Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

  1. Liam CK, Pang YK, Poh ME
    J Thorac Oncol, 2014 Sep;9(9):e70-1.
    PMID: 25122441 DOI: 10.1097/JTO.0000000000000251
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics*
  2. Shi Yeen TN, Pathmanathan R, Shiran MS, Ahmad Zaid FA, Cheah YK
    J Biomed Sci, 2013 Apr 16;20:22.
    PMID: 23590575 DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-20-22
    BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are reportedly associated with various responses in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving the anti-EGFR agents. Detection of the mutation therefore plays an important role in therapeutic decision making. The aim of this study was to detect EGFR mutations in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples using both Scorpion ARMS and high resolution melt (HRM) assay, and to compare the sensitivity of these methods.

    RESULTS: All of the mutations were found in adenocarcinoma, except one that was in squamous cell carcinoma. The mutation rate was 45.7% (221/484). Complex mutations were also observed, wherein 8 tumours carried 2 mutations and 1 tumour carried 3 mutations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both methods detected EGFR mutations in FFPE samples. HRM assays gave more EGFR positive results compared to Scorpion ARMS.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics*
  3. Halim NHA, Zakaria N, Satar NA, Yahaya BH
    Methods Mol Biol, 2016;1516:371-388.
    PMID: 27032945 DOI: 10.1007/7651_2016_326
    Cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The failure of current treatments to completely eradicate cancer cells often leads to cancer recurrence and dissemination. Studies have suggested that tumor growth and spread are driven by a minority of cancer cells that exhibit characteristics similar to those of normal stem cells, thus these cells are called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are believed to play an important role in initiating and promoting cancer. CSCs are resistant to currently available cancer therapies, and understanding the mechanisms that control the growth of CSCs might have great implications for cancer therapy. Cancer cells are consist of heterogeneous population of cells, thus methods of identification, isolation, and characterisation of CSCs are fundamental to obtain a pure CSC populations. Therefore, this chapter describes in detail a method for isolating and characterizing a pure population of CSCs from heterogeneous population of cancer cells and CSCs based on specific cell surface markers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics
  4. Ramanathan S, Gopinath SCB, Arshad MKM, Poopalan P, Anbu P
    Mikrochim Acta, 2019 07 18;186(8):546.
    PMID: 31321546 DOI: 10.1007/s00604-019-3696-y
    A genomic DNA-based colorimetric assay is described for the detection of the early growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, which is the protruding reason for non-small cell lung cancer. A DNA sequence was designed and immobilized on unmodified gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The formation of the respective duplex indicates the presence of an EGFR mutation. It is accompanied by the aggregation of the GNPs in the presence of monovalent ions, and it indicates the presence of an EGFR mutation. This is accompanied by a color change from red (520 nm) to purple (620 nm). Aggregation was evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The limit of detection is 313 nM of the mutant target strand. A similar peak shift was observed for 2.5 μM concentrations of wild type target. No significant peak shift was observed with probe and non-complementary DNA. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of high-specific genomic DNA sequence on gold nanoparticle (GNP) aggregation with sodium chloride (NaCl). It illustrates the detection method for EGFR mutation on lung cancer detection. Red and purple colors of tubes represent dispersed and aggregated GNP, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics
  5. Liam CK, Leow HR, Pang YK
    J Thorac Oncol, 2013 Dec;8(12):e114.
    PMID: 24389448 DOI: 10.1097/JTO.0b013e3182a4e111
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics
  6. Ramanathan S, Gopinath SCB, Arshad MKM, Poopalan P, Anbu P, Lakshmipriya T, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 11 19;9(1):17013.
    PMID: 31745155 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-53573-9
    Lung cancer is one of the most serious threats to human where 85% of lethal death caused by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) induced by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. The present research focuses in the development of efficient and effortless EGFR mutant detection strategy through high-performance and sensitive genosensor. The current amplified through 250 µm sized fingers between 100 µm aluminium electrodes indicates the voltammetry signal generated by means of the mutant DNA sequence hybridization. To enhance the DNA immobilization and hybridization, ∼25 nm sized aluminosilicate nanocomposite synthesized from the disposed joss fly ash was deposited on the gaps between aluminium electrodes. The probe, mutant (complementary), and wild (single-base pair mismatch) targets were designed precisely from the genomic sequences denote the detection of EGFR mutation. Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis was performed at every step of surface functionalization evidences the relevant chemical bonding of biomolecules on the genosensor as duplex DNA with peak response at 1150 cm-1 to 1650 cm-1. Genosensor depicts a sensitive EGFR mutation as it is able to detect apparently at 100 aM mutant against 1 µM DNA probe. The insignificant voltammetry signal generated with wild type strand emphasizes the specificity of genosensor in the detection of single base pair mismatch. The inefficiency of genosensor in detecting EGFR mutation in the absence of aluminosilicate nanocomposite implies the insensitivity of genosensing DNA hybridization and accentuates the significance of aluminosilicate. Based on the slope of the calibration curve, the attained sensitivity of aluminosilicate modified genosensor was 3.02E-4 A M-1. The detection limit of genosensor computed based on 3σ calculation, relative to the change of current proportional to the logarithm of mutant concentration is at 100 aM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics*
