, mitotic index, ER, PR, HER2, lymph node status and size. All analyses were performed using SPSS Version 22.

    RESULTS: In univariable analysis, Ki -67 index was associated with younger age, higher grade, ER and PR negativity, HER2 positivity, high mitotic index and positive lymph nodes. However on multivariable analysis only tumour size, grade, PR and HER2 remained significant. Out of 102 stage 1 patients who had ER positive/PR positive/HER2 negative tumours and non-grade 3, only 5 (4.9%) had a positive Ki-67 index and may have been offered chemotherapy. However, it is interesting to note that none of these patients received chemotherapy.

    CONCLUSIONS: Information on Ki67 would have potentially changed management in an insignificant proportion of patients with stage 1 breast cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  10. Sahabi K, Selvarajah GT, Abdullah R, Cheah YK, Tan GC
    J. Vet. Sci., 2018 Mar 31;19(2):162-171.
    PMID: 28927253 DOI: 10.4142/jvs.2018.19.2.162
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in all biological pathways in multicellular organisms. Over 1,400 human miRNAs have been identified, and many are conserved among vertebrates and invertebrates. Regulation of miRNA is the most common mode of post-transcriptional gene regulation. The miRNAs that are involved in the initiation and progression of cancers are termed oncomiRs and several of them have been identified in canine and human cancers. Similarly, several miRNAs have been reported to be down-regulated in cancers of the two species. In this review, current information on the expression and roles of miRNAs in oncogenesis and progression of human and canine cancers, as well the roles miRNAs have in cancer stem cell biology, are highlighted. The potential for the use of miRNAs as therapeutic targets in personalized cancer therapy in domestic dogs and their possible application in human cancer counterparts are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  11. Callari M, Batra AS, Batra RN, Sammut SJ, Greenwood W, Clifford H, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2018 01 05;19(1):19.
    PMID: 29304755 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-017-4414-y
    BACKGROUND: Patient-Derived Tumour Xenografts (PDTXs) have emerged as the pre-clinical models that best represent clinical tumour diversity and intra-tumour heterogeneity. The molecular characterization of PDTXs using High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) is essential; however, the presence of mouse stroma is challenging for HTS data analysis. Indeed, the high homology between the two genomes results in a proportion of mouse reads being mapped as human.

    RESULTS: In this study we generated Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from samples with known mixtures of mouse and human DNA or RNA and from a cohort of human breast cancers and their derived PDTXs. We show that using an In silico Combined human-mouse Reference Genome (ICRG) for alignment discriminates between human and mouse reads with up to 99.9% accuracy and decreases the number of false positive somatic mutations caused by misalignment by >99.9%. We also derived a model to estimate the human DNA content in independent PDTX samples. For RNA-seq and RRBS data analysis, the use of the ICRG allows dissecting computationally the transcriptome and methylome of human tumour cells and mouse stroma. In a direct comparison with previously reported approaches, our method showed similar or higher accuracy while requiring significantly less computing time.

    CONCLUSIONS: The computational pipeline we describe here is a valuable tool for the molecular analysis of PDTXs as well as any other mixture of DNA or RNA species.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  12. Fani S, Kamalidehghan B, Lo KM, Nigjeh SE, Keong YS, Dehghan F, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 12 15;6:38992.
    PMID: 27976692 DOI: 10.1038/srep38992
    In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of Schiff base complex, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene)-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzyl)aquatin(IV) chloride, and C1 on MDA-MB-231 cells and derived breast cancer stem cells from MDA-MB-231 cells. The acute toxicity experiment with compound C1 revealed no cytotoxic effects on rats. Fluorescent microscopic studies using Acridine Orange/Propidium Iodide (AO/PI) staining and flow cytometric analysis using an Annexin V probe confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis in C1-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Compound C1 triggered intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) releases in treated MDA-MB-231 cells. The Cellomics High Content Screening (HCS) analysis showed the induction of intrinsic pathways in treated MDA-MB-231 cells, and a luminescence assay revealed significant increases in caspase 9 and 3/7 activity. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis showed that compound C1 induced G0/G1 arrest in treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Real time PCR and western blot analysis revealed the upregulation of the Bax protein and the downregulation of the Bcl-2 and HSP70 proteins. Additionally, this study revealed the suppressive effect of compound C1 against breast CSCs and its ability to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Our results demonstrate the chemotherapeutic properties of compound C1 against breast cancer cells and derived breast cancer stem cells, suggesting that the anticancer capabilities of this compound should be clinically assessed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  13. Guo G, Zhang W, Dang M, Yan M, Chen Z
    J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol., 2019 Apr;33(4):e22268.
