Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 165 in total

  1. Venil CK, Sathishkumar P, Malathi M, Usha R, Jayakumar R, Yusoff ARM, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Feb;59:228-234.
    PMID: 26652368 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.10.019
    In this work, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from a pigment produced by a recently-discovered bacterium, Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497, was achieved, followed by an investigation of its anticancer properties. The bacterial pigment was identified as flexirubin following NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), UV-Vis, and LC-MS analysis. An aqueous silver nitrate solution was treated with isolated flexirubin to produce silver nanoparticles. The synthesised silver nanoparticles were subsequently characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy methodologies. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of synthesised silver nanoparticles in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated. The tests showed significant cytotoxicity activity of the silver nanoparticles in the cultured cells, with an IC50 value of 36μgmL(-1). This study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles, synthesised from flexirubin from C. artocarpi CECT 8497, may have potential as a novel chemotherapeutic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  2. Hamad HA, Enezei HH, Alrawas A, Zakuan NM, Abdullah NA, Cheah YK, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Aug 26;25(17).
    PMID: 32858793 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25173876
    Hypoxia plays a significant role in solid tumors by the increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is known to promote cancer invasion and metastasis. Cancer-cell invasion dynamically begins with the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) via invadopodia formation. The chemical substrates that are utilized by hypoxic cells as fuel to drive invadopodia formation are still not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of the study was to maintain MDA-MB-231 cells under hypoxia conditions to allow cells to form a large number of invadopodia as a model, followed by identifying their nutrient utilization. The results of the study revealed an increase in the number of cells forming invadopodia under hypoxia conditions. Moreover, Western blot analysis confirmed that essential proteins for hypoxia and invadopodia, including HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), metallopeptidase-2 (MMP-2), and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 7 (β-PIX), significantly increased under hypoxia. Interestingly, phenotype microarray showed that only 11 chemical substrates from 367 types of substrates were significantly metabolized in hypoxia compared to in normoxia. This is thought to be fuel for hypoxia to drive the invasion process. In conclusion, we found 11 chemical substrates that could have potential energy sources for hypoxia-induced invadopodia formation of these cells. This may in part be a target in the hypoxic tumor and invadopodia formation. Additionally, these findings can be used as potential carrier targets in cancer-drug discovery, such as the usage of dextrin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  3. Hasanpourghadi M, Pandurangan AK, Mustafa MR
    Pharmacol Res, 2018 02;128:376-388.
    PMID: 28923544 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.09.009
    Carcinogenesis, a multi-step phenomenon, characterized by alterations at genetic level and affecting the main intracellular pathways controlling cell growth and development. There are growing number of evidences linking oncogenes to the induction of malignancies, especially breast cancer. Modulations of oncogenes lead to gain-of-function signals in the cells and contribute to the tumorigenic phenotype. These signals yield a large number of proteins that cause cell growth and inhibit apoptosis. Transcription factors such as STAT, p53, NF-κB, c-JUN and FOXM1, are proteins that are conserved among species, accumulate in the nucleus, bind to DNA and regulate the specific genes targets. Oncogenic transcription factors resulting from the mutation or overexpression following aberrant gene expression relay the signals in the nucleus and disrupt the transcription pattern. Activation of oncogenic transcription factors is associated with control of cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and cell differentiation. Among different cancer types, breast cancer is one of top ten cancers worldwide. There are different subtypes of breast cancer cell-lines such as non-aggressive MCF-7 and aggressive and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, which are identified with distinct molecular profile and different levels of oncogenic transcription factor. For instance, MDA-MB-231 carries mutated and overexpressed p53 with its abnormal, uncontrolled downstream signalling pathway that account for resistance to several anticancer drugs compared to MCF-7 cells with wild-type p53. Appropriate enough, inhibition of oncogenic transcription factors has become a potential target in discovery and development of anti-tumour drugs against breast cancer. Plants produce diverse amount of organic metabolites. Universally, these metabolites with biological activities are known as "natural products". The chemical structure and function of natural products have been studied since 1850s. Investigating these properties leaded to recognition of their molecular effects as anticancer drugs. Numerous natural products extracted from plants, fruits, mushrooms and mycelia, show potential inhibitory effects against several oncogenic transcription factors in breast cancer. Natural compounds that target oncogenic transcription factors have increased the number of candidate therapeutic agents. This review summarizes the current findings of natural products in targeting specific oncogenic transcription factors in breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  4. Ramdas P, Radhakrishnan AK, Abdu Sani AA, Abdul-Rahman PS
    Nutr Cancer, 2019;71(8):1263-1271.