  7. Lee SS, Cheah YK
    J Immunol Res, 2019;2019:3046379.
    PMID: 30944831 DOI: 10.1155/2019/3046379
    Cellular components of the tumour microenvironment (TME) are recognized to regulate the hallmarks of cancers including tumour proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, as well as chemotherapeutic resistance. The linkage between miRNA, TME, and the development of the hallmarks of cancer makes miRNA-mediated regulation of TME a potential therapeutic strategy to complement current cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in cancer therapy, lung cancer remains the deadliest form of cancer among males in the world and has overtaken breast cancer as the most fatal cancer among females in more developed countries. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop more effective treatments for NSCLC, which is the most common type of lung cancer. Hence, this review will focus on current literature pertaining to antitumour or protumourigenic effects elicited by nonmalignant stromal cells of TME in NSCLC through miRNA regulation as well as current status and future prospects of miRNAs as therapeutic agents or targets to regulate TME in NSCLC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics
  8. Liam CK, Mallawathantri S, Fong KM
    Respirology, 2020 09;25(9):933-943.
    PMID: 32335992 DOI: 10.1111/resp.13823
    Molecular biomarker testing of advanced-stage NSCLC is now considered standard of care and part of the diagnostic algorithm to identify subsets of patients for molecular-targeted treatment. Tumour tissue biopsy is essential for an accurate initial diagnosis, determination of the histological subtype and for molecular testing. With the increasing use of small biopsies and cytological specimens for diagnosis and the need to identify an increasing number of predictive biomarkers, proper management of the limited amount of sampling materials available is important. Many patients with advanced NSCLC do not have enough tissue for molecular testing and/or do not have a biopsy-amenable lesion and/or do not want to go through a repeat biopsy given the potential risks. Molecular testing can be difficult or impossible if the sparse material from very small biopsy specimens has already been exhausted for routine diagnostic purposes. A limited diagnostic workup is recommended to preserve sufficient tissue for biomarker testing. In addition, tumour biopsies are limited by tumour heterogeneity, particularly in the setting of disease resistance, and thus may yield false-negative results. Hence, there have been considerable efforts to determine if liquid biopsy in which molecular alterations can be non-invasively identified in plasma cell-free ctDNA, a potential surrogate for the entire tumour genome, can overcome the issues with tissue biopsies and replace the need for the latter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics*
  9. Othman N, Nagoor NH
    Int J Oncol, 2019 01;54(1):306-314.
    PMID: 30365047 DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2018.4602
    The silencing of Bcl‑xL in the nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, A549, downregulates miR‑361‑5p expression. This study aimed to determine the biological effects of miR‑361‑5p on NSCLC, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which apoptosis is regulated. MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) functional analyses were performed via transfection of miR‑361‑5p mimics and inhibitors, demonstrating that the inhibition of miR‑361‑5p induced the apoptosis of NSCLC cells. To elucidate the function of miR‑361‑5p in vivo, cells transfected with miR‑361‑5p inhibitors were microinjected into zebrafish embryos, and immunostained using antibodies to detect the active form of caspase‑3. Co-transfection with siBcl‑xL and miR‑361‑5p mimics illustrated the association between Bcl‑xL, miR‑361‑5p and apoptosis; miR‑361‑5p mimics blocked the apoptosis initiated by siBcl‑xL. Luciferase reporter assays identified mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (SMAD2) as a novel target of miR‑361‑5p and the reduction of its protein level was validated by western blot analysis. To confirm the molecular mechanisms through which apoptosis is regulated, gene rescue experiments revealed that the ectopic expression of SMAD2 attenuated the inhibitory effects on apoptosis induced by miR‑361‑5p. In this study, to the best of our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that miR‑361‑5p functions as an oncomiR in A549 and SK‑LU‑1 cells through the regulation of SMAD2, suggesting that miR‑361‑5p may be employed as a potential therapeutic target for the miRNA-based therapy of NSCLC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics*
  10. Liam CK, Leow HR, How SH, Pang YK, Chua KT, Lim BK, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(1):321-6.
    PMID: 24528049
    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are predictive of response to EGFR-targeted therapy in advanced stages of disease. This study aimed to determine the frequency of EGFR mutations in NSCLCs and to correlate their presence with clinical characteristics in multiethnic Malaysian patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, EGFR mutations in exons 18, 19, 20 and 21 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens of consecutive NSCLC patients were asessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    RESULTS: EGFR mutations were detected in NSCLCs from 55 (36.4%) of a total of 151 patients, being significantly more common in females (62.5%) than in males (17.2%) [odds ratio (OR), 8.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.77-16.98; p<0.001] and in never smokers (62.5%) than in ever smokers (12.7%) (OR, 11.50; 95%CI, 5.08-26.03; p<0.001). Mutations were more common in adenocarcinoma (39.4%) compared to non-adenocarcinoma NSCLCs (15.8%) (p=0.072). The mutation rates in patients of different ethnicities were not significantly different (p=0.08). Never smoking status was the only clinical feature that independently predicted the presence of EGFR mutations (adjusted OR, 5.94; 95%CI, 1.94- 18.17; p=0.002).

