Structure-activity relationships of eleven xanthones were comparatively predicted for four cancer cell lines after the compounds were subjected to antiproliferative assay against B-lymphocyte cells (Raji), colon carcinoma cells (LS174T), human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32) and skin carcinoma cells (SK-MEL-28). The eleven chemical constituents were obtained naturally from the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri. Inophinnin (1) and inophinone (2) were isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum while soulattrin (3) and phylattrin (4) were found from Calophyllum soulattri. The other xanthones were from both Calophyllum sp. and they are pyranojacareubin (5), rheediaxanthone A (6), macluraxanthone (7), 4-hydroxyxanthone (8), caloxanthone C (9), brasixanthone B (10) and trapezifolixanthone (11). Compound 3 was found to be the most cytotoxic towards all the cancer cell lines with an IC50 value of 1.25μg/mL while the simplest xanthone, compound 8 was inactive.
Calcium silicate (CS, CaSiO3 ) is a bioactive, degradable, and biocompatible ceramic and has been considered for its potential in the field of orthopedic surgery. The objective of this study is the fabrication and characterization of the β-CS/poly(1.8-octanediol citrate) (POC) biocomposite, with the goals of controlling its weight loss and improving its biological and mechanical properties. POC is one of the most biocompatible polymers, and it is widely used in biomedical engineering applications. The degradation and bioactivity of the composites were determined by soaking the composites in phosphate-buffered saline and simulated body fluid, respectively. Human osteoblast cells were cultured on the composites to determine their cell proliferation and adhesion. The results illustrated that the flexural and compressive strengths were significantly enhanced by a modification of 40% POC. It was also concluded that the degradation bioactivity and amelioration of cell proliferation increased significantly with an increasing β-CS content.
Multiple separate quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) models were built for the antiproliferative activity of substituted Phenyl 4-(2-Oxoimidazolidin-1-yl)-benzenesulfonates (PIB-SOs). A variety of descriptors were considered for PIB-SOs through QSAR model building. Genetic algorithm (GA), available in QSARINS, was employed to select optimum number and set of descriptors to build the multi-linear regression equations for a dataset of PIB-SOs. The best three parametric models were subjected to thorough internal and external validation along with Y-randomization using QSARINS, according to the OECD principles for QSAR model validation. The models were found to be statistically robust with high external predictivity. The best three parametric model, based on steric, 3D- and finger print descriptors, was found to have R(2)=0.91, R(2)ex=0.89, and CCCex=0.94. The CoMFA model, which is based on a combination of steric and electrostatic effects and graphically inferred using contour plots, gave F=229.34, R(2)CV=0.71 and R(2)=0.94. Steric repulsion, frequency of occurrence of carbon and nitrogen at topological distance of seven, and internal electronic environment of the molecule were found to have correlation with the anti-tumor activity of PIB-SOs.
Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m²) and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h) was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m² increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold), catechin (0.85-fold), kaempferol (0.65-fold) rutin (0.68-fold) and luteolin (1.00-fold) content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid) was observed in the 3.60 W/m² of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h) except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m² of UV-B irradiation. UV-B treated leaves presented the highest DPPH activity and antiproliferative activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56.0 and 40.8 µg/mL, respectively, over that of the control plants (78.0 and 58.2 µg/mL, respectively). These observations suggest that post-harvest irradiation with UV-B can be considered a promising technique to improve the healthy-nutritional and pharmaceutical properties of sweet basil leaves.
