Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

  1. Chew WX, Kaizu K, Watabe M, Muniandy SV, Takahashi K, Arjunan SNV
    Phys Rev E, 2019 Apr;99(4-1):042411.
    PMID: 31108654 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.99.042411
    Microscopic models of reaction-diffusion processes on the cell membrane can link local spatiotemporal effects to macroscopic self-organized patterns often observed on the membrane. Simulation schemes based on the microscopic lattice method (MLM) can model these processes at the microscopic scale by tracking individual molecules, represented as hard spheres, on fine lattice voxels. Although MLM is simple to implement and is generally less computationally demanding than off-lattice approaches, its accuracy and consistency in modeling surface reactions have not been fully verified. Using the Spatiocyte scheme, we study the accuracy of MLM in diffusion-influenced surface reactions. We derive the lattice-based bimolecular association rates for two-dimensional (2D) surface-surface reaction and one-dimensional (1D) volume-surface adsorption according to the Smoluchowski-Collins-Kimball model and random walk theory. We match the time-dependent rates on lattice with off-lattice counterparts to obtain the correct expressions for MLM parameters in terms of physical constants. The expressions indicate that the voxel size needs to be at least 0.6% larger than the molecule to accurately simulate surface reactions on triangular lattice. On square lattice, the minimum voxel size should be even larger, at 5%. We also demonstrate the ability of MLM-based schemes such as Spatiocyte to simulate a reaction-diffusion model that involves all dimensions: three-dimensional (3D) diffusion in the cytoplasm, 2D diffusion on the cell membrane, and 1D cytoplasm-membrane adsorption. With the model, we examine the contribution of the 2D reaction pathway to the overall reaction rate at different reactant diffusivity, reactivity, and concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism*
  2. Zou X, Wei Y, Jiang S, Xu F, Wang H, Zhan P, et al.
    J Agric Food Chem, 2022 Nov 16;70(45):14468-14479.
    PMID: 36322824 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.2c06187
    2-Phenylethanol (2-PE), a common compound found in plants and microorganisms, exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Using Botrytis cinerea, we demonstrated that 2-PE suppressed mycelium growth in vitro and in strawberry fruit and reduced natural disease without adverse effects to fruit quality. 2-PE caused structural damage to mycelia, as shown by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. From RNA sequencing analysis we found significantly upregulated genes for enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging systems including sulfur metabolism and glutathione metabolism, indicating that ROS stress was induced by 2-PE. This was consistent with results from assays demonstrating an increase ROS and hydrogen peroxide levels, antioxidant enzyme activities, and malondialdehyde content in treated cells. The upregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes, the downregulation of major facilitator superfamily transporters genes, and the downregulation of ergosterol biosynthesis genes indicated a severe disruption of cell membrane structure and function. This was consistent with results from assays demonstrating compromised membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation. To summarize, 2-PE exposure suppressed B. cinerea growth through ROS stress and cell membrane disruption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  3. Poznanski RR
    Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys, 2010 Feb;81(2 Pt 1):021902.
    PMID: 20365590
    An assumption commonly used in cable theory is revised by taking into account electrical amplification due to intracellular capacitive effects in passive dendritic cables. A generalized cable equation for a cylindrical volume representation of a dendritic segment is derived from Maxwell's equations under assumptions: (i) the electric-field polarization is restricted longitudinally along the cable length; (ii) extracellular isopotentiality; (iii) quasielectrostatic conditions; and (iv) homogeneous medium with constant conductivity and permittivity. The generalized cable equation is identical to Barenblatt's equation arising in the theory of infiltration in fissured strata with a known analytical solution expressed in terms of a definite integral involving a modified Bessel function and the solution to a linear one-dimensional classical cable equation. Its solution is used to determine the impact of thermal noise on voltage attenuation with distance at any particular time. A regular perturbation expansion for the membrane potential about the linear one-dimensional classical cable equation solution is derived in terms of a Green's function in order to describe the dynamics of free charge within the Debye layer of endogenous structures in passive dendritic cables. The asymptotic value of the first perturbative term is explicitly evaluated for small values of time to predict how the slowly fluctuating (in submillisecond range) electric field attributed to intracellular capacitive effects alters the amplitude of the membrane potential. It was found that capacitive effects are almost negligible for cables with electrotonic lengths L>0.5 , contributes up to 10% of the signal for cables with electrotonic lengths in the range between 0.25
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  4. Ng HW, Laughton CA, Doughty SW
    J Chem Inf Model, 2014 Feb 24;54(2):573-81.
