Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 288 in total

  1. Zahari MA, Zakaria MR, Ariffin H, Mokhtar MN, Salihon J, Shirai Y, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Apr;110:566-71.
    PMID: 22342083 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.119
    In this paper, we report that pressed juice from oil palm frond (OPF) contained renewable sugars such as glucose, sucrose and fructose. By using a simple sugarcane press, 50% (wt/wt) of OPF juice was obtained from fresh OPF. The glucose content in the juice was 53.95±2.86g/l, which accounts for 70% of the total free sugars. We have examined the effect of various OPF juice concentrations on the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB) by Cupriavidus necator CCUG 52238(T). The cell dry mass in shake flask experiment reached 8.42g/l, with 32wt.% of P(3HB) at 30% (v/v) of OPF juice, comparable with using technical grade sugars. The biopolymer had a molecular mass, M(w) of 812kDa, with a low polydispersity index of 1.61. This result indicates that OPF juice can be used as an alternative renewable carbon source for P(3HB) production and has potential as a renewable carbon source.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/isolation & purification*; Carbohydrates/chemistry
  2. Tang PL, Hong WL, Yue CS, Harun S
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Oct;314:123723.
    PMID: 32599527 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123723
    Pretreatment is an essential upstream process to deconstruct oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFBF) prior to sugars production. This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of OPEFBF pretreatment using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as solvent. The effect of alkali catalyst (5%w/w NaOH and ammonia), temperature (90,120,135 °C) and time (60,120,180 min) on the efficiency of pretreatment (OPEFBF-to-solvent ratio of 1:25) was also investigated. The results indicated that POME-pretreatment (135 °C, 180 min) enhanced glucose yield by only ~56%. Glucose production was increased about 5.8-fold to 495.3 ± 5.9 mg g-1 OPEFBF when NaOH was added in POME-pretreatment (Na-P). The xylose production from OPEFBF was increased about 3.7-fold after ammonia-catalyzed POME-pretreatment. About 12.1 ± 0.2 g L-1 of ethanol was produced from Na-P-hydrolysate at molar conversion of 59.4 ± 1.4%. This research provides new insight into the use of POME as a cost-effective pretreatment solvent of OPEFBF to reduce upstream process cost by cutting down water usage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates
  3. Awaluddin SA, Thiruvenkadam S, Izhar S, Hiroyuki Y, Danquah MK, Harun R
    Biomed Res Int, 2016;2016:5816974.
    PMID: 27366748 DOI: 10.1155/2016/5816974
    Subcritical water extraction (SWE) technology has been used for the extraction of active compounds from different biomass materials with low process cost, mild operating conditions, short process times, and environmental sustainability. With the limited application of the technology to microalgal biomass, this work investigates parametrically the potential of subcritical water for high-yield extraction of biochemicals such as carbohydrates and proteins from microalgal biomass. The SWE process was optimized using central composite design (CCD) under varying process conditions of temperature (180-374°C), extraction time (1-20 min), biomass particulate size (38-250 μm), and microalgal biomass loading (5-40 wt.%). Chlorella vulgaris used in this study shows high volatile matter (83.5 wt.%) and carbon content (47.11 wt.%), giving advantage as a feedstock for biofuel production. The results showed maximum total carbohydrate content and protein yields of 14.2 g/100 g and 31.2 g/100 g, respectively, achieved under the process conditions of 277°C, 5% of microalgal biomass loading, and 5 min extraction time. Statistical analysis revealed that, of all the parameters investigated, temperature is the most critical during SWE of microalgal biomass for protein and carbohydrate production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/biosynthesis; Carbohydrates/isolation & purification*; Carbohydrates/chemistry
  4. Hafzan, Y., Saw, J.W., Fadzilah, I.
    Previous studies proved the antioxidant properties of dates. However, studies on date byproducts especially date vinegar are still lacking. Hence, it is the aim of the present study to compare the physicochemical properties, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity between homemade and commercial date vinegar. Physicochemical properties such as total sugar content, pH, and total titratable acidity of homemade and commercial date vinegar were studied. Both homemade and commercial date vinegar showed significant difference in physicochemical properties including pH, sugar content and total titratable acidity (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates
  5. Zerga AY, Tahir M
    Molecules, 2022 Nov 21;27(22).
