Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a cell surface protein that was discovered as a tumour marker of epithelial origins nearly four decades ago. EpCAM is expressed at basal levels in the basolateral membrane of normal epithelial cells. However, EpCAM expression is upregulated in solid epithelial cancers and stem cells. EpCAM can also be found in disseminated tumour cells and circulating tumour cells. Various OMICs studies have demonstrated that EpCAM plays roles in several key biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. Additionally, EpCAM can be detected in the bodily fluid of cancer patients suggesting that EpCAM is a pathophysiologically relevant anti-tumour target as well as being utilized as a diagnostic/prognostic agent for a variety of cancers. This review will focus on the structure-features of EpCAM protein and discuss recent evidence on the pathological and physiological roles of EpCAM in modulating cell adhesion and signalling pathways in cancers as well as deliberating the clinical implication of EpCAM as a therapeutic target.
Nanozarah zink oksida telah disintesis menggunakan afrons gas koloid sebagai acuan. Zink sulfat (ZnSO4.7H2O) dan gas ammonia digunakan sebagi bahan tindak balas. Masa pengeraman yang dikaji adalah 2 jam dan 18 jam. Daripada analisis mikroskop elektron imbasan, morfologi nanohelaian dapat diperhatikan dengan ketebalan helaian 125 nm hingga 200 nm. Daripada analisis spektroskopi ultra lembayung-boleh nampak, saiz purata yang dianggarkan bagi sampel nanozarah zink oksida yang disintesis dengan masa pengeraman 2 jam adalah 2.03 nm dan 2.1 nm untuk sampel yang dieramkan selama 18 jam.
Aktiviti guna tanah di kawasan lembangan adalah salah satu faktor yang mendorong kepada kemerosotan kualiti air
sungai akibat daripada hakisan tanih. Potensi hakisan tanih di kawasan lembangan Sungai Bilut, Raub, Pahang yang
menjadi sumber bekalan air minuman utama di daerah Raub boleh ditentukan dengan menggunakan integrasi model
Semakan Semula Persamaan Kehilangan Tanih Universal (RUSLE) dan Sistem Maklumat Geografi (GIS). Kajian ini
bertujuan untuk menentukan potensi hakisan tanih dan faktor utama yang mempengaruhi kadar hakisan tanih. Kajian ini
melibatkan penggunaan data sekunder yang terdiri daripada data hujan, data siri tanih dan topografi bagi menghasilkan
faktor kehakisan hujan (R), kebolehhakisan tanih (K), serta panjang dan kecuraman cerun (LS). Faktor litupan tumbuhan
(C) dan amalan pemuliharaan (P) pula dijana daripada imej satelit Landsat 8 (2014). Keputusan kajian menunjukkan
nilai faktor R di kawasan kajian ialah 8927.68-9775.18 MJ mm ha-1 jam-1 tahun-1, nilai K ialah 0.036-0.500 tan jam-1
MJ-1 mm-1, nilai LS ialah 0-514, nilai C ialah 0.03-0.80 dan nilai P ialah 0.1-0.7. Kawasan yang mempunyai potensi
hakisan sangat rendah hingga rendah meliputi 81%, manakala potensi hakisan tanih sederhana hingga sangat tinggi
meliputi 19% daripada keseluruhan kawasan kajian. Model yang dihasilkan mempunyai ketepatan sebanyak 81%. Faktor
utama yang mempengaruhi berlakunya hakisan tanih di kawasan kajian adalah faktor topografi, litupan tumbuhan dan
kebolehhakisan tanih. Keputusan menunjukkan analisis integrasi RUSLE dan GIS berpotensi dalam penentuan potensi
hakisan tanih untuk kawasan luas yang mempunyai pelbagai jenis guna tanah, topografi dan jenis tanih.
For dental implants, it is vital that an initial soft tissue seal is achieved as this helps to stabilize and preserve the peri-implant tissues during the restorative stages following placement. The study of the implant-soft tissue interface is usually undertaken in animal models. We have developed an in vitro three-dimensional tissue-engineered oral mucosal model (3D OMM), which lends itself to the study of the implant-soft tissue interface as it has been shown that cells from the three-dimensional OMM attach onto titanium (Ti) surfaces forming a biological seal (BS). This study compares the quality of the BS achieved using the three-dimensional OMM for four types of Ti surfaces: polished, machined, sandblasted and anodized (TiUnite). The BS was evaluated quantitatively by permeability and cell attachment tests. Tritiated water (HTO) was used as the tracing agent for the permeability test. At the end of the permeability test, the Ti discs were removed from the three-dimensional OMM and an Alamar Blue assay was used for the measurement of residual cells attached to the Ti discs. The penetration of the HTO through the BS for the four types of Ti surfaces was not significantly different, and there was no significant difference in the viability of residual cells that attached to the Ti surfaces. The BS of the tissue-engineered oral mucosa around the four types of Ti surface topographies was not significantly different.