    CONCLUSIONS: In Malaysian patients with NSCLC, the EGFR mutation rate was similar to that in other Asian populations. EGFR mutations were significantly more common in female patients and in never smokers. Never smoking status was the only independent predictor for the presence of EGFR mutations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics*
  11. Ho GF, Chai CS, Alip A, Wahid MIA, Abdullah MM, Foo YC, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2019 Sep 09;19(1):896.
    PMID: 31500587 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-019-6107-1
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, side-effects and resistance mechanisms of first-line afatinib in a real-world setting.

    METHODS: This is a multicenter observational study of first-line afatinib in Malaysian patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients' demographic, clinical and treatment data, as well as resistance mechanisms to afatinib were retrospectively captured. The statistical methods included Chi-squared test and independent t-test for variables, Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test for survival, and Cox regression model for multivariate analysis.

    RESULTS: Eighty-five patients on first-line afatinib from 1st October 2014 to 30th April 2018 were eligible for the study. EGFR mutations detected in tumors included exon 19 deletion in 80.0%, exon 21 L858R point mutation in 12.9%, and rare or complex EGFR mutations in 7.1% of patients. Among these patients, 18.8% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2-4, 29.4% had symptomatic brain metastases and 17.6% had abnormal organ function. Afatinib 40 mg or 30 mg once daily were the most common starting and maintenance doses. Only one-tenth of patients experienced severe side-effects with none having grade 4 toxicities. The objective response rate was 76.5% while the disease control rate was 95.3%. At the time of analysis, 56 (65.9%) patients had progression of disease (PD) with a median progression-free survival (mPFS) of 14.2 months (95% CI, 11.85-16.55 months). Only 12.5% of the progressed patients developed new symptomatic brain metastases. The overall survival (OS) data was not mature. Thirty-three (38.8%) patients had died with a median OS of 28.9 months (95% CI, 19.82-37.99 months). The median follow-up period for the survivors was 20.0 months (95% CI, 17.49-22.51 months). Of patients with PD while on afatinib, 55.3% were investigated for resistance mechanisms with exon 20 T790 M mutation detected in 42.0% of them.

    CONCLUSIONS: Afatinib is an effective first-line treatment for patients with EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC with a good response rate and long survival, even in patients with unfavorable clinical characteristics. The side-effects of afatinib were manageable and T790 M mutation was the most common resistance mechanism causing treatment failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics
  12. Ninomiya K, Arimura H, Chan WY, Tanaka K, Mizuno S, Muhammad Gowdh NF, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(1):e0244354.
    PMID: 33428651 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244354
    OBJECTIVES: To propose a novel robust radiogenomics approach to the identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using Betti numbers (BNs).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) images of 194 multi-racial NSCLC patients (79 EGFR mutants and 115 wildtypes) were collected from three different countries using 5 manufacturers' scanners with a variety of scanning parameters. Ninety-nine cases obtained from the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Malaysia were used for training and validation procedures. Forty-one cases collected from the Kyushu University Hospital (KUH) in Japan and fifty-four cases obtained from The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) in America were used for a test procedure. Radiomic features were obtained from BN maps, which represent topologically invariant heterogeneous characteristics of lung cancer on CT images, by applying histogram- and texture-based feature computations. A BN-based signature was determined using support vector machine (SVM) models with the best combination of features that maximized a robustness index (RI) which defined a higher total area under receiver operating characteristics curves (AUCs) and lower difference of AUCs between the training and the validation. The SVM model was built using the signature and optimized in a five-fold cross validation. The BN-based model was compared to conventional original image (OI)- and wavelet-decomposition (WD)-based models with respect to the RI between the validation and the test.