    PMID: 31084432 DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2019.1607407
    Tocotrienols (T3), a family of vitamin E, are reported to possess potent anti-cancer effects but the molecular mechanisms behind these effects still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate how T3 exert anti-cancer effects on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The MDA-MB-231 cells were chosen for this study as they are triple-negative and highly metastatic cells, which form aggressive tumors in experimental models. The MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with varying concentrations (0-20 µg mL-1) of gamma (γ) or delta (δ) T3 and the secretome profiles of these cells treated with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of γT3 (5.8 µg mL-1) or δT3 (4.0 µg mL-1) were determined using label-free quantitative proteomic strategy. A total of 103, 174 and 141 proteins were identified with ProteinLynx Global Server (PLGS) score of more than 200 and above 25% sequence coverage in the untreated control and T3-treated cell culture supernatant respectively. A total of 18 proteins were dysregulated between untreated control and T3 (δT3 or γT3) treated conditions. The results showed that T3 treatment downregulated the exogenous Cathepsin D and Serpine1 proteins but upregulated Profilin-1 protein, which play a key role in breast cancer in the MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings strongly suggest that T3 may induce differential expression of secreted proteins involved in the cytoskeletal regulation of RHO GTPase signaling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  5. Dean SJ, Rhodes A
    Malays J Pathol, 2014 Dec;36(3):155-62.
    PMID: 25500513 MyJurnal
    The incidence of breast cancer in Malaysia and other Asian countries is on the increase, reflecting lifestyle changes some of which are known risk factors for the development of breast cancer. Most breast cancers are amenable to adjuvant therapies that target hormone receptors or HER2 receptors on the surface of the cancer cells and bring about significant improvement in survival. However, approximately 17% of Malaysian women with breast cancer, present with tumours that are devoid of these receptors and are consequently termed 'triple negative' breast cancers. These triple negative breast cancers typically occur in women of a younger age than receptor positive cancers, are predominantly of high grade tumours and the prognosis is usually poor. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the biological pathways that drive these tumours, in order that effective strategies are developed to treat these aggressive tumours. With the increasing affluence of developing countries, obesity and Type II Diabetes are also on the rise. These diseases are associated with an increased risk of developing a range of cancers including those of the breast. In particular, the metabolic syndrome has been shown to be associated with triple negative breast cancer. This article reviews some of the metabolic pathways and biomarkers which have been shown to be aberrantly expressed in triple negative breast cancer and highlights some of the ongoing work in this area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  6. Yip CH, Rhodes A
    Future Oncol, 2014 Nov;10(14):2293-301.
    PMID: 25471040 DOI: 10.2217/fon.14.110
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The majority of breast cancers show overexpression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs). The development of drugs to target these hormone receptors, such as tamoxifen, has brought about significant improvement in survival for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Since information about ER and PR is vital for patient management, quality assurance is important to ensure accurate testing. In recent guidelines, the recommended definition of ER and PR positivity is 1% or more of cells that stain positive. Semiquantitative assessment of ER and PR is important for prognosis and, hence, management. Even with the development of genomic tests, hormone receptor status remains the most significant predictive and prognostic biomarker.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  7. Xu Y, Zhang H, Lit LC, Grothey A, Athanasiadou M, Kiritsi M, et al.
    Sci Signal, 2014 Jun 17;7(330):ra58.
    PMID: 24939894 DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.2005170
    Lemur tyrosine kinase 3 (LMTK3) is associated with cell proliferation and endocrine resistance in breast cancer. We found that, in cultured breast cancer cell lines, LMTK3 promotes the development of a metastatic phenotype by inducing the expression of genes encoding integrin subunits. Invasive behavior in various breast cancer cell lines positively correlated with the abundance of LMTK3. Overexpression of LMTK3 in a breast cancer cell line with low endogenous LMTK3 abundance promoted actin cytoskeleton remodeling, focal adhesion formation, and adhesion to collagen and fibronectin in culture. Using SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) proteomic analysis, we found that LMTK3 increased the abundance of integrin subunits α5 and β1, encoded by ITGA5 and ITGB1. This effect depended on the CDC42 Rho family guanosine triphosphatase, which was in turn activated by the interaction between LMTK3 and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), an adaptor protein that mediates receptor tyrosine kinase-induced activation of RAS and downstream signaling. Knockdown of GRB2 suppressed LMTK3-induced CDC42 activation, blocked ITGA5 and ITGB1 expression promoted by the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF), and reduced invasive activity. Furthermore, abundance of LMTK3 positively correlated with that of the integrin β1 subunit in breast cancer patient's tumors. Our findings suggest a role for LMTK3 in promoting integrin activity during breast cancer progression and metastasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  8. Devi CR, Tang TS, Corbex M
    Int J Cancer, 2012 Dec 15;131(12):2869-77.