A new series of 1-phenyl-3-(4-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)urea derivatives were synthesized and subjected to in vitro antiproliferative screening against National Cancer Institute (NCI)-60 human cancer cell lines of nine different cancer types. Fourteen compounds 5a-n were synthesized with three different solvent exposure moieties (4-hydroxylmethylpiperidinyl and trimethoxyphenyloxy and 4-hydroxyethylpiperazine) attached to the core structure. Substituents with different π and σ values were added on the terminal phenyl group. Compounds 5a-e with a 4-hydroxymethylpiperidine moiety showed broad-spectrum antiproliferative activity with higher mean percentage inhibition values over the 60-cell line panel at 10 µM concentration. Compound 5a elicited lethal rather than inhibition effects on SK-MEL-5 melanoma cell line, 786-0, A498, RXF 393 renal cancer cell lines, and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell line. Two compounds, 5a and 5d showed promising mean growth inhibitions and thus were further tested at five-dose mode to determine median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. The data revealed that urea compounds 5a and 5d are the most active derivatives, with significant efficacies and superior potencies than paclitaxel in 21 different cancer cell lines belonging particularly to renal cancer and melanoma cell lines. Moreover, 5a and 5d had superior potencies than gefitinib in 38 and 34 cancer cell lines, respectively, particularly colon cancer, breast cancer and melanoma cell lines.
Three transition metal derivatives (Zn, Cu, and Ni) of 2-[2-bromoethyliminomethyl]-4-[ethoxymethyl]phenol (L) were synthesized by the reaction of the metal salts with the Schiff base ligand in one pot. In the crystal structure of [Zn(L)Br], the Schiff base ligand binds to the metal center through its phenolate oxygen and imine nitrogen, and adopts a distorted tetrahedral geometry. These compounds were found to inhibit topoisomerase I (topo I) activity, induce DNA cleavage and show DNA binding activity. Moreover, these compounds were found to be cytotoxic towards several cancer cell lines (A2780, MCF-7, HT29, HepG2, A549, PC3, LNCaP) and prevent metastasis of PC3. Collectively, Cu(II) complex 2 shows superior activity relative to its Zn(II) and Ni(II) analogs.
Curcumin has poor in vivo absorption and bioavailability, highlighting a need for new curcumin analogues with better characteristics in these aspects. The aim of this study is to determine the anti-cancer properties of four selected curcumin analogues, on the cytotoxicity, proliferative and apoptotic effects on androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU 145). Initial cytotoxicity screening showed MS17 has the highest cell inhibitory effect, with EC50 values of 4.4 ± 0.3 and 4.1 ± 0.8 µM, followed by MS13 (7.5 ± 0.1 and 7.4 ± 2.6 µM), MS49 (14.5 ± 1.2 and 12.3 ± 2.3 µM) and MS40E (28.0 ± 7.8 and 30.3 ± 1.9 µM) for PC-3 and DU 145 cells, respectively. Time-dependent analysis also revealed that MS13 and MS17 displayed a greater anti-proliferative effect than the other compounds. MS17 was chosen based on the high selectivity index value for further analysis on the morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis. Fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed apoptotic changes in both treated prostate cancer cells. Relative caspase-3 activity increased significantly at 48 h in PC-3 and 12 h in DU 145 cells. Highest enrichment of free nucleosomes was noted at 48 h after treatment with MS17. In conclusion, MS17 demonstrated anti-proliferative effect and induces apoptosis in a time and dose-dependent manner suggesting its potential for development as an anti-cancer agent for androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Cancer nanotherapy is progressing rapidly with the introduction of many innovative drug delivery systems to replace conventional therapy. Although the antitumor activity of zerumbone (ZER) has been reported, there has been no information available on the effect of ZER-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) on murine leukemia cells. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of ZER-NLC on murine leukemia induced with WEHI-3B cells were investigated. The results from 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Hoechst 33342, Annexin V, cell cycle, and caspase activity assays showed that the growth of leukemia cells in vitro was inhibited by ZER-NLC. In addition, outcomes of histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, and Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analyses revealed that the number of leukemia cells in the spleen of BALB/c leukemia mice significantly decreased after 4 weeks of oral treatment with various doses of ZER-NLC. Western blotting and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed the antileukemia effects of ZER-NLC. In conclusion, ZER-NLC was shown to induce a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway in murine leukemia. Loading of ZER in NLC did not compromise the anticancer effect of the compound, suggesting ZER-NLC as a promising and effective delivery system for treatment of cancers.
The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.
A number of novel spiro-pyrrolidines/pyrrolizines derivatives were synthesized through [3+2]