    RESULTS: The BN-based model showed a higher RI of 1.51 compared with the models based on the OI (RI: 1.33) and the WD (RI: 1.29).

    CONCLUSION: The proposed model showed higher robustness than the conventional models in the identification of EGFR mutations among NSCLC patients. The results suggested the robustness of the BN-based approach against variations in image scanner/scanning parameters.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics
  13. Subramaniyan V, Fuloria S, Gupta G, Kumar DH, Sekar M, Sathasivam KV, et al.
    Chem Biol Interact, 2022 Jan 05;351:109735.
    PMID: 34742684 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109735
    Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell surface transmembrane receptor that mediates the tyrosine signaling pathway to carry the extracellular messages inside the cell and thereby alter the function of nucleus. This leads to the generation of various protein products to up or downregulate the cellular function. It is encoded by cell erythroblastosis virus oncogene B1, so called C-erb B1/ERBB2/HER-2 gene that acts as a proto-oncogene. It belongs to the HER-2 receptor-family in breast cancer and responds best with anti-Herceptin therapy (anti-tyrosine kinase monoclonal antibody). HER-2 positive breast cancer patient exhibits worse prognosis without Herceptin therapy. Similar incidence and prognosis are reported in other epithelial neoplasms like EGFR + lung non-small cell carcinoma and glioblastoma (grade IV brain glial tumor). Present study highlights the role and connectivity of EGF with various cancers via signaling pathways, cell surface receptors mechanism, macromolecules, mitochondrial genes and neoplasm. Present study describes the EGFR associated gene expression profiling (in breast cancer and NSCLC), relation between mitrochondrial genes and carcinoma, and several in vitro and in vivo models to screen the synergistic effect of various combination treatments. According to this study, although clinical studies including targeted treatments, immunotherapies, radiotherapy, TKi-EGFR combined targeted therapy have been carried out to investigate the synergism of combination therapy; however still there is a gap to apply the scenarios of experimental and clinical studies for further developments. This review will give an idea about the transition from experimental to most advanced clinical studies with different combination drug strategies to treat cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics
  14. Yatabe Y, Kerr KM, Utomo A, Rajadurai P, Tran VK, Du X, et al.
    J Thorac Oncol, 2015 Mar;10(3):438-45.
    PMID: 25376513 DOI: 10.1097/JTO.0000000000000422
    The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients necessitates accurate, timely testing. Although EGFR mutation testing has been adopted by many laboratories in Asia, data are lacking on the proportion of NSCLC patients tested in each country, and the most commonly used testing methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics*
  15. Jada SR, Lim R, Wong CI, Shu X, Lee SC, Zhou Q, et al.
    Cancer Sci, 2007 Sep;98(9):1461-7.
    PMID: 17627617
    The objectives of the present study were (i) to study the pharmacogenetics of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 c.421C>A in three distinct healthy Asian populations (Chinese, Malays and Indians), and (ii) to investigate the polygenic influence of these polymorphic variants in irinotecan-induced neutropenia in Asian cancer patients. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic analyses were done after administration of irinotecan as a 90-min intravenous infusion of 375 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks (n = 45). Genotypic-phenotypic correlates showed a non-significant influence of UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 c.421C>A polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of SN-38 (P > 0.05), as well as severity of neutropenia (P > 0.05). Significantly higher exposure levels to SN-38 (P = 0.018), lower relative extent of glucuronidation (REG; P = 0.006) and higher biliary index (BI; P = 0.003) were found in cancer patients homozygous for the UGT1A1*6 allele compared with patients harboring the reference genotype. The mean absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was 85% lower and the prevalence of grade 4 neutropenia (ANC < or = 500/microL) was 27% in patients homozygous for UGT1A1*6 compared with the reference group. Furthermore, the presence of the UGT1A1*6 allele was associated with an approximately 3-fold increased risk of developing severe grade 4 neutropenia compared with patients harboring the reference genotype. These exploratory findings suggest that homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 allele may be associated with altered SN-38 disposition and may increase the risk of severe neutropenia in Asian cancer patients, particularly in the Chinese cancer patients who comprised 80% (n = 36) of the patient population in the present study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics
  16. Wu YL, Zhou C, Liam CK, Wu G, Liu X, Zhong Z, et al.
    Ann Oncol, 2015 Sep;26(9):1883-1889.
    PMID: 26105600 DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdv270
    BACKGROUND: The phase III, randomized, open-label ENSURE study (NCT01342965) evaluated first-line erlotinib versus gemcitabine/cisplatin (GP) in patients from China, Malaysia and the Philippines with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients ≥18 years old with histologically/cytologically confirmed stage IIIB/IV EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2 were randomized 1:1 to receive erlotinib (oral; 150 mg once daily until progression/unacceptable toxicity) or GP [G 1250 mg/m(2) i.v. days 1 and 8 (3-weekly cycle); P 75 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1, (3-weekly cycle) for up to four cycles]. Primary end point: investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Other end points include objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety.

