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  1. Gnaneshwar PV, Sudakaran SV, Abisegapriyan S, Sherine J, Ramakrishna S, Rahim MHA, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Mar;96:337-346.
    PMID: 30606541 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.11.033
    Far-flung evolution in tissue engineering enabled the development of bioactive and biodegradable materials to generate biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for bone repair and replacement therapies. Polymeric bioactive nanofibers are to biomimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM), delivering tremendous regenerative potentials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. It's been known from few decades that Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are enhancing bone growth and providing proliferation of osteoblasts when incorporated with hydroxyapatite (HAp). We attempted to investigate the interaction between the human foetal osteoblasts (hFOB) with ZnO doped HAp incorporated biocomposite poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) and silk fibroin (PLACL/SF) nanofibrous scaffolds for osteoblasts mineralization in bone tissue regeneration. The present study, we doped ZnO with HAp (ZnO(HAp) using the sol-gel ethanol condensation technique. The properties of PLACL/SF/ZnO(HAp) biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds enhanced with doped and blended ZnO/HAp were characterized using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Contact angle and Tensile studies to determine the morphology, functionality, wettability and stability. The in vitro study results showed that the addition of ZnO and HAp enhances the secretion of bone mineral matrix (98%) with smaller fiber diameter (139.4 ± 27 nm) due to the presence of silk fibroin showing potential tensile properties (322.4%), and increased the proliferation of osteoblasts for bone tissue regeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects*
  2. Thent ZC, Froemming GRA, Ismail ABM, Fuad SBSA, Muid S
    Life Sci, 2018 Oct 01;210:214-223.
    PMID: 30145154 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.08.057
    AIMS: Phytoestrogens and xenoestrogens act as agonists/antagonists in bone formation and differentiation. Strong bones are depending of the ability of osteoblasts to form new tissue and to mineralize the newly formed tissue. Dysfunctional or loss of mineralization leads to weak bone and increased fracture risk. In this study, we reported the effect of different types of phytoestrogens (daidzein, genistein and equol) on mineralization in hFOB 1.19 cells stimulated with bisphenol A (BPA).

    MAIN METHODS: Cell mineralization capacity of phytoestrogens was investigated by evaluating calcium, phosphate content and alkaline phosphatase activity. Bone related markers, osteocalcin and osteonectin, responsible in maintaining mineralization were also measured.

    KEY FINDINGS: BPA is significantly interfering with bone mineralization in hFOB 1.19 cells. However, the enhanced mineralization efficacy of daidzein and genistein (particularly at a dose of 5 and 40 μg/mL, respectively) was evidenced by increasing calcium and phosphate content, higher ALP activity, compared to the untreated BPA group. The quantitative analyses were confirmed through morphological findings. Osteocalcin and osteonectin levels were increased in phytoestrogens-treated cells. These findings revealed the potential effect of phytoestrogens in reverting the demineralization process due to BPA exposure in hFOB 1.19 cells.