Successful human reproduction remains an enigma, but this is slowly changing in the current era of expanding scientific knowledge. The discovery of various molecular factors such as adhesion molecules, proteases and cytokines have in recent years been at the forefront of medical research. The growing importance of immunology in particular has led to novel new immuno-modulatory therapies and increasing research into this new aspect of reproductive immunology may well prove to be the most important breakthrough in understanding the fundamentals of human reproduction. Implantation represents the first step in the complex interactions and processes involved in foetal-maternal interaction, which continues throughout pregnancy gestation and culminates in the birth of an infant. It is therefore vital that we understand the myriad processes controlling implantation in order to build a firm foundation for exploring reproductive immunology research in the new millennium. This review brings together and presents an overview of the potential roles of currently known molecular factors such as adhesion molecules, proteases, cytokines and its interaction with the maternal immune response, incorporating the findings of previous published research performed by the author on cytokines and reproductive immunology.
Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the form of pellet culture and encapsulation in alginate beads has been widely used as conventional model for in vitro chondrogenesis. However, comparative characterization between differentiation, hypertrophic markers, cell adhesion molecule and ultrastructural changes during alginate and pellet culture has not been described. Hence, the present study was conducted comparing MSCs cultured in pellet and alginate beads with monolayer culture. qPCR was performed to assess the expression of chondrogenic, hypertrophic, and cell adhesion molecule genes, whereas transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to assess the ultrastructural changes. In addition, immunocytochemistry for Collagen type II and aggrecan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis were performed. Our results indicate that pellet and alginate bead cultures were necessary for chondrogenic differentiation of MSC. It also indicates that cultures using alginate bead demonstrated significantly higher (p < 0.05) chondrogenic but lower hypertrophic (p < 0.05) gene expressions as compared with pellet cultures. N-cadherin and N-CAM1 expression were up-regulated in second and third weeks of culture and were comparable between the alginate bead and pellet culture groups, respectively. TEM images demonstrated ultrastructural changes resembling cell death in pellet cultures. Our results indicate that using alginate beads, MSCs express higher chondrogenic but lower hypertrophic gene expression. Enhanced production of extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules was also observed in this group. These findings suggest that alginate bead culture may serve as a superior chondrogenic model, whereas pellet culture is more appropriate as a hypertrophic model of chondrogenesis.
Classical characteristic of the innate immune system is the lack of ability to build up immunological memory, contrast to the adaptive immune system that is capable of "remembering" antigens, and rapidly mount a greater magnitude of immune response upon subsequent exposure to the same antigens. Peculiarly, immunological memory of innate immunity is evidenced in invertebrates. At least three different memory phenomena have been described, namely sustained unique response, recalled response, and immune shift. Studies attended to decipher the mechanistic biology of the innate immune memory reveals the role of epigenetics, which modulates the response of immune memory, and the heritability of immune memory to subsequent generations. A parthenogenetic Artemia model demonstrated successful transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of resistance trait against Vibrio campbellii. Following, the role of invertebrate hemocytes and Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) in innate immune memory is reviewed. While there is no vertebrate antibody homolog found in invertebrates, Dscam was found to resemble the functionality of vertebrate antibody. Insight of Dscam as immune factor was illustrated further in the current review.
AGR2 is an oncogenic endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein disulfide isomerase. AGR2 protein has a relatively unique property for a chaperone in that it can bind sequence-specifically to a specific peptide motif (TTIYY). A synthetic TTIYY-containing peptide column was used to affinity-purify AGR2 from crude lysates highlighting peptide selectivity in complex mixtures. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry localized the dominant region in AGR2 that interacts with the TTIYY peptide to within a structural loop from amino acids 131-135 (VDPSL). A peptide binding site consensus of Tx[IL][YF][YF] was developed for AGR2 by measuring its activity against a mutant peptide library. Screening the human proteome for proteins harboring this motif revealed an enrichment in transmembrane proteins and we focused on validating EpCAM as a potential AGR2-interacting protein. AGR2 and EpCAM proteins formed a dose-dependent protein-protein interaction in vitro Proximity ligation assays demonstrated that endogenous AGR2 and EpCAM protein associate in cells. Introducing a single alanine mutation in EpCAM at Tyr251 attenuated its binding to AGR2 in vitro and in cells. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry was used to identify a stable binding site for AGR2 on EpCAM, adjacent to the TLIYY motif and surrounding EpCAM's detergent binding site. These data define a dominant site on AGR2 that mediates its specific peptide-binding function. EpCAM forms a model client protein for AGR2 to study how an ER-resident chaperone can dock specifically to a peptide motif and regulate the trafficking a protein destined for the secretory pathway.