    RESULTS: A total of 217 patients were randomized: 110 to erlotinib and 107 to GP. Investigator-assessed median PFS was 11.0 months versus 5.5 months, erlotinib versus GP, respectively [hazard ratio (HR), 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.51; log-rank P < 0.0001]. Independent Review Committee-assessed median PFS was consistent (HR, 0.42). Median OS was 26.3 versus 25.5 months, erlotinib versus GP, respectively (HR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.63-1.31; log-rank P = .607). ORR was 62.7% for erlotinib and 33.6% for GP. Treatment-related serious adverse events (AEs) occurred in 2.7% versus 10.6% of erlotinib and GP patients, respectively. The most common grade ≥3 AEs were rash (6.4%) with erlotinib, and neutropenia (25.0%), leukopenia (14.4%), and anemia (12.5%) with GP.

    CONCLUSION: These analyses demonstrate that first-line erlotinib provides a statistically significant improvement in PFS versus GP in Asian patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC (NCT01342965).

    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics
  17. Zakaria N, Yusoff NM, Zakaria Z, Lim MN, Baharuddin PJ, Fakiruddin KS, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2015;15:84.
    PMID: 25881239 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-015-1086-3
    Despite significant advances in staging and therapies, lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality due to its high incidence and recurrence. Clearly, a novel approach is required to develop new therapies to treat this devastating disease. Recent evidence indicates that tumours contain a small population of cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are responsible for tumour maintenance, spreading and resistant to chemotherapy. The genetic composition of CSCs so far is not fully understood, but manipulation of the specific genes that maintain their integrity would be beneficial for developing strategies to combat cancer. Therefore, the goal of this study isto identify the transcriptomic composition and biological functions of CSCs from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics*
  18. Baharuddin P, Satar N, Fakiruddin KS, Zakaria N, Lim MN, Yusoff NM, et al.
    Oncol Rep, 2016 Jan;35(1):13-25.
    PMID: 26531053 DOI: 10.3892/or.2015.4371
    Natural compounds such as curcumin have the ability to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of common chemotherapy agents through cancer stem-like cell (CSC) sensitisation. In the present study, we showed that curcumin enhanced the sensitivity of the double-positive (CD166+/EpCAM+) CSC subpopulation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549 and H2170) to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and inhibition of metastasis. Our results revealed that initial exposure of NSCLC cell lines to curcumin (10-40 µM) markedly reduced the percentage of viability to an average of ~51 and ~54% compared to treatment with low dose cisplatin (3 µM) with only 94 and 86% in both the A549 and H2170 cells. Moreover, sensitisation of NSCLC cell lines to curcumin through combined treatment enhanced the single effect induced by low dose cisplatin on the apoptosis of the double-positive CSC subpopulation by 18 and 20% in the A549 and H2170 cells, respectively. Furthermore, we found that curcumin enhanced the inhibitory effects of cisplatin on the highly migratory CD166+/EpCAM+ subpopulation, marked by a reduction in cell migration to 9 and 21% in the A549 and H2170 cells, respectively, indicating that curcumin may increase the sensitivity of CSCs to cisplatin-induced migratory inhibition. We also observed that the mRNA expression of cyclin D1 was downregulated, while a substantial increased in p21 expression was noted, followed by Apaf1 and caspase-9 activation in the double-positive (CD166+/EpCAM+) CSC subpopulation of A549 cells, suggested that the combined treatments induced cell cycle arrest, therefore triggering CSC growth inhibition via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, we provided novel evidence of the previously unknown therapeutic effects of curcumin, either alone or in combination with cisplatin on the inhibition of the CD166+/EpCAM+ subpopulation of NSCLC cell lines. This finding demonstrated the potential therapeutic approach of using curcumin that may enhance the effects of cisplatin by targeting the CSC subpopulation in NSCLC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics
  19. Satar NA, Fakiruddin KS, Lim MN, Mok PL, Zakaria N, Fakharuzi NA, et al.
    Oncol Rep, 2018 Aug;40(2):669-681.
    PMID: 29845263 DOI: 10.3892/or.2018.6461