    PMID: 24460123 DOI: 10.1021/ci400463z
    Analysis of 300 ns (ns) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an adenosine A2a receptor (A2a AR) model, conducted in triplicate, in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) bilayers reveals significantly different protein dynamical behavior. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the dissimilarities stem from interhelical rather than intrahelical motions. The difference in the hydrophobic thicknesses of these simulated lipid bilayers is potentially a significant reason for the observed difference in results. The distinct lipid headgroups might also lead to different molecular interactions and hence different protein loop motions. Overall, the A2a AR shows higher mobility and flexibility in POPC as compared to POPE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism*
  5. Barbour A, Philip K, Muniandy S
    PLoS One, 2013;8(10):e77751.
    PMID: 24147072 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077751
    BACKGROUND: Lantibiotics are small lanthionine-containing bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. Salivaricin 9 is a newly discovered lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus salivarius. In this study we present the mechanism of action of salivaricin 9 and some of its properties. Also we developed new methods to produce and purify the lantibiotic from strain NU10.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Salivaricin 9 was found to be auto-regulated when an induction assay was applied and this finding was used to develop a successful salivaricin 9 production system in liquid medium. A combination of XAD-16 and cation exchange chromatography was used to purify the secondary metabolite which was shown to have a molecular weight of approximately 3000 Da by SDS-PAGE. MALDI-TOF MS analysis indicated the presence of salivaricin 9, a 2560 Da lantibiotic. Salivaricin 9 is a bactericidal molecule targeting the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells. The membrane permeabilization assay showed that salivaricin 9 penetrated the cytoplasmic membrane and induced pore formation which resulted in cell death. The morphological changes of test bacterial strains incubated with salivaricin 9 were visualized using Scanning Electron Microscopy which confirmed a pore forming mechanism of inhibition. Salivaricin 9 retained biological stability when exposed to high temperature (90-100°C) and stayed bioactive at pH ranging 2 to 10. When treated with proteinase K or peptidase, salivaricin 9 lost all antimicrobial activity, while it remained active when treated with lyticase, catalase and certain detergents.

    CONCLUSION: The mechanism of antimicrobial action of a newly discovered lantibiotic salivaricin 9 was elucidated in this study. Salivaricin 9 penetrated the cytoplasmic membrane of its targeted cells and induced pore formation. This project has given new insights on lantibiotic peptides produced by S. salivarius isolated from the oral cavities of Malaysian subjects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  6. Ng HW, Laughton CA, Doughty SW
    J Chem Inf Model, 2013 May 24;53(5):1168-78.
    PMID: 23514445 DOI: 10.1021/ci300610w
    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of membrane-embedded G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have rapidly gained popularity among the molecular simulation community in recent years, a trend which has an obvious link to the tremendous pharmaceutical importance of this group of receptors and the increasing availability of crystal structures. In view of the widespread use of this technique, it is of fundamental importance to ensure the reliability and robustness of the methodologies so they yield valid results and enable sufficiently accurate predictions to be made. In this work, 200 ns simulations of the A2a adenosine receptor (A2a AR) have been produced and evaluated in the light of these requirements. The conformational dynamics of the target protein, as obtained from replicate simulations in both the presence and absence of an inverse agonist ligand (ZM241385), have been investigated and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). Results show that, on this time scale, convergence of the replicates is not readily evident and dependent on the types of the protein motions considered. Thus rates of inter- as opposed to intrahelical relaxation and sampling can be different. When studied individually, we find that helices III and IV have noticeably greater stability than helices I, II, V, VI, and VII in the apo form. The addition of the inverse agonist ligand greatly improves the stability of all helices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  7. Muniyandi RC, Zin AM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2011 Dec 15;14(24):1100-8.