    SIGNIFICANCE: We found that osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were maintained following treatment with phytoestrogens under BPA exposure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects*
  3. Hapidin H, Romli NAA, Abdullah H
    Microsc Res Tech, 2019 Nov;82(11):1928-1940.
    PMID: 31423711 DOI: 10.1002/jemt.23361
    Tannic acid (TA) is a phenolic compound that might act directly on osteoblast metabolism. The study was performed to investigate the effects of TA on the proliferation, mineralization, and morphology of human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB 1.19). The cells were divided into TA-treated, untreated, and pamidronate-treated (control drug) groups. Half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) values for TA and pamidronate were measured using MTT assay. The EC50 of hFOB 1.19 cells treated with TA was 2.94 M. This concentration was more effective compared to the pamidronate (15.27 M). Cell proliferation assay was performed to compare cell viability from Day 1 until Day 14. The morphology of hFOB 1.19 was observed via inverted microscope and scanning electron microscope. Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) were assessed using energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Furthermore, the mineralization of hFOB 1.19 was determined by von Kossa staining (P depositions) and Alizarin Red S staining (Ca depositions). The number of cells treated with TA was significantly higher than the two control groups at Day 10 and Day 14. The morphology of cells treated with TA was uniformly fusiform-shaped with filopodia extensions. Besides, globular-like structures of deposited minerals were observed in the TA-treated group. In line with other findings, EDX spectrum analysis confirmed the presence of Ca and P. The cells treated with TA had significantly higher percentage of both minerals at Day 3 and Day 10 compared to the two control groups. In conclusion, TA enhances cell proliferation and causes cell morphology changes, as well as improved mineralization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects*
  4. Mohamad Asri SF, Soelaiman IN, Mohd Moklas MA, Mohd Nor NH, Mohamad Zainal NH, Mohd Ramli ES
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Oct 19;21(20).
    PMID: 33086468 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21207715
    Glucocorticoids are one of the causes of secondary osteoporosis. The aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum contains flavonoids that possess antioxidant effects. In this study, we determined the effects of aqueous Piper sarmentosum leaf extract on structural, dynamic and static histomorphometric changes from osteoporotic bones of rats induced with glucocorticoids. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into four groups-Sham control group given vehicles (intramuscular (IM) olive oil and oral normal saline); AC: Adrenalectomised (Adrx) control group given IM dexamethasone (DEX) (120 μg/kg/day) and vehicle (oral normal saline); AP: Adrx group administered IM DEX (120 μg/kg/day) and aqueous Piper sarmentosum leaf extract (125 mg/kg/day) orally; and AG: Adrx group administered IM DEX (120 μg/kg/day) and oral glycyrrhizic acid (GCA) (120 mg/kg/day). Histomorphometric measurements showed that the bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, osteoid and osteoblast surfaces, double-labelled trabecular surface, mineralizing surface and bone formation rate of rats given aqueous Piper sarmentosum leaf extract were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas the trabecular separation and osteoclast surface were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). This study suggests that aqueous Piper sarmentosum leaf extract was able to prevent bone loss in prolonged glucocorticoid therapy. Thus, Piper sarmentosum has the potential to be used as an alternative medicine against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in patients undergoing long-term glucocorticoid therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects
  5. Abukhadir SS, Mohamed N, Mohamed N
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1601-10.
    PMID: 24138635
    Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease in humans; it represents a major public health problem. This chronic disease is characterized by increase in bone fracture due to: reduced bone mass, deterioration of micro architectural and decreased bone strength, bone fragility; and bone mineral density 2.5 or more standard deviations below the normal mean. Secondary osteoporosis is a common cause of osteoporosis, and there are many underlying risk factors for osteoporosis. Chronic alcohol abuse is one of the modifiable risk factors in osteoporosis. There is evidence of correlation between chronic alcohol abuse and low bone mass. Alcohol is directly toxic to the bone; with increased incidence of fractures and complications. Although there is a paucity of studies regarding alcohol induced osteoporosis therapy, it can be classified into antiresorptive therapy and anabolic therapy. Bisphosphonates have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant to prevent bone damage associated with alcohol use while parathyroid hormone increased bone mineralization as well as bone formation in alcohol treated rats. Vitamin D supplementation could prevent bone toxicity in chronic drinkers. This review discussed the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteoporosis and the agents available for its treatment. Other potential therapies are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects
  6. Ahmad Hairi H, Jamal JA, Aladdin NA, Husain K, Mohd Sofi NS, Mohamed N, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Jul 11;23(7).
    PMID: 29997309 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23071686
    Phytoestrogens have attracted considerable attention for their potential in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recently, a phytoestrogen-rich herbal plant, Marantodes pumilum var. alata (Blume) Kuntze was reported to protect against bone loss in ovariectomized rat. However, the bioactive compound responsible for these effects and the underlying mechanism were not known. Through bioassay-guided isolation, demethylbelamcandaquinone B (Dmcq B) was isolated and identified from Marantodes pumilum var. alata leaf extract. In terms of its bone anabolic effects, Dmcq B was at par with 17β-estradiol (E2), in promoting the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast cells. Dmcq-B increased early differentiation markers, collagen content and enzymatic ALP activity. It was demonstrated to regulate BMP2 signaling pathway which further activated the transcription factor, osterix. Subsequently, Dmcq B was able to increase the osteocalcin expression which promoted matrix mineralization as evidenced by the increase in calcium deposition. Dmcq B also reduced the protein level of receptor activator of NF-κβ ligand (RANKL) and promoted osteoprotegerin (OPG) protein expression by osteoblast cells, therefore hastening bone formation rate by decreasing RANKL/OPG ratio. Moreover, Dmcq B was able to increase ER expression, postulating its phytoestrogen property. As the conclusion, Dmcq B is the active compound isolated from Marantodes pumilum var. alata leaves, regulating osteoanabolic activities potentially through the BMP2 and ER signaling pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects
  7. Jiang H, Mani MP, Jaganathan SK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:8149-8159.
    PMID: 31632024 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S214646
    Introduction: Recently several new approaches were emerging in bone tissue engineering to develop a substitute for remodelling the damaged tissue. In order to resemble the native extracellular matrix (ECM) of the human tissue, the bone scaffolds must possess necessary requirements like large surface area, interconnected pores and sufficient mechanical strength.

    Materials and methods: A novel bone scaffold has been developed using polyurethane (PE) added with wintergreen (WG) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The developed nanocomposites were characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), contact angle measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile testing. Furthermore, anticoagulant assays, cell viability analysis and calcium deposition were used to investigate the biological properties of the prepared hybrid nanocomposites.

