MATERIAL AND METHODS: qRT-PCR and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate mRNA and protein expression of XCR1 and hLtn. Recombinant hLtn variants (wild-type, CC3 and W55D mutant) were designed, expressed, purified and evaluated using proliferation, adhesion and chemotaxis assays. XCR1 and hLtn expression regulation by fibroblasts was determined using indirect co-culture. XCR1 and hLtn expression in primary and metastatic OSCC tissue was assessed using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: hLtn caused a significant decrease in OCCL XCR1 surface protein expression. hLtn CC3 mutant was highly functional facilitating proliferation and migration. Conditioned media from primary cancer-associated and senescent fibroblasts significantly upregulated XCR1 and hLtn mRNA expression in OCCL. Immunohistochemistry revealed higher XCR1 and hLtn expression in metastatic tumour deposits and surrounding stroma compared to primary OSCC tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: The development of hLtn biological mutants, regulation of XCR1 expression by its ligand hLtn and crosstalk with fibroblasts are novel findings suggesting an important role for the XCR1/hLtn axis within the OSCC tumour microenvironment. These discoveries build upon previous studies and suggest that the hLtn/XCR1 axis has a significant role in stromal crosstalk and OSCC progression.
METHODS: Skeletal human muscle cells were cultured in four different conditions; control, EGF, laminin (Lam) and laminin EGF (Lam + EGF). Using live imaging system, their cellular properties; attachment, migration and growth were exposed to Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, and EGF-receptor (EGF-R) inhibitor, gefitinib were measured.
RESULTS: Myoblast migration and proliferation was enhanced significantly by synergistic stimulation of laminin and EGF (0.61 ± 0.14 µm/min, 0.008 ± 0.001 h-1) compare to that by EGF alone (0.26 ± 0.13 µm/min, 0.004 ± 0.0009 h-1). However, no changes in proliferation and migration were observed for fibroblasts among the culture conditions. Inhibition of Rho kinase resulted in the increase of the myoblast migration on the laminin-coated surface with EGF condition (0.64 ± 0.18 µm/min). Compared to the untreated conditions, myoblasts cultured on the laminin-coated surface and EGF demonstrated elongated morphology, and average cell length increase significantly. In contrast, inhibition of EGF-R resulted in the decrease of myoblast migration on the laminin coated surface with EGF supplemented condition (0.43 ± 0.05 µm/min) in comparison to the untreated control (0.53 ± 0.05 µm/min).
CONCLUSION: Laminin and EGF preferentially enhance the proliferation and migration of myoblasts, and Rho kinase and EGF-R play a role in this synergistic effect. These results will be beneficial for the propagation of skeletal muscle cells for clinical applications.
METHODS: The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PTZ and TFP in SW1116, SW480, HCT-15, and COLO205 colon cancer cell lines are measured using MTT. Western blot and immunocytochemistry were used to determine the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 (CD1), and POPDC proteins. Cell migration was observed using a scratch wound-healing assay.
RESULTS: Treatment with PTZ and TFP inhibited colon cancer cells growth in a dose-dependent manner. PTZ and TFP significantly inhibited the activation of proliferation markers, PCNA and CD1, and the migration of colon cancer cells. Furthermore, POPDC protein was significantly suppressed in all cell types of colon cancer, particularly in SW480. Finally, the CaM antagonist upregulates the POPDC1 expression in colon cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CaM antagonists suppress colon cancer cells proliferation via downregulation of CD1 and PCNA. In addition, POPDC protein could be used as a biomarker in colon cancer, and CaM antagonist could be used to regulate POPDC1 expression. This study suggests that targeting POPDC1 with CaM inhibition could be a potential therapeutic strategy for colon cancer treatment.
DESIGN: The role of matrix stiffness in several cancers including oral cancer was reviewed with a tailored search strategy using relevant keywords as per the Medline format. The role of molecular mediators, Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) was weighed in the context of OSF along two distinct pathways.
RESULTS: Increased matrix stiffness activates the transcriptional coactivators, YAP and TAZ shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm. YAP and TAZ, serve as mechanical transducers in promoting cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The hypoxic microenvironment in the advanced stage of OSF promotes the migratory phenotype through mechanical memory.
CONCLUSIONS: Reprogramming of a stiff matrix has the potential to restore the Hippo-YAP/TAZ tumor suppressor pathway and reverse fibrosis-associated tumor development.
METHODS: Cell counting kit 8(CCK8), 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), transwell and wound healing assays were conducted to study the influence of ZnC in the proliferating, invading and migrating processes of CRC cell lines (HCT116, LOVO) in vitro. The antitumor activity ZnC as well as its effects on tumor immune microenvironment were then assessed using CRC subcutaneous tumors in the C57BL/6 mouse model.
RESULTS: According to CCK8, EdU, transwell and wound healing assays, ZnC inhibited CRC cell lines in terms of proliferation, invasion and migration. ZnC could inhibit miR-570 for up-regulating PD-L1 expression. In vivo experiments showed that gavage (100 mg/kg, once every day) of ZnC inhibited the tumor growth of CRC, and the combination of ZnC and anti-PD1 therapy significantly improved the efficacy exhibited by anti-PD1 in treating CRC. In addition, mass cytometry results showed that immunosuppressive cells including regulatory T cells (tregs), bone marrow-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and M2 macrophages decreased whereas CD8+ T cells elevated after adding ZnC.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals that ZnC slows the progression of CRC by inhibiting CRC cells in terms of proliferation, invasion and migration, meanwhile up-regulating PD-L1 expression via inhibiting miR-570. The ZnC-anti-PD1 co-treatment assists in synergically increasing anti-tumor efficacy in CRC therapy.
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