    PMID: 22335049
    Ligand-Receptor Networks of TGF-beta plays essential role in transmitting a wide range of extracellular signals that affect many cellular processes such as cell growth. However, the modeling of these networks with conventional approach such as ordinary differential equations has not taken into account, the spatial structure and stochastic behavior of processes involve in these networks. Membrane computing as the alternatives approach provides spatial structure for molecular computation in which processes are evaluated in a non-deterministic and maximally parallel way. This study is carried out to evaluate the membrane computing model of Ligand-Receptor Networks of TGF-beta with model checking approach. The results show that membrane computing model has sustained the behaviors and properties of Ligand-Receptor Networks of TGF-beta. This reinforce that membrane computing is capable in analyzing processes and behaviors in hierarchical structure of cell such as Ligand-Receptor Networks of TGF-beta better than the deterministic approach of conventional mathematical models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism*
  8. Moo EK, Herzog W, Han SK, Abu Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B, Federico S
    Biomech Model Mechanobiol, 2012 Sep;11(7):983-93.
    PMID: 22234779 DOI: 10.1007/s10237-011-0367-2
    Experimental findings indicate that in-situ chondrocytes die readily following impact loading, but remain essentially unaffected at low (non-impact) strain rates. This study was aimed at identifying possible causes for cell death in impact loading by quantifying chondrocyte mechanics when cartilage was subjected to a 5% nominal tissue strain at different strain rates. Multi-scale modelling techniques were used to simulate cartilage tissue and the corresponding chondrocytes residing in the tissue. Chondrocytes were modelled by accounting for the cell membrane, pericellular matrix and pericellular capsule. The results suggest that cell deformations, cell fluid pressures and fluid flow velocity through cells are highest at the highest (impact) strain rate, but they do not reach damaging levels. Tangential strain rates of the cell membrane were highest at the highest strain rate and were observed primarily in superficial tissue cells. Since cell death following impact loading occurs primarily in superficial zone cells, we speculate that cell death in impact loading is caused by the high tangential strain rates in the membrane of superficial zone cells causing membrane rupture and loss of cell content and integrity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  9. Quah SY, Tan MS, Teh YH, Stanslas J
    Pharmacol Ther, 2016 06;162:35-57.
    PMID: 27016467 DOI: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2016.03.010
    Oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) is linked to the most fatal cancers such as those of the pancreas, colon, and lung. Decades of research to discover an efficacious drug that can block oncogenic Ras signaling have yielded disappointing results; thus, Ras was considered "undruggable" until recently. Inhibitors that directly target Ras by binding to previously undiscovered pockets have been recently identified. Some of these molecules are either isolated from natural products or derived from natural compounds. In this review, we described the potential of these compounds and other inhibitors of Ras signaling in drugging Ras. We highlighted the modes of action of these compounds in suppressing signaling pathways activated by oncogenic Ras, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. The anti-Ras strategy of these compounds can be categorized into four main types: inhibition of Ras-effector interaction, interference of Ras membrane association, prevention of Ras-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) formation, and downregulation of Ras proteins. Another promising strategy that must be validated experimentally is enhancement of the intrinsic Ras-guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity by small chemical entities. Among the inhibitors of Ras signaling that were reported thus far, salirasib and TLN-4601 have been tested for their clinical efficacy. Although both compounds passed phase I trials, they failed in their respective phase II trials. Therefore, new compounds of natural origin with relevant clinical activity against Ras-driven malignancies are urgently needed. Apart from salirasib and TLN-4601, some other compounds with a proven inhibitory effect on Ras signaling include derivatives of salirasib, sulindac, polyamine, andrographolide, lipstatin, levoglucosenone, rasfonin, and quercetin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  10. Azila N, Kuppusamy UR, Ong KK
    Biochem. Int., 1989 Nov;19(5):1077-85.
    PMID: 2561441
    Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity was assayed in the plasma membrane, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions of rat brain. The specific activity of the enzyme was highest in the plasma membrane fraction followed by mitochondrial and then the microsomal fraction. Phosphodiesterase activity of all three fractions was reduced after pretreatment with lecithinase C (PCase) from Clostridium perfringens but less markedly affected by the pretreatment with sphingomyelinase (SMase) from human placenta. The PDE activity of the plasma membrane fraction was more sensitive to PCase treatment compared with the other two particulate fractions, which showed only a slight loss of activity. Temperature seemed to affect PDE activity of the plasma membrane. The enzyme was quite stable at 30 degrees C but its activity dropped by approximately 46% at 37 degrees C after 90 min of incubation. Pretreatment of the plasma membrane at 30 degrees C with PCase at a concentration of more than 5 U caused a marked loss of PDE activity and the decrease in activity reached a plateau at concentrations above 10 U.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  11. Rusli N, Amanah A, Kaur G, Adenan MI, Sulaiman SF, Wahab HA, et al.