    PMID: 36432208 DOI: 10.3390/molecules27228107
    The increasing degradation of fossil fuels has motivated the globe to turn to green energy solutions such as biofuel in order to minimize the entire reliance on fossil fuels. Green renewable resources have grown in popularity in recent years as a result of the advancement of environmental technology solutions. Kapok fiber is a sort of cellulosic fiber derived from kapok tree seeds (Ceiba pentandra). Kapok Fiber, as a bio-template, offers the best alternatives to provide clean and renewable energy sources. The unique structure, good conductivity, and excellent physical properties exhibited by kapok fiber nominate it as a highly favored cocatalyst for deriving solar energy processes. This review will explore the role and recent developments of KF in energy production, including hydrogen and CO2 reduction. Moreover, this work summarized the potential of kapok fiber in environmental applications, including adsorption and degradation. The future contribution and concerns are highlighted in order to provide perspective on the future advancement of kapok fiber.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates
  6. Wong KY, Thoo YY, Tan CP, Siow LF
    Food Chem, 2024 Jan 15;431:137118.
    PMID: 37586229 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2023.137118
    This study aims to evaluate the effect of sucrose replacer mixtures (erythritol, mannitol, or tagatose in combination with inulin or polydextrose) on the crystal morphology, particle size distribution, rheology, melting properties, and fat polymorphism of dark compound chocolate. The result showed that the replacer mixture's hygroscopicity, particle size, and sugar crystal shape might significantly impact dark compound chocolate's rheological and textural properties but had no substantial impact on the melting properties and fat crystallization. Mannitol-containing samples exhibited the highest rheological value, likely related to their high moisture content, small particle size, and elongated crystal shape. Due to the similar specific surface area and comparable D90 value, the sample containing erythritol-polydextrose mixture resulted in a similar (P ≥ 0.05) Casson yield value (46.184 ± 2.45 Pa) compared to the sample containing sucrose (38.348 ± 1.68 Pa). It could be a potential sucrose replacer in the dark compound chocolate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates
  7. Ng MH, Nu'man AH, Hasliyanti A
    J Sep Sci, 2024 Feb;47(4):e2300842.
    PMID: 38403445 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.202300842
    The study explored ferulic acid extraction from palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber using deep eutectic solvent (DES) of chlorine chloride-acetic acid as the extraction medium and the way to recover and recycle the DES thereafter. Antisolvent was added to selectively precipitate the ferulic acid, which was recovered by filtration thereafter. Recycling the DES without further purification led to increased ferulic acid yield with each subsequent extraction, likely due to retained ferulic acid. The retained ferulic acid and other impurities could be removed by precipitation brought upon by the addition of a second antisolvent. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance revealed that there was no excess ferulic acid in the recycled DES-treated with two types of antisolvents (ethanol and water). The yield of ferulic acid increased from 0.1367-0.1856 g/g when treated with only one antisolvent to 0.1368-0.2897 g/g with two antisolvent treatments. Oil droplets were also observed in the DES upon the addition of antisolvent 2, with recovered oil ranging from 0.6% to 3%. The study emphasized the significance of using DES as an extraction medium for ferulic acid from oil palm EFB fiber and the method to recycle the DES for subsequent processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates
  8. Alrosan M, Tan TC, Koh WY, Easa AM, Gammoh S, Alu'datt MH
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2023;63(25):7677-7691.
    PMID: 35266840 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2022.2049200
    Demands for high nutritional value-added food products and plant-based proteins have increased over the last decade, in line with the growth of the human population and consumer health awareness. The quality of the plant-based proteins depends on their digestibility, amino acid content, and residues of non-nutritive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, anti-nutritional compounds, antioxidants, and saponins. The presence of these non-nutritive compounds could have detrimental effects on the quality of the proteins. One of the solutions to address these shortcomings of plant-based proteins is fermentation, whereby enzymes that present naturally in microorganisms used during fermentation are responsible for the cleavage of the bonds between proteins and non-nutritive compounds. This mechanism has pronounced effects on the non-nutritive compounds, resulting in the enhancement of protein digestibility and functional properties of plant-based proteins. We assert that the types of plant-based proteins and microorganisms used during fermentation must be carefully addressed to truly enhance the quality, functional properties, and health functionalities of plant-based proteins.Supplemental data for this article is available online at here. show.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates*
  9. Manickavasagam G, Saaid M, Lim V
    J Food Sci, 2024 Feb;89(2):811-833.