Adhesion and fusion of epithelial sheets marks the completion of many morphogenetic events during embryogenesis. Neural tube closure involves an epithelial fusion sequence in which the apposing neural folds adhere initially via cellular protrusions, proceed to a more stable union, and subsequently undergo remodeling of the epithelial structures to yield a separate neural tube roof plate and overlying nonneural ectoderm. Cellular protrusions comprise lamellipodia and filopodia, and studies in several different systems emphasize the critical role of RhoGTPases in their regulation. How epithelia establish initial adhesion is poorly understood but, in neurulation, may involve interactions between EphA receptors and their ephrinA ligands. Epithelial remodeling is spatially and temporally correlated with apoptosis in the dorsal neural tube midline, but experimental inhibition of this cell death does not prevent fusion and remodeling. A variety of molecular signaling systems have been implicated in the late events of morphogenesis, but genetic redundancy, for example among the integrins and laminins, makes identification of the critical players challenging. An improved understanding of epithelial fusion can provide insights into normal developmental processes and may also indicate the mode of origin of clinically important birth defects.
Hydrothermally synthesized TiO2nanotubes (TNTs) were first used as a filler for chitosan scaffold for reinforcement purpose. Chitosan-TNTs (CTNTs) scaffolds prepared via direct blending and freeze drying retained cylindrical structure and showed enhanced compressive modulus and reduced degradation rate compared to chitosan membrane which experienced severe shrinkage after rehydration with ethanol. Macroporous interconnectivity with pore size of 70-230μm and porosity of 88% were found in CTNTs scaffolds. Subsequently, the functionalization of CTNTs scaffolds with CaCl2solutions (0.5mM-40.5mM) was conducted at physiological pH. The adsorption isotherm of Ca2+ions onto CTNTs scaffolds fitted well with Freundlich isotherm. CTNTs scaffolds with Ca2+ions showed high biocompatibility by promoting adhesion, proliferation and early differentiation of MG63 in a non-dose dependent manner. CTNTs scaffolds with Ca2+ions can be an alternative for bone regeneration.
Our studies focused on improving the biocompatibility properties of two microfluidic prototyping substrates i.e. polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) and off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE-80) polymer by Ar and N2plasma treatment. The contact angle (CA) measurement showed that both plasma treatments inserted oxygen and nitrogen moieties increased the surface energy and hydrophilicity of PUMA and OSTE-80 polymer which corresponded to an increase of nitrogen to carbon ratios (N/C), as measured by XPS, to provide a conducive environment for cell attachments and proliferation. Under the SEM observation, the surface topography of PUMA and OSTE-80 polymer showed minimal changes after the plasma treatments. Furthermore, ageing studies showed that plasma-treated PUMA and OSTE-80 polymer had stable hydrophilicity and nitrogen composition during storage in ambient air for 15days. After in vitro cell culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on these surfaces for 24h and 72h, both trypan blue and alamar blue assays indicated that PUMA and OSTE-80 polymer treated with N2plasma had the highest viability and proliferation. The polar nitrogen moieties, specifically amide groups, encouraged the HUVECs adhesion on the plasma-treated PUMA and OSTE-80 surfaces. Interestingly, PUMA polymer treated with Ar and N2plasma showed different HUVECs morphology which was spindle and cobblestone-shaped respectively after 72h of incubation. On the contrary, a monolayer of well-spread HUVECs formed on the Ar and N2plasma-treated OSTE-80 polymers. These variable morphologies observed can be ascribed to the adherence HUVECs on the different elastic moduli of these surfaces whereby further investigation might be needed. Overall, Ar and N2plasma treatment had successfully altered the surface properties of PUMA and OSTE-80 polymer by increasing its surface energy, hydrophilicity and chemical functionalities to create a biocompatible surface for HUVECs adhesion and proliferation.
Extracellular environments can regulate cell behavior because cells can actively sense their mechanical environments. This study evaluated the adhesion, proliferation and morphology of endothelial cells on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/alumina (Al2 O3 ) composites and pure PDMS. The substrates were prepared from pure PDMS and its composites with 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt % Al2 O3 at a curing temperature of 50°C for 4 h. The substrates were then characterized by mechanical, structural, and morphological analyses. The cell adhesion, proliferation, and morphology of cultured bovine aortic endothelial (BAEC) cells on substrate materials were evaluated by using resazurin assay and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-1,3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-acetylated LDL (Dil-Ac-LDL) cell staining, respectively. The composites (PDMS/2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt % Al2 O3 ) exhibited higher stiffness than the pure PDMS substrate. The results also revealed that stiffer substrates promoted endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation and also induced spread morphology in the endothelial cells compared with lesser stiff substrates. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of time on cell proliferation depended on stiffness. Therefore, this study concludes that the addition of different Al2 O3 percentages to PDMS elevated substrate stiffness which in turn increased endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation significantly and induced spindle shape morphology in endothelial cells.