    PMID: 30431692 DOI: 10.1002/jbt.22268
    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is observed in breast cancer. The major snag faced by the human population is the development of chemoresistance to HER2 inhibitors by advanced stage breast cancer cells. Moreover, recent researchers focussed on fisetin as an antiproliferative and chemotherapeutic agent. Therefore, this study was intended to analyze the effects of fisetin on HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Our results depicted that fisetin induced apoptosis of these cells by various mechanisms, such as inactivation of the receptor, induction of proteasomal degradation, decreasing its half-life, decreasing enolase phosphorylation, and alteration of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  14. Kadir AA, Iyengar KR, Peh SC, Yip CH
    Malays J Pathol, 2008 Jun;30(1):57-61.
    PMID: 19108413
    Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast are uncommon tumors known to occur in the elderly. While focal neuroendocrine differentiation may be noted in many ductal and lobular carcinomas, the term neuroendocrine carcinoma is to be applied when more than 50% of the tumor shows such differentiation. This case report details the cytological features of a neuroendocrine carcinoma that was encountered in our hospital. The fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears showed discohesive polygonal cells with abundant cytoplasm, many of which contained eosinophilic granules located at one pole. Histology of the mastectomy and axillary lymph nodes specimen from this patient showed features of neuroendocrine carcinoma--solid type, with metastasis, confirmed with immunohistochemistry. The patient is disease free seven months after surgery. This case highlights the need to closely observe cytological details to identify this rare tumor that may otherwise appear to be invasive duct carcinoma--not otherwise specified on FNA. The implications of diagnosing neuroendocrine differentiation for prognosis and management are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  15. Ching-Shian Leong V, Jabal MF, Leong PP, Abdullah MA, Gul YA, Seow HF
    Cancer Genet. Cytogenet., 2008 Dec;187(2):74-9.
    PMID: 19027487 DOI: 10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2008.07.005
    Somatic mutations of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha; PIK3CA gene have been reported in several types of human cancers. The majority of the PIK3CA mutations map to the three "hot spots" - E542 K and E545 K in the helical (exon 9) and H1047R in the kinase (exon 20) domains of the p110alpha. These hot spot mutations lead to a gain of function in PI3 K signaling. We aimed to determine the frequency of PIK3CA mutations in the three most common Malaysian cancers. In this study, we assessed the genetic alterations in the PIK3CA gene in a series of 20 breast carcinomas, 24 colorectal carcinomas, 27 nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC), and 5 NPC cell lines. We performed mutation analysis of the PIK3CA gene by genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and followed by DNA direct sequencing in exons 9 and 20. No mutations were detected in any of the 24 colorectal and 27 NPC samples, but one hot spot mutation located at exon 20 was found in a NPC cell line, SUNE1. Interestingly, PIK3CA somatic mutations were present in 6/20 (30%) breast carcinomas. Two of the six mutations, H1047R, have been reported previously as a hot spot mutation. Only one out of three hot spot mutations were identified in breast tumor samples. The remaining four mutations were novel. Our data showed that a higher incidence rate of PIK3CA mutations was present in Malaysian breast cancers as compared to colorectal and nasopharyngeal tumor tissues. Our findings also indicate that PIK3CA mutations play a pivotal role in activation of the PI3 K signaling pathway in breast cancer, and specific inhibitors of PIK3CA could be useful for breast cancer treatment in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  16. Othman MI, Majid MI, Singh M, Subathra S, Seng L, Gam LH
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2009 Mar;52(Pt 3):209-19.
    PMID: 18564057 DOI: 10.1042/BA20070271
    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity among women worldwide and IDC (infiltrating ductal carcinoma) is the most common type of invasive breast cancer. The changes in the biological behaviour of cancer tissue can be predicted by measuring the differential protein expression of normal and cancerous tissues. Using a combination of SDS/PAGE and LC (liquid chromatography)-MS/MS (tandem MS), we identified 82 common and differentially expressed proteins from normal and cancerous breast tissues in 20 Malaysian Chinese patients with IDC. These proteins are extracted from the normal and cancerous tissue of patients and therefore represent the actual proteins involved in cancer development. Proteins identified possibly have significant roles in the development of breast cancer in Malaysian Chinese patients in view of their consistent expression in most of the patients, although some of the proteins had not been detected in earlier studies that were mostly carried out in Western countries. This observation suggests that molecular mechanisms leading to breast cancer development in this region may not be identical with those leading to IDC in Western regions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  17. Bhoo Pathy N, Uiterwaal CS, Taib NA, Verkooijen HM, Yip CH
    J Clin Epidemiol, 2012 May;65(5):568-71.