    PMID: 38224177 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.16921
    This systematic review paper aims to discuss the trend in quality assessment properties and constituents of honey at different storage conditions and confer the possible whys and wherefores associated with the significant changes. Initially, a literature search was conducted through Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Scopus databases. In total, 43 manuscripts published between 2001 and 2023 that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were chosen for the review. As an outcome of this review, prolonged honey storage could deteriorate sensory, nutritional, and antioxidant properties and promote fermentation, granulation, microbial growth, carcinogenicity, organotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. This systematic review also recognized that diastase activity, invertase activity, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content, proline content, sugar content, amino acids, and vitamins could be used as indicators to distinguish fresh and stored honey based on the significant test (p-value) in the reported studies. However, all the reported studies used the simplest approach (one-way ANOVA) to identify the significant differences in the analyzed parameter during the storage period and none of them reported an approach to identify the most influential parameter at different storage conditions. In conclusion, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (supervised multivariate statistical tool) has to be employed in future studies to find the most influential parameter and could be used to potent chemical markers to distinguish fresh and stored honey because this analysis is incorporated with S-plot, variable importance of projection, and one-way ANOVA, which can produce the most accurate and precise results rather solely depending on one-way ANOVA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis
  10. Lee KM, Ngoh GC, Chua AS
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 Feb;130:1-7.
    PMID: 23280179 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.124
    The production of reducing sugars from sago waste via sequential ionic liquid dissolution-solid acid saccharification was optimized in this study. Ionic liquid dissolution of sago waste with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) was conducted prior to the solid acid saccharification with Amberlyst 15 (A15). The effect of time, temperature and substrate loading during dissolution reaction; and the effect of time, temperature and catalyst loading during saccharification reaction were examined by applying central composite design (CCD) separately. Both dissolution and saccharification reactions were respectively modeled into quadratic polynomial equations with good predictive accuracies. A high reducing sugars yield of 98.3% was obtained under the optimized conditions, i.e. dissolution at 1.75h, 160°C, 1.5% substrate loading, and saccharification at 0.5h, 130°C, 4% catalyst loading. From comparison studies of different saccharification schemes, the sequential ionic liquid dissolution-solid acid saccharification has proven to be a potential method in reducing sugars production from the lignocellulosic biomass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/isolation & purification*
  11. Drewnowski A, Tappy L, Forde CG, McCrickerd K, Tee ES, Chan P, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2019;28(3):645-663.
    PMID: 31464412 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.201909_28(3).0025
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rising obesity in Southeast Asia, one consequence of economic growth, has been linked to a rising consumption of energy from added sugars. This symposium, organized by ILSI Southeast Asia, explored regional issues related to dietary sugars and health and identified ways in which these issues could be addressed by regional regulatory agencies, food producers, and the consumer.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Papers on the following topics were presented: 1) current scientific evidence on the effects of sugars and non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, health, and eating behaviors; 2) innovations by food producers to reduce sugar consumption in the region; 3) regional dietary surveillance of sugar consumption and suggestions for consumer guidance. A panel discussion explored effective approaches to promote healthy eating in the region.

    RESULTS: Excessive consumption of energy in the form of added sugars can have adverse consequences on diet quality, lipid profiles, and health. There is a need for better surveillance of total and added sugars intakes in selected Southeast Asian countries. Among feasible alternatives to corn sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup) and cane sugar are indigenous sweeteners with low glycemic index (e.g., coconut sap sugar). Their health benefits should be examined and regional sugar consumption tracked in detail. Product reformulation to develop palatable lower calorie alternatives that are accepted by consumers continues to be a challenge for industry and regulatory agencies.

    CONCLUSIONS: Public-private collaborations to develop healthy products and effective communication strategies can facilitate consumer acceptance and adoption of healthier foods.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates*
  12. Hafid HS, Nor 'Aini AR, Mokhtar MN, Talib AT, Baharuddin AS, Umi Kalsom MS
    Waste Manag, 2017 Sep;67:95-105.