The adherence of Candida to mucosal surfaces is the initial step for successful invasive process of the oral cavity. The study aimed to investigate the effect of two plant extracts on the non-specific and specific bindings of oral candida.
Clinical information about genotypically different clones of biofilm-producing Staphylococcus aureus is largely unknown. We examined whether different clones of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) differ with respect to staphylococcal microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) in biofilm formation. The study used 60 different types of spa and determined the phenotypes, the prevalence of the 13 MSCRAMM, and biofilm genes for each clone. The current investigation was carried out using a modified Congo red agar (MCRA), a microtiter plate assay (MPA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Clones belonging to the same spa type were found to have similar properties in adheringto the polystyrene microtiter plate surface. However, their ability to produce slime on MCRA medium was different. PCR experiments showed that 60 clones of MSSA and MRSA were positive for 5 genes (out of 9 MSCRAMM genes). icaADBC genes were found to be present in all the 60 clones tested indicating a high prevalence, and these genes were equally distributed among the clones associated with MSSA and those with MRSA. The prevalence of other MSCRAMM genes among MSSA and MRSA clones was found to be variable. MRSA and MSSA gene expression (MSCRAMM and icaADBC) was confirmed by RT-PCR.
In this paper, single cells adhesion force was measured using a nanofork. The nanofork was used to pick up a single cell on a line array substrate inside an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The line array substrate was used to provide small gaps between the single cells and the substrate. Therefore, the nanofork could be inserted through these gaps in order to successfully pick up a single cell. Adhesion force was measured during the cell pick-up process from the deflection of the cantilever beam. The nanofork was fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) etching process while the line array substrate was fabricated using nanoimprinting technology. As to investigate the effect of contact area on the strength of the adhesion force, two sizes of gap distance of line array substrate were used, i.e., 1 μm and 2 μm. Results showed that cells attached on the 1 μm gap line array substrate required more force to be released as compared to the cells attached on the 1 μm gap line array substrate.
Bone formation is an active process whereby osteoblasts are found on the surface of the newly formed bone. Adhesion to extracellular matrix is essential for the development of bone however not all surfaces are suitable for osteoblast adhesion and don't support osteoblastic functions. The objective of this study was to test the suitability of a collagen based microcarrier which would support osteoblastic functions.
A 13 year old boy presented with a huge mass on his right arm of 6 months duration. Histopathological examination revealed sheets of malignant small round blue cells with immunopositivity for LCA, CD43, CD45Ro, CD30, EMA, ALK-1 and CD99, and negativity for CD20, TdT, myogenin, myoD1, NSE, bcl-6, bcl-2 and CD10. Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) testing excluded the diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma/PNET. Pathologists need to be aware of the diagnosis of a small cell variant of ALCL, as well as of the fact that CD99 expression commonly occurs in cases of ALK-positive ALCL, in order to distinguish this entity from Ewing's sarcoma/PNET.
Classically, MSC are identified by a CD45-CD106+ phenotype. In this study, we found that mouse MSC achieve this characteristic phenotype only at later passages. With increasing passages, CD45 (hematopoietic marker) expression shifts to negativity, whereas CD106 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) expression becomes increasingly positive. These results demonstrate that MSC cells cultured from mouse bone marrow acquire a classical MSC immunophenotype (CD45-CD106+) in later passages.
Chitosan has similar structure to glycosaminoglycans in the tissue, thus may be a good candidates as tissue engineering scaffold. However, to improve their cell attachment ability, we try to incorporate this natural polymer with collagen by combining it via cross-linking process. In this preliminary study we evaluate the cell attachment ability of chitosan-collagen scaffold versus chitosan scaffold alone. Chitosan and collagen were dissolved in 1% acetic acid and then were frozen for 24 hours before the lyophilizing process. Human skin fibroblasts were seeded into both scaffold and were cultured in F12: DMEM (1:1). Metabolic activity assay were used to evaluate cell attachment ability of scaffold for a period of 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. Scanning electron micrographs shows good cell morphology on chitosan-collagen hybrid scaffold. In conclusion, the incorporation of collagen to chitosan will enhance its cell attachment ability and will be a potential scaffold in tissue engineering.