    PMID: 22269329 DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2011.09.013
    Many recent studies investigated the prognostic value of new biomarkers in breast cancer using data from cancer registries. Some of these studies were conducted using only patients for whom biomarker status was available (or tested). Using human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) as an example, we determined whether testing for a recently introduced biomarker was associated with the outcome of women with breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  18. Devi CR, Tang TS, Corbex M
    Int. J. Cancer, 2012 Dec 15;131(12):2869-77.
    PMID: 22407763 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.27527
    We determined the incidences of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) subtypes among breast cancer cases in Sarawak, Malaysia and their correlation with various risk factors in the three ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay and native. Subtype status was ascertained for 1,034 cases of female breast cancer (93% of all cases diagnosed since 2003), and the age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of each subtype were inferred. Case-case comparisons across subtypes were performed for reproductive risk factors. We found 48% luminal A (ER+/PR+/HER2-), 29% triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-), 12% triple-positive (ER+/PR+/HER2+) and 11% HER2-overexpressing (ER-/PR-/HER2+) subtypes, with ASRs of 10.6, 6.0, 2.8 and 2.8 per 100,000, respectively. The proportions of subtypes and ASRs differed significantly by ethnic groups: HER2-positive cases were more frequent in Malays (29%; 95% CI [23;35]) than Chinese (22%; [19;26] and natives (21%; [16;26]); triple-negative cases were less frequent among Chinese (23%; [20;27]) than Malays (33%; [27;39]) and natives (37%; [31;43]). The results of the case-case comparison were in accordance with those observed in western case series. Some uncommon associations, such as between triple-negative subtype and older age at menopause (OR, 1.59; p < 0.05), were found. The triple-negative and HER2+ subtypes predominate in our region, with significant differences among ethnic groups. Our results support the idea that the risk factors for different subtypes vary markedly. Westernized populations are more likely to have factors that increase the risk for the luminal A type, while risk factors for the triple-negative type are more frequent in local populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  19. Looi LM, Cheah PL, Yap SF
    Malays J Pathol, 1997 Jun;19(1):35-9.
    PMID: 10879240
    One hundred and twelve infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast were studied by the standard avidinbiotin complex immunoperoxidase method on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, using a monoclonal antibody to c-erbB-2 oncoprotein. The same tumours were assessed and scored according to the Bloom and Richardson criteria into three histological grades. The distribution of tumours according to grade were: 8 Grade I, 34 Grade II and 70 Grade III. Forty-three (38.4%) tumours showed positive membrane staining for c-erbB-2 oncoprotein. These comprised 7 Grade II and 36 Grade III tumours with c-erbB-2 immunopositivity rates of 20.6% and 51.4% respectively. The oncoprotein was not expressed by Grade I tumours. This study shows a good correlation between c-erbB-2 expression and histological grade, a known prognostic indicator of invasive breast carcinoma. Because the c-erbB-2 oncogene has extensive structural homology to the epidermal growth factor receptor gene, its overexpression can be expected to result in more aggressive tumour behaviour. While it may be regarded as another indicator of poor prognosis breast cancers, its value in the selection of carcinomas less responsive to hormonal therapy and those more suitable for immunotherapy than chemotherapy has been mooted but remains to be clarified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  20. Looi LM, Cheah PL
    Malays J Pathol, 1998 Jun;20(1):19-23.
    PMID: 10879259
    Eighty-six infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast were studied by the standard avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, for oestrogen receptor (ER) protein and c-erbB-2 oncoprotein expression. They were categorized according to the modified Bloom and Richardson criteria into three histological grades. 21% tumours were ER positive while 44% were c-erbB-2 positive. Of ER positive tumours, 33.3% were c-erbB-2 positive whereas the c-erbB-2 positivity rate was much higher (47.1%) in ER negative tumours. Only 16% of c-erbB-2 positive tumours were ER positive while 25% of c-erbB-2 negative tumours were ER positive. This negative relationship between ER and c-erbB-2 expression was statistically significant (Mc Nemar's test, p < 0.005). The ER positivity rate did not vary significantly with histological grade. However, c-erbB-2 overexpression was significantly more prevalent in grade III tumours compared with grade I and II tumours (Chi-square test, p < 0.005). Since the c-erbB-2 oncogene has extensive structural homology to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, we expect that c-erbB-2 oncoprotein would share functional similarities with EGFR leading to both loss of oestrogen receptor and poor prognosis in breast cancer. Its overexpression can be expected to relate to more aggressive tumour proliferation and may explain its correlation with high histological grade, a known indicator of aggressive cancer behaviour. As there is no indication that ER protein activity contributes to advancement in histological grade, it would appear that cellular dedifferentiation precedes ER loss during malignant transformation. It has been mooted that ER positive breast cancers which also show c-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression have a poorer response to hormonal therapy. The use of this parameter in the routine assessment of breast cancer patients may identify subsets of patients for more aggressive therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
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