    PMID: 28527863 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.05.017
    In Malaysia, the amount of food waste produced is estimated at approximately 70% of total municipal solid waste generated and characterised by high amount of carbohydrate polymers such as starch, cellulose, and sugars. Considering the beneficial organic fraction contained, its utilization as an alternative substrate specifically for bioethanol production has receiving more attention. However, the sustainable production of bioethanol from food waste is linked to the efficient pretreatment needed for higher production of fermentable sugar prior to fermentation. In this work, a modified sequential acid-enzymatic hydrolysis process has been developed to produce high concentration of fermentable sugars; glucose, sucrose, fructose and maltose. The process started with hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatment by hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) which aim to degrade larger molecules of polysaccharide before accessible for further steps of enzymatic hydrolysis by glucoamylase. A kinetic model is proposed to perform an optimal hydrolysis for obtaining high fermentable sugars. The results suggested that a significant increase in fermentable sugar production (2.04-folds) with conversion efficiency of 86.8% was observed via sequential acid-enzymatic pretreatment as compared to dilute acid pretreatment (∼42.4% conversion efficiency). The bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing fermentable sugar obtained shows ethanol yield of 0.42g/g with conversion efficiency of 85.38% based on the theoretical yield was achieved. The finding indicates that food waste can be considered as a promising substrate for bioethanol production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates*
  13. Li A, Abrahim A, Islam M, Mejías E, Hafizati Abdul Halim N, Frew R, et al.
    Food Chem, 2024 Feb 15;434:137451.
    PMID: 37748289 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2023.137451
    One of the most common types of adulteration of honey involves the addition of invert sugar syrups. A new method was developed to measure the stable isotope ratios of carbon and carbon-bound non-exchangeable (CBNE) hydrogen from specific molecular positions in fructose and glucose in honey. This was achieved through periodate oxidation of the sugars to produce formaldehyde, followed by reaction with ammonia to form hexamethylenetetramine (HMT). The preparation was simplified, optimized, and validated by isotopic analysis of replicate syntheses of HMT from fructose, glucose, sugar syrup and a representative authentic honey sample. The optimized method had a repeatability standard deviation from 1.5‰ to 3.0‰ and from 0.1‰ to 0.4‰ for δ2H and δ13C, respectively. This methodology has advantages over alternative isotopic methods, for measuring CBNE hydrogen isotope ratios in sugars, in terms of time, sensitivity and operability and offers a complementary method to differentiate authentic honey from invert sugar syrups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis
  14. Khoo CG, Dasan YK, Lam MK, Lee KT
    Bioresour Technol, 2019 Nov;292:121964.
    PMID: 31451339 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121964
    Algae biomass comprises variety of biochemicals components such as carbohydrates, lipids and protein, which make them a feasible feedstock for biofuel production. However, high production cost mainly due to algae cultivation remains the main challenge in commercializing algae biofuels. Hence, extraction of other high value-added bioproducts from algae biomass is necessary to enhance the economic feasibility of algae biofuel production. This paper is aims to deliberate the recent developments of conventional technologies for algae biofuels production, such as biochemical and chemical conversion pathways, and extraction of a variety of bioproducts from algae biomass for various potential applications. Besides, life cycle evaluation studies on microalgae biorefinery are presented, focusing on case studies for various cultivation techniques, culture medium, harvesting, and dewatering techniques along with biofuel and bioenergy production pathways. Overall, the algae biorefinery provides new opportunities for valorisation of algae biomass for multiple products synthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates
  15. Erfanian, A., Rasti, B.
    The aim of the present work was to produce a new soy milk-based cake. Soy milk was added at different percentages (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) during cake making to replace milk. Nutritional composition, batter characteristics, physical, and sensory properties, as well as the stability of cake during storage, were investigated. Sensory results indicated that cake with 50% soy milk had the most favourable acceptance scores with the highest score in the aroma, colour, and taste attributes. The addition of soy milk up to 50% produced a cake with higher protein content and lower carbohydrate content, along with lower density and higher specific volume compared to control. Cake with 50% soy milk addition had lower microbial counts as compared to control. Therefore, soy milk has the potential to act as a milk replacer in cake production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates
  16. Subramaniam R, Siddiquee S, Aguol KA, Hoque MZ, Kumar SV
    Data Brief, 2019 Apr;23:103796.