    PMID: 22407763 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.27527
    We determined the incidences of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) subtypes among breast cancer cases in Sarawak, Malaysia and their correlation with various risk factors in the three ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay and native. Subtype status was ascertained for 1,034 cases of female breast cancer (93% of all cases diagnosed since 2003), and the age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of each subtype were inferred. Case-case comparisons across subtypes were performed for reproductive risk factors. We found 48% luminal A (ER+/PR+/HER2-), 29% triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-), 12% triple-positive (ER+/PR+/HER2+) and 11% HER2-overexpressing (ER-/PR-/HER2+) subtypes, with ASRs of 10.6, 6.0, 2.8 and 2.8 per 100,000, respectively. The proportions of subtypes and ASRs differed significantly by ethnic groups: HER2-positive cases were more frequent in Malays (29%; 95% CI [23;35]) than Chinese (22%; [19;26] and natives (21%; [16;26]); triple-negative cases were less frequent among Chinese (23%; [20;27]) than Malays (33%; [27;39]) and natives (37%; [31;43]). The results of the case-case comparison were in accordance with those observed in western case series. Some uncommon associations, such as between triple-negative subtype and older age at menopause (OR, 1.59; p < 0.05), were found. The triple-negative and HER2+ subtypes predominate in our region, with significant differences among ethnic groups. Our results support the idea that the risk factors for different subtypes vary markedly. Westernized populations are more likely to have factors that increase the risk for the luminal A type, while risk factors for the triple-negative type are more frequent in local populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  9. Bhoo Pathy N, Uiterwaal CS, Taib NA, Verkooijen HM, Yip CH
    J Clin Epidemiol, 2012 May;65(5):568-71.
    PMID: 22269329 DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2011.09.013
    Many recent studies investigated the prognostic value of new biomarkers in breast cancer using data from cancer registries. Some of these studies were conducted using only patients for whom biomarker status was available (or tested). Using human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) as an example, we determined whether testing for a recently introduced biomarker was associated with the outcome of women with breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  10. Kamil M, Yusuf N, Khalid I, Islam R, Biswas M, Hashim H
    Ceylon Med J, 2010 Mar;55(1):9-13.
    PMID: 20446534
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer affecting women world wide. Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer related mortality in Asian countries. Management of breast cancer depends on several tumour-related and patient related factors. HER-2/neu over-expression has been associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. We assessed HER-2/neu over expression pattern in unselected breast cancer cases in terms of clinico-pathologic parameters to identify any associations between them.

    METHODS: Two hundred cases of breast cancer were evaluated at Advanced Medical and Dental Institute and Hospital Kepala Batas from 2002 to 2007. HER-2/neu status was confirmed in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical expression of HER-2/neu was evaluated according to the published scoring guidelines of the 'Hercep Test' (Dako, Carpinteria, CA). Data were analysed to identify any association between HER-2/neu and clinico-pathologic parameters.

    RESULTS: HER-2/neu over expression was found in 63 (31.5%) tumours out of 200. When assessed for various age groups no significant association was found. However, a high percentage (75%) of over-expression was noted in the 81-85 years age group. No association was found with different racial groups (Malay, Chinese and Indians), with lymph node status or with grade of tumour. However a positive association was observed with oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression.

    CONCLUSION: There was no association between HER-2/neu over expression and age, race, lymph node status or tumor grade. However a positive association was found with oestrogen and progesterone receptor status.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  11. Kadir AA, Iyengar KR, Peh SC, Yip CH
    Malays J Pathol, 2008 Jun;30(1):57-61.