    Results: FESEM depicted the reduced fibre diameter for the electrospun PE/WG and PE/WG/TiO2 than the pristine PE. The addition of WG and TiO2 resulted in the alteration in peak intensity of PE as revealed in the FTIR. Wettability measurements showed the PE/WG showed decreased wettability and the PE/WG/TiO2 exhibited improved wettability than the pristine PE. TGA measurements showed the improved thermal behaviour for the PE with the addition of WG and TiO2. Surface analysis indicated that the composite has a smoother surface rather than the pristine PE. Further, the incorporation of WG and TiO2 improved the anticoagulant nature of the pristine PE. In vitro cytotoxicity assay has been performed using fibroblast cells which revealed that the electrospun composites showed good cell attachment and proliferation after 5 days. Moreover, the bone apatite formation study revealed the enhanced deposition of calcium content in the fabricated composites than the pristine PE.

    Conclusion: Fabricated nanocomposites rendered improved physico-chemical properties, biocompatibility and calcium deposition which are conducive for bone tissue engineering.

    Matched MeSH terms: Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects
  8. Thu HE, Mohamed IN, Hussain Z, Shuid AN
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2017 Jan 04;195:143-158.
    PMID: 27818256 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.10.085
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been well-studied traditionally as a chief ingredient of many polyherbal formulations for the management of male osteoporosis. It has also been well-recognised to protect against bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effects of EL on the time-mannered sequential proliferative, differentiative, and morphogenic modulation in osteoblasts compared with testosterone.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation was analysed using MTS assay and phase contrast microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells was assessed through a series of characteristic assays which include crystal violet staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Van Gieson staining. Taken together, the bone mineralization of extra cellular matrix (ECM) was estimated using alizarin red s (ARS) staining, von kossa staining, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis.

    RESULTS: The cell proliferation data clearly revealed the efficiency of EL particularly at a dose of 25µg/mL, in improving the growth of MC3T3-E1 cells compared with the untreated cells. Data also showed the prominence of EL in significantly promoting ALP activity throughout the entire duration of treatment compared with the testosterone-treated cells. The osteogenic differentiation potential of EL was further explored by analysing mineralization data which revealed that the calcified nodule formation (calcium deposition) and phosphate deposition was more pronounced in cells treated with 25µg/mL concentration of EL at various time points compared with the untreated and testosterone treated cells. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also revealed highest globular masses of mineral deposits (identified as white colour crystals) in the ECM of cultured cells treated with 25µg/mL concentration of EL.

    CONCLUSION: Compared to testosterone, greater potential of EL in promoting the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells provides an in vitro basis for the prevention of male osteoporosis. Thus, we anticipate that EL can be considered as an alternative approach to testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for the treatment of male osteoporosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects*
  9. Boukari Y, Qutachi O, Scurr DJ, Morris AP, Doughty SW, Billa N
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2017 Nov;28(16):1966-1983.
    PMID: 28777694 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2017.1364100
    The development of patient-friendly alternatives to bone-graft procedures is the driving force for new frontiers in bone tissue engineering. Poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and chitosan are well-studied and easy-to-process polymers from which scaffolds can be fabricated. In this study, a novel dual-application scaffold system was formulated from porous PLGA and protein-loaded PLGA/chitosan microspheres. Physicochemical and in vitro protein release attributes were established. The therapeutic relevance, cytocompatibility with primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteogenic properties were tested. There was a significant reduction in burst release from the composite PLGA/chitosan microspheres compared with PLGA alone. Scaffolds sintered from porous microspheres at 37 °C were significantly stronger than the PLGA control, with compressive strengths of 0.846 ± 0.272 MPa and 0.406 ± 0.265 MPa, respectively (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects
  10. Raghavendran HR, Mohan S, Genasan K, Murali MR, Naveen SV, Talebian S, et al.
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2016 Mar 1;139:68-78.
    PMID: 26700235 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.11.053
    Scaffolds with structural features similar to the extracellular matrix stimulate rapid osteogenic differentiation in favorable microenvironment and with growth factor supplementation. In this study, the osteogenic potential of electrospun poly-l-lactide/hydroxyapatite/collagen (PLLA/Col/HA, PLLA/HA and PLLA/Col) scaffolds were tested in vitro with the supplementation of platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). Cell attachment and topography, mineralization, extracellular matrix protein localization, and gene expression of the human mesenchymal stromal cells were compared between the fibrous scaffolds PLLA/Col/HA, PLLA/Col, and PLLA/HA. The levels of osteocalcin, calcium, and mineralization were significantly greater in the PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA compared with PLLA/Col. High expression of fibronectin, intracellular adhesion molecule, cadherin, and collagen 1 (Col1) suggests that PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA scaffolds had superior osteoinductivity than PLLA/Col. Additionally, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osterix, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and bone morphogenic protein (BMP2) expression were higher in PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA compared with PLLA/Col. In comparison with PLLA/Col, the PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA scaffolds presented a significant upregulation of the genes Runx2, Col 1, Integrin, osteonectin (ON), bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGALP), osteopontin (OPN), and BMP2. The upregulation of these genes was further increased with PDGF-BB supplementation. These results show that PDGF-BB acts synergistically with PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA to enhance the osteogenic differentiation potential. Therefore, this combination can be used for the rapid expansion of bone marrow stromal cells into bone-forming cells for tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects
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