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 2019 04;392(4):481-496.
    PMID: 30604191 DOI: 10.1007/s00210-018-01605-y
    Mitragynine is a major component isolated from Mitragyna speciosa Korth or kratom, a medicinal plant known for its opiate-like and euphoric properties. Multiple toxicity and fatal cases involving mitragynine or kratom have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multidrug transporter which modulates the pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics and plays a key role in mediating drug-drug interactions. This study investigated the effects of mitragynine on P-gp transport activity, mRNA, and protein expression in Caco-2 cells using molecular docking, bidirectional assay, RT-qPCR, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry techniques, respectively. Molecular docking simulation revealed that mitragynine interacts with important residues at the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) site of the P-gp structure but not with the residues from the substrate binding site. This was consistent with subsequent experimental work as mitragynine exhibited low permeability across the cell monolayer but inhibited digoxin transport at 10 μM, similar to quinidine. The reduction of P-gp activity in vitro was further contributed by the downregulation of mRNA and protein expression of P-gp. In summary, mitragynine is likely a P-gp inhibitor in vitro but not a substrate. Hence, concurrent administration of mitragynine-containing kratom products with psychoactive drugs which are P-gp substrates may lead to clinically significant toxicity. Further clinical study to prove this point is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  12. Le CF, Fang CM, Sekaran SD
    PMID: 28167546 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02340-16
    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are expressed in various living organisms as first-line host defenses against potential harmful encounters in their surroundings. AMPs are short polycationic peptides exhibiting various antimicrobial activities. The principal antibacterial activity is attributed to the membrane-lytic mechanism which directly interferes with the integrity of the bacterial cell membrane and cell wall. In addition, a number of AMPs form a transmembrane channel in the membrane by self-aggregation or polymerization, leading to cytoplasm leakage and cell death. However, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that AMPs are able to exert intracellular inhibitory activities as the primary or supportive mechanisms to achieve efficient killing. In this review, we focus on the major intracellular targeting activities reported in AMPs, which include nucleic acids and protein biosynthesis and protein-folding, protease, cell division, cell wall biosynthesis, and lipopolysaccharide inhibition. These multifunctional AMPs could serve as the potential lead peptides for the future development of novel antibacterial agents with improved therapeutic profiles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  13. Aliyu IA, Ling KH, Md Hashim N, Chee HY
    Rev Med Virol, 2019 05;29(3):e2038.
    PMID: 30746844 DOI: 10.1002/rmv.2038
    Annexin A2 is a membrane scaffolding and binding protein, which mediated various cellular events. Its functions are generally affected by cellular localization. In the cytoplasm, they interacted with different phospholipid membranes in Ca2+ -dependent manner and play vital roles including actin binding, remodeling and dynamics, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and lipid-raft microdomain formation. However, upon cell exposure to certain stimuli, annexin A2 translocates to the external leaflets of the plasma membrane where annexin A2 was recently reported to serve as a virus receptor, play an important role in the formation of virus replication complex, or implicated in virus assembly and budding. Here, we review some of annexin A2 roles in virus infections and the potentiality of targeting annexin A2 in the design of novel and promising antivirus agent that may have a broader consequence in virus therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism*
  14. Lye HS, Rusul G, Liong MT
    J Dairy Sci, 2010 Apr;93(4):1383-92.