    PMID: 19108413
    Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast are uncommon tumors known to occur in the elderly. While focal neuroendocrine differentiation may be noted in many ductal and lobular carcinomas, the term neuroendocrine carcinoma is to be applied when more than 50% of the tumor shows such differentiation. This case report details the cytological features of a neuroendocrine carcinoma that was encountered in our hospital. The fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears showed discohesive polygonal cells with abundant cytoplasm, many of which contained eosinophilic granules located at one pole. Histology of the mastectomy and axillary lymph nodes specimen from this patient showed features of neuroendocrine carcinoma--solid type, with metastasis, confirmed with immunohistochemistry. The patient is disease free seven months after surgery. This case highlights the need to closely observe cytological details to identify this rare tumor that may otherwise appear to be invasive duct carcinoma--not otherwise specified on FNA. The implications of diagnosing neuroendocrine differentiation for prognosis and management are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  12. Othman MI, Majid MI, Singh M, Subathra S, Seng L, Gam LH
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2009 Mar;52(Pt 3):209-19.
    PMID: 18564057 DOI: 10.1042/BA20070271
    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity among women worldwide and IDC (infiltrating ductal carcinoma) is the most common type of invasive breast cancer. The changes in the biological behaviour of cancer tissue can be predicted by measuring the differential protein expression of normal and cancerous tissues. Using a combination of SDS/PAGE and LC (liquid chromatography)-MS/MS (tandem MS), we identified 82 common and differentially expressed proteins from normal and cancerous breast tissues in 20 Malaysian Chinese patients with IDC. These proteins are extracted from the normal and cancerous tissue of patients and therefore represent the actual proteins involved in cancer development. Proteins identified possibly have significant roles in the development of breast cancer in Malaysian Chinese patients in view of their consistent expression in most of the patients, although some of the proteins had not been detected in earlier studies that were mostly carried out in Western countries. This observation suggests that molecular mechanisms leading to breast cancer development in this region may not be identical with those leading to IDC in Western regions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  13. Ching-Shian Leong V, Jabal MF, Leong PP, Abdullah MA, Gul YA, Seow HF
    Cancer Genet. Cytogenet., 2008 Dec;187(2):74-9.
    PMID: 19027487 DOI: 10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2008.07.005
    Somatic mutations of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha; PIK3CA gene have been reported in several types of human cancers. The majority of the PIK3CA mutations map to the three "hot spots" - E542 K and E545 K in the helical (exon 9) and H1047R in the kinase (exon 20) domains of the p110alpha. These hot spot mutations lead to a gain of function in PI3 K signaling. We aimed to determine the frequency of PIK3CA mutations in the three most common Malaysian cancers. In this study, we assessed the genetic alterations in the PIK3CA gene in a series of 20 breast carcinomas, 24 colorectal carcinomas, 27 nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC), and 5 NPC cell lines. We performed mutation analysis of the PIK3CA gene by genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and followed by DNA direct sequencing in exons 9 and 20. No mutations were detected in any of the 24 colorectal and 27 NPC samples, but one hot spot mutation located at exon 20 was found in a NPC cell line, SUNE1. Interestingly, PIK3CA somatic mutations were present in 6/20 (30%) breast carcinomas. Two of the six mutations, H1047R, have been reported previously as a hot spot mutation. Only one out of three hot spot mutations were identified in breast tumor samples. The remaining four mutations were novel. Our data showed that a higher incidence rate of PIK3CA mutations was present in Malaysian breast cancers as compared to colorectal and nasopharyngeal tumor tissues. Our findings also indicate that PIK3CA mutations play a pivotal role in activation of the PI3 K signaling pathway in breast cancer, and specific inhibitors of PIK3CA could be useful for breast cancer treatment in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  14. Yip Ch, Bhoo-Pathy N, Daniel J, Foo Y, Mohamed A, Abdullah M, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(3):1077-82.
    PMID: 27039727
    BACKGROUND: The three standard biomarkers used in breast cancer are the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The Ki-67 index, a proliferative marker, has been shown to be associated with a poorer outcome, and despite absence of standardization of pathological assessment, is widely used for therapy decision making. We aim to study the role of the Ki-67 index in a group of Asian women with breast cancer.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 450 women newly diagnosed with Stage 1 to 3 invasive breast cancer in a single centre from July 2013 to Dec 2014 were included in this study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between Ki-67 (positive defined as 14% and above) and age, ethnicity, grade, mitotic index, ER, PR, HER2, lymph node status and size. All analyses were performed using SPSS Version 22.