    Through the specific identification and direct targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs), it is believed that a better treatment efficacy of cancer may be achieved. Hence, the present study aimed to identify a CSC subpopulation from adenocarcinoma cells (A549) as a model of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Ιnitially, we sorted two subpopulations known as the triple‑positive (EpCAM+/CD166+/CD44+) and triple‑negative (EpCAM-/CD166-/CD44-) subpopulation using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Sorted cells were subsequently evaluated for proliferation and chemotherapy-resistance using a viability assay and were further characterized for their clonal heterogeneity, self-renewal characteristics, cellular migration, alkaline dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and the expression of stemness-related genes. According to our findings the triple‑positive subpopulation revealed significantly higher (P<0.01) proliferation activity, exhibited better clonogenicity, was mostly comprised of holoclones and had markedly bigger (P<0.001) spheroid formation indicating a better self-renewal capacity. A relatively higher resistance to both 5‑fluouracil and cisplatin with 80% expression of ALDH was observed in the triple‑positive subpopulation, compared to only 67% detected in the triple‑negative subpopulation indicated that high ALDH activity contributed to greater chemotherapy-resistance characteristics. Higher percentage of migrated cells was observed in the triple‑positive subpopulation with 56% cellular migration being detected, compared to only 19% in the triple‑negative subpopulation on day 2. This was similarly observed on day 3 in the triple‑positive subpopulation with 36% higher cellular migration compared to the triple‑negative subpopulation. Consistently, elevated levels of the stem cell genes such as REX1 and SSEA4 were also found in the triple‑positive subpopulation indicating that the subpopulation displayed a strong characteristic of pluripotency. In conclusion, our study revealed that the triple‑positive subpopulation demonstrated similar characteristics to CSCs compared to the triple‑negative subpopulation. It also confirmed the feasibility of using the triple‑positive (EpCAM+/CD166+/CD44+) marker as a novel candidate marker that may lead to the development of novel therapies targeting CSCs of NSCLC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics*
  20. Wu YL, Lee V, Liam CK, Lu S, Park K, Srimuninnimit V, et al.
    Lung Cancer, 2018 12;126:1-8.
    PMID: 30527172 DOI: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.10.004
    OBJECTIVE: Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an adenocarcinoma component are recommended to undergo epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing when being considered for EGFR targeted therapy. We conducted an exploratory analysis to inform the clinical utility of EGFR mutation testing in blood cell-free DNA using the cobas®EGFR Mutation Test v2.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two EGFR mutation tests, a tissue-based assay (cobas® v1) and a tissue- and blood-based assay (cobas® v2) were used to analyze matched biopsy and blood samples (897 paired samples) from three Asian studies of first-line erlotinib with similar intent-to-treat populations. ENSURE was a phase III comparison of erlotinib and gemcitabine/platinum, FASTACT-2 was a phase III study of gemcitabine/platinum plus erlotinib or placebo, and ASPIRATION was a single-arm phase II study of erlotinib. Agreement statistics were evaluated, based on sensitivity and specificity between the two assays in subgroups of patients with increasing tumor burden.

    RESULTS: Patients with discordant EGFR (tissue+/plasma-) mutation status achieved longer progression-free and overall survival than those with concordant (tissue+/plasma+) mutation status. Tumor burden was significantly greater in patients with concordant versus discordant mutations. Pooled analyses of data from the three studies showed a sensitivity of 72.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67.8-76.1) and a specificity of 97.9% (95% CI 96.0-99.0) for blood-based testing; sensitivity was greatest in patients with larger baseline tumors.

    CONCLUSIONS: Blood-based EGFR mutation testing demonstrated high specificity and good sensitivity, and offers a convenient and easily accessible diagnostic method to complement tissue-based tests. Patients with a discordant mutation status in plasma and tissue, had improved survival outcomes compared with those with a concordant mutation status, which may be due to their lower tumor burden. These data help to inform the clinical utility of this blood-based assay for the detection of EGFR mutations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics
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