    PMID: 31372442 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.103796
    Members of the genus Tinctoporellus, which belong to the wood-degrading basidiomycetes, possess the ability to synthesize an array of industrially potent enzymes and metabolites. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the species Tinctoporellus epimiltinus strain RS1, which is the first to represent its genus. The genome was sequenced using Illumina's 2 × 150 bp paired-end Nextera protocol. The draft genome assembly was 46.2 Mb in size consisting of 13,791 protein coding genes. Identification of carbohydrate active enzymes and laccases from the data may be useful in order to harness the metabolic potentials of the fungi. The data can be accessed at ENA under the accession number FTLJ00000000.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates
  17. Sanwiriya, P., Suleiman, N.
    The present work was aimed to investigate the effect of drying methods (oven drying, foam mat drying) and temperatures (40°C, 60°C) on the nutritional characteristics of red- and yellow-watermelon rinds. It was found that foam mat drying produced the best results for preserving the most nutrients as compared to the conventional oven drying for both red- and yellow watermelon rinds. Temperature is a significant parameter that affects the nutritional characteristics of watermelon rinds powder for both methods. Finding suggests that foam mat drying at 40°C was the best method for producing watermelon rinds powder as it requires shorter treatment time and gave the best retention of protein and carbohydrate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates
  18. Cheng, Y.F., Rajeev Bhat
    In this study, physicochemical and sensory qualities of substituting jering seed flour into wheat chapatis (unleavened Indian flat bread) were evaluated at different proportions (5, 10, 15, 20 and 100% of jering seed flour). Chapati prepared with 100% of wheat flour was served as control. Results showed wheat-jering composite chapatis had significantly higher protein (12.68-15.55%), ash (1.78-2.32%) and carbohydrate contents (50.78-54.50%) than that of wheat chapatis which served as control (11.49, 1.77% and 51.62%, respectively). As for the fat content, this ranged from 1.19% to 1.03%, corresponding to the levels of jering seed flour substitution. In terms of physical characteristics, the puffed height and extensibility of the composite chapatis decreased progressively as the level of jering seed flour substitution increased. On the other hand, the peak load required to rupture chapatis showed an inverse trend. It increased significantly from 3.26 to 15.96 N. Further, the colour values of composite chapatis showed significant changes when the level of jering seed flour substitution was increased. The L* and b* values decreased while a* value increased. Regarding sensory properties, control wheat chapatis had better acceptability than the composite chapatis. However, all the composite chapatis had significantly higher nutritional values. Based on the generated results, novel chapatis could be formulated by substituting wheat with jering seed flour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates
  19. Yau, E.W., Rosnah, S., Noraziah, M., Chin, N.L., Osman, H.
    Changes of physico-chemical properties such as size, weight, moisture content, total soluble solid
    (TSS), colour, pH, total acidity and sugar content of red seedless watermelon during storage at room temperature (± 28ºC; 70-80% RH) were investigated. The average weight, diameter and length of red seedless watermelon were 5.94 kg, 22.0 cm and 21.8 cm respectively. The length to diameter ratio was 1.02. The statistical analysis indicated that total soluble solids of fruit decreased significantly (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates
  20. Ong, C.A., Abdul Aziz, N., Taip, F.S., Ibrahim M.N.
    A study has been conducted on pink guava juice (PGJ) fouling deposit. Several ex-situ experimental rigs were set-up to obtain PGJ fouling deposit, while the best ex-situ experimental rig was also selected. PGJ was heated at 93°C and its fouling deposit was obtained after 1 hour of heating. Then, it was used for the ex-situ cleaning study at 1 litre min-1, at several temperatures (70, 80 and 90°C), and in some chemical concentrations (1.6 v/v% of Maxiclean CP6 or 0.325 % OH-; 1.8 v/v% of Maxiclean CP6 or 0.369 % OH-; 2.0 v/v% of Maxiclean CP6 or 0.44 % OH-). The best cleaning combinations were investigated. Carbohydrate is the main content in the fouling deposit. The morphology of the deposit was studied using SEM and it showed an aggregated structure. The cleaning process improved as the temperature increased with the increasing of the chemical solution concentration. The shortest cleaning time was 40 minutes, for cleaning using 2.0 v/v % of Maxiclean CP6 (0.44 % OH-) at 90°C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates
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