MAIN METHODS: Cell mineralization capacity of phytoestrogens was investigated by evaluating calcium, phosphate content and alkaline phosphatase activity. Bone related markers, osteocalcin and osteonectin, responsible in maintaining mineralization were also measured.
KEY FINDINGS: BPA is significantly interfering with bone mineralization in hFOB 1.19 cells. However, the enhanced mineralization efficacy of daidzein and genistein (particularly at a dose of 5 and 40 μg/mL, respectively) was evidenced by increasing calcium and phosphate content, higher ALP activity, compared to the untreated BPA group. The quantitative analyses were confirmed through morphological findings. Osteocalcin and osteonectin levels were increased in phytoestrogens-treated cells. These findings revealed the potential effect of phytoestrogens in reverting the demineralization process due to BPA exposure in hFOB 1.19 cells.
SIGNIFICANCE: We found that osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were maintained following treatment with phytoestrogens under BPA exposure.
Materials and methods: A novel bone scaffold has been developed using polyurethane (PE) added with wintergreen (WG) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The developed nanocomposites were characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), contact angle measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile testing. Furthermore, anticoagulant assays, cell viability analysis and calcium deposition were used to investigate the biological properties of the prepared hybrid nanocomposites.
Results: FESEM depicted the reduced fibre diameter for the electrospun PE/WG and PE/WG/TiO2 than the pristine PE. The addition of WG and TiO2 resulted in the alteration in peak intensity of PE as revealed in the FTIR. Wettability measurements showed the PE/WG showed decreased wettability and the PE/WG/TiO2 exhibited improved wettability than the pristine PE. TGA measurements showed the improved thermal behaviour for the PE with the addition of WG and TiO2. Surface analysis indicated that the composite has a smoother surface rather than the pristine PE. Further, the incorporation of WG and TiO2 improved the anticoagulant nature of the pristine PE. In vitro cytotoxicity assay has been performed using fibroblast cells which revealed that the electrospun composites showed good cell attachment and proliferation after 5 days. Moreover, the bone apatite formation study revealed the enhanced deposition of calcium content in the fabricated composites than the pristine PE.
Conclusion: Fabricated nanocomposites rendered improved physico-chemical properties, biocompatibility and calcium deposition which are conducive for bone tissue engineering.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effects of EL on the time-mannered sequential proliferative, differentiative, and morphogenic modulation in osteoblasts compared with testosterone.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation was analysed using MTS assay and phase contrast microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells was assessed through a series of characteristic assays which include crystal violet staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Van Gieson staining. Taken together, the bone mineralization of extra cellular matrix (ECM) was estimated using alizarin red s (ARS) staining, von kossa staining, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis.
RESULTS: The cell proliferation data clearly revealed the efficiency of EL particularly at a dose of 25µg/mL, in improving the growth of MC3T3-E1 cells compared with the untreated cells. Data also showed the prominence of EL in significantly promoting ALP activity throughout the entire duration of treatment compared with the testosterone-treated cells. The osteogenic differentiation potential of EL was further explored by analysing mineralization data which revealed that the calcified nodule formation (calcium deposition) and phosphate deposition was more pronounced in cells treated with 25µg/mL concentration of EL at various time points compared with the untreated and testosterone treated cells. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also revealed highest globular masses of mineral deposits (identified as white colour crystals) in the ECM of cultured cells treated with 25µg/mL concentration of EL.
CONCLUSION: Compared to testosterone, greater potential of EL in promoting the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells provides an in vitro basis for the prevention of male osteoporosis. Thus, we anticipate that EL can be considered as an alternative approach to testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for the treatment of male osteoporosis.