    RESULTS: In univariable analysis, Ki -67 index was associated with younger age, higher grade, ER and PR negativity, HER2 positivity, high mitotic index and positive lymph nodes. However on multivariable analysis only tumour size, grade, PR and HER2 remained significant. Out of 102 stage 1 patients who had ER positive/PR positive/HER2 negative tumours and non-grade 3, only 5 (4.9%) had a positive Ki-67 index and may have been offered chemotherapy. However, it is interesting to note that none of these patients received chemotherapy.

    CONCLUSIONS: Information on Ki67 would have potentially changed management in an insignificant proportion of patients with stage 1 breast cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  15. Looi LM, Cheah PL
    Malays J Pathol, 1998 Jun;20(1):19-23.
    PMID: 10879259
    Eighty-six infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast were studied by the standard avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, for oestrogen receptor (ER) protein and c-erbB-2 oncoprotein expression. They were categorized according to the modified Bloom and Richardson criteria into three histological grades. 21% tumours were ER positive while 44% were c-erbB-2 positive. Of ER positive tumours, 33.3% were c-erbB-2 positive whereas the c-erbB-2 positivity rate was much higher (47.1%) in ER negative tumours. Only 16% of c-erbB-2 positive tumours were ER positive while 25% of c-erbB-2 negative tumours were ER positive. This negative relationship between ER and c-erbB-2 expression was statistically significant (Mc Nemar's test, p < 0.005). The ER positivity rate did not vary significantly with histological grade. However, c-erbB-2 overexpression was significantly more prevalent in grade III tumours compared with grade I and II tumours (Chi-square test, p < 0.005). Since the c-erbB-2 oncogene has extensive structural homology to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, we expect that c-erbB-2 oncoprotein would share functional similarities with EGFR leading to both loss of oestrogen receptor and poor prognosis in breast cancer. Its overexpression can be expected to relate to more aggressive tumour proliferation and may explain its correlation with high histological grade, a known indicator of aggressive cancer behaviour. As there is no indication that ER protein activity contributes to advancement in histological grade, it would appear that cellular dedifferentiation precedes ER loss during malignant transformation. It has been mooted that ER positive breast cancers which also show c-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression have a poorer response to hormonal therapy. The use of this parameter in the routine assessment of breast cancer patients may identify subsets of patients for more aggressive therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  16. Looi LM, Cheah PL, Yap SF
    Malays J Pathol, 1997 Jun;19(1):35-9.
    PMID: 10879240
    One hundred and twelve infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast were studied by the standard avidinbiotin complex immunoperoxidase method on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, using a monoclonal antibody to c-erbB-2 oncoprotein. The same tumours were assessed and scored according to the Bloom and Richardson criteria into three histological grades. The distribution of tumours according to grade were: 8 Grade I, 34 Grade II and 70 Grade III. Forty-three (38.4%) tumours showed positive membrane staining for c-erbB-2 oncoprotein. These comprised 7 Grade II and 36 Grade III tumours with c-erbB-2 immunopositivity rates of 20.6% and 51.4% respectively. The oncoprotein was not expressed by Grade I tumours. This study shows a good correlation between c-erbB-2 expression and histological grade, a known prognostic indicator of invasive breast carcinoma. Because the c-erbB-2 oncogene has extensive structural homology to the epidermal growth factor receptor gene, its overexpression can be expected to result in more aggressive tumour behaviour. While it may be regarded as another indicator of poor prognosis breast cancers, its value in the selection of carcinomas less responsive to hormonal therapy and those more suitable for immunotherapy than chemotherapy has been mooted but remains to be clarified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  17. Kwong SC, Jamil AHA, Rhodes A, Taib NA, Chung I
    J Lipid Res, 2019 11;60(11):1807-1817.
    PMID: 31484694 DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M092379
    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer, partly due to the lack of targeted therapy available. Cancer cells heavily reprogram their metabolism and acquire metabolic plasticity to satisfy the high-energy demand due to uncontrolled proliferation. Accumulating evidence shows that deregulated lipid metabolism affects cancer cell survival, and therefore we sought to understand the function of fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), which is expressed predominantly in TNBC tissues. As FABP7 was not detected in the TNBC cell lines tested, Hs578T and MDA-MB-231 cells were transduced with lentiviral particles containing either FABP7 open reading frame or red fluorescent protein. During serum starvation, when lipids were significantly reduced, FABP7 decreased the viability of Hs578T, but not of MDA-MB-231, cells. FABP7-overexpressing Hs578T (Hs-FABP7) cells failed to efficiently utilize other available bioenergetic substrates such as glucose to sustain ATP production, which led to S/G2 phase arrest and cell death. We further showed that this metabolic phenotype was mediated by PPAR-α signaling, despite the lack of fatty acids in culture media, as Hs-FABP7 cells attempted to survive. This study provides imperative evidence of metabolic vulnerabilities driven by FABP7 via PPAR-α signaling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  18. Liang S, Singh M, Dharmaraj S, Gam LH
    Dis Markers, 2010;29(5):231-42.