    PMID: 20338415 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2009-2574
    Fifteen strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were screened based on their ability to adhere to hydrocarbons via the determination of cellular hydrophobicity. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, L. acidophilus FTCC 0291, Lactobacillus bulgaricus FTCC 0411, L. bulgaricus FTDC 1311, and L. casei ATCC 393 showed greater hydrophobicity and, thus, were selected for examination of cholesterol-removal properties. All selected strains showed changes in cellular fatty acid compositions, especially total fatty acids and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the presence of cholesterol compared with those grown in the absence of cholesterol. In addition, we found that cells grown in media containing cholesterol were more resistant to sonication and enzymatic lysis compared with those grown without cholesterol. We further evaluated the location of the incorporated cholesterol via the insertion of fluorescence probes into the cellular membrane. In general, enrichment of cholesterol was found in the regions of the phospholipid tails, upper phospholipids, and polar heads of the cellular membrane phospholipid bilayer. Our results also showed that lactobacilli were able to reduce cholesterol via conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol, aided by the ability of strains to produce cholesterol reductase. Our results provided experimental evidence to strengthen the hypothesis that probiotics could remove cholesterol via the incorporation of cholesterol into the cellular membrane and conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol. The strains studied may be potential health adjunct cultures in fermented dairy products with possible in vivo hypocholesterolemic effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism*
  15. Tiong KH, Yiap BC, Tan EL, Ismail R, Ong CE
    Drug Metab. Dispos., 2010 May;38(5):745-51.
    PMID: 20139165 DOI: 10.1124/dmd.109.031054
    Variation in CYP2A6 levels and activity can be attributed to genetic polymorphism and, thus, functional characterization of allelic variants is necessary to define the importance of CYP2A6 polymorphism in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reported alleles CYP2A6*15, CYP2A6*16, CYP2A6*21, and CYP2A6*22, in terms of the functional consequences of their mutations on the enzyme catalytic activity. With use of the wild-type CYP2A6 cDNA as template, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to introduce nucleotide changes encoding K194E substitution in CYP2A6*15, R203S substitution in CYP2A6*16, K476R substitution in CYP2A6*21, and concurrent D158E and L160I substitutions in CYP2A6*22. Upon sequence verification, the CYP2A6 wild-type and mutant constructs were individually coexpressed with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Escherichia coli. A kinetic study using a coumarin 7-hydroxylase assay indicated that CYP2A6*15 exhibited higher V(max) than the wild type, whereas all mutant constructs, except for variant CYP2A6*16, exhibited higher K(m) values. Analysis of the V(max)/K(m) ratio revealed that all mutants demonstrated 0.85- to 1.05-fold differences from the wild type, with the exception of variant CYP2A6*22, which only portrayed 39% of the wild-type intrinsic clearance. These data suggested that individuals carrying the CYP2A6*22 allele are likely to have lower metabolism of CYP2A6 substrate than individuals expressing CYP2A6*15, CYP2A6*16, CYP2A6*21, and the wild type.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  16. Fernando WJ, Othman R
    Math Biosci, 2006 Feb;199(2):175-87.
    PMID: 16387333
    Disinfectants are generally used to inactivate microorganisms in solutions. The process of inactivation involves the disinfectant in the liquid diffusing towards the bacteria sites and thereafter reacting with bacteria at rates determined by the respective reaction rates. Such processes have demonstrated an initial lag phase followed by an active depletion phase of bacteria. This paper attempts to study the importance of the combined effects of diffusion of the disinfectant through the outer membrane of the bacteria and transport through the associated concentration boundary layers (CBLs) during the initial lag phase. Mathematical equations are developed correlating the initial concentration of the disinfectant with time required for reaching a critical concentration (C*) at the inner side of the membrane of the cell based on diffusion of disinfectant through the outer membranes of the bacteria and the formation of concentration boundary layers on both sides of the membranes. Experimental data of the lag phases of inactivation already available in the literature for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores with ozone and monochloramine are tested with the equations. The results seem to be in good agreement with the theoretical equations indicating the importance of diffusion process across the outer cell membranes and the resulting CBL's during the lag phase of disinfection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  17. Haghvirdizadeh P, Mohamed Z, Abdullah NA, Haghvirdizadeh P, Haerian MS, Haerian BS
    J Diabetes Res, 2015;2015:908152.