    PMID: 21206008 DOI: 10.3233/DMA-2010-0753
    Breast cancer is a leading cause of mortality in women. In Malaysia, it is the most common cancer to affect women. The most common form of breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). A proteomic approach was undertaken to identify protein profile changes between cancerous and normal breast tissues from 18 patients. Two protein extracts; aqueous soluble and membrane associated protein extracts were studied. Thirty four differentially expressed proteins were identified. The intensities of the proteins were used as variables in PCA and reduced data of six principal components (PC) were subjected to LDA in order to evaluate the potential of these proteins as collective biomarkers for breast cancer. The protein intensities of SEC13-like 1 (isoform b) and calreticulin contributed the most to the first PC while the protein intensities of fibrinogen beta chain precursor and ATP synthase D chain contributed the most to the second PC. Transthyretin precursor and apolipoprotein A-1 precursor contributed the most to the third PC. The results of LDA indicated good classification of samples into normal and cancerous types when the first 6 PCs were used as the variables. The percentage of correct classification was 91.7% for the originally grouped tissue samples and 88.9% for cross-validated samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  19. Pawar S, Liew TO, Stanam A, Lahiri C
    Chem Biol Drug Des, 2020 09;96(3):995-1004.
    PMID: 32410355 DOI: 10.1111/cbdd.13672
    Biomarkers can offer great promise for improving prevention and treatment of complex diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. These can be used as either diagnostic or predictive or as prognostic biomarkers. The revolution brought about in biological big data analytics by artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to identify a broader range of genetic differences and support the generation of more robust biomarkers in medicine. AI is invigorating biomarker research on various fronts, right from the cataloguing of key mutations driving the complex diseases like cancer to the elucidation of molecular networks underlying diseases. In this study, we have explored the potential of AI through machine learning approaches to propose that these methods can act as recommendation systems to sort and prioritize important genes and finally predict the presence of specific biomarkers. Essentially, we have utilized microarray datasets from open-source databases, like GEO, for breast, lung, colon, and ovarian cancer. In this context, different clustering analyses like hierarchical and k-means along with random forest algorithm have been utilized to classify important genes from a pool of several thousand genes. To this end, network centrality and pathway analysis have been implemented to identify the most potential target as CREB1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  20. Sung H, Devi BCR, Tang TS, Rosenberg PS, Anderson WF, Yang XR
    Int J Cancer, 2020 08 01;147(3):829-837.
    PMID: 31782137 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32812
    Recent studies from high-risk countries such as the US, Denmark and Ireland have shown rising incidence rates of hormone receptor (HR)-positive and falling rates of HR-negative breast cancers (BC). However, it remains unclear whether a similar pattern occurs in low-risk countries. Detailed clinical and risk factor data were collected from 2,977 female invasive BC patients (≥20 years) in Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia, representing 93% of the population. The population-at-risk was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. Secular trends in age-standardized incidence rates were assessed using estimated average annual percent changes. Associations between established BC risk factors and tumor subtypes defined by HR or joint human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HR/HER2) status were examined by case-case comparisons using logistic regression. From 2006 to 2015, incidence rates increased for HR-positive cancers by 4.46%/year (95% CI = 2.19-6.78) and decreased for HR-negative cancers by 2.29%/year (95% CI = -4.31 to -0.24). When further stratified by HER2, the most contrasting difference in linear trends was observed between HR+/HER2- and HR-/HER2- subtypes. After controlling for potential confounders, cases with excess body weight (ORoverweight vs. normal = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.69-0.98; ORobese vs. normal = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.48-0.80), later age at first birth (OR≥26 years vs. <23 years = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.66-1.02), nulliparity (ORnulliparous vs. <23 years = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.59-0.94) and never-breastfeeding (ORnever vs. ever = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.55-0.97) were less frequent among HR-negative cases than among HR-positive cases. Diverging incidence trends by HR expression were similar in Sarawak and Western countries, possibly reflecting changes in the prevalence of risk factors with opposing effects by tumor subtypes in low- and high-risk populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
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