    PMID: 26448950 DOI: 10.1155/2015/908152
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major worldwide health problem and its prevalence has been rapidly increasing in the last century. It is caused by defects in insulin secretion or insulin action or both, leading to hyperglycemia. Of the various types of DM, type 2 occurs most frequently. Multiple genes and their interactions are involved in the insulin secretion pathway. Insulin secretion is mediated through the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel in pancreatic beta cells. This channel is a heteromeric protein, composed of four inward-rectifier potassium ion channel (Kir6.2) tetramers, which form the pore of the KATP channel, as well as sulfonylurea receptor 1 subunits surrounding the pore. Kir6.2 is encoded by the potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 (KCNJ11) gene, a member of the potassium channel genes. Numerous studies have reported the involvement of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the KCNJ11 gene and their interactions in the susceptibility to DM. This review discusses the current evidence for the contribution of common KCNJ11 genetic variants to the development of DM. Future studies should concentrate on understanding the exact role played by these risk variants in the development of DM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  18. Syva SH, Ampon K, Lasimbang H, Fatimah SS
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2017 02;11(2):311-320.
    PMID: 26073746 DOI: 10.1002/term.2043
    Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (HAMCs) show great differentiation and proliferation potential and also other remarkable features that could serve as an outstanding alternative source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Recent reports have demonstrated various kinds of effective artificial niche that mimic the microenvironment of different types of stem cell to maintain and control their fate and function. The components of the stem cell microenvironment consist mainly of soluble and insoluble factors responsible for regulating stem cell differentiation and self-renewal. Extensive studies have been made on regulating HAMCs differentiation into specific phenotypes; however, the understanding of relevant factors in directing stem cell fate decisions in HAMCs remain underexplored. In this review, we have therefore identified soluble and insoluble factors, including mechanical stimuli and cues from the other supporting cells that are involved in directing HAMCs fate decisions. In order to strengthen the significance of understanding on the relevant factors involved in stem cell fate decisions, recent technologies developed to specifically mimic the microenvironments of specific cell lineages are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  19. Webb CT, Chandrapala D, Oslan SN, Bamert RS, Grinter RD, Dunstan RA, et al.
    Microbiologyopen, 2017 12;6(6).
    PMID: 29055967 DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.513
    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that chronically inhabits the human stomach. To survive and maintain advantage, it has evolved unique host-pathogen interactions mediated by Helicobacter-specific proteins in the bacterial outer membrane. These outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are anchored to the cell surface via a C-terminal β-barrel domain, which requires their assembly by the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM). Here we have assessed the complexity of the OMP C-terminal β-barrel domains employed by H. pylori, and characterized the H. pyloriBAM complex. Around 50 Helicobacter-specific OMPs were assessed with predictive structural algorithms. The data suggest that H. pylori utilizes a unique β-barrel architecture that might constitute H. pylori-specific Type V secretions system. The structural and functional diversity in these proteins is encompassed by their extramembrane domains. Bioinformatic and biochemical characterization suggests that the low β-barrel-complexity requires only minimalist assembly machinery. The H. pylori proteins BamA and BamD associate to form a BAM complex, with features of BamA enabling an oligomerization that might represent a mechanism by which a minimalist BAM complex forms a larger, sophisticated machinery capable of servicing the outer membrane proteome of H. pylori.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism
  20. Yang SK, Yusoff K, Mai CW, Lim WM, Yap WS, Lim SE, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Nov 04;22(11).
    PMID: 29113046 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22111733
    Combinatory therapies have been commonly applied in the clinical setting to tackle multi-drug resistant bacterial infections and these have frequently proven to be effective. Specifically, combinatory therapies resulting in synergistic interactions between antibiotics and adjuvant have been the main focus due to their effectiveness, sidelining the effects of additivity, which also lowers the minimal effective dosage of either antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was undertaken to look at the effects of additivity between essential oils and antibiotic, via the use of cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO) and meropenem as a model for additivity. Comparisons between synergistic and additive interaction of CBO were performed in terms of the ability of CBO to disrupt bacterial membrane, via zeta potential measurement, outer membrane permeability assay and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the additivity interaction between CBO and meropenem showed similar membrane disruption ability when compared to those synergistic combinations which was previously reported. Hence, results based on our studies strongly suggest that additive interaction acts on a par with synergistic interaction. Therefore, further investigation in additive interaction between antibiotics and adjuvant should be performed for a more in depth understanding of the mechanism and the impacts of such interaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Membrane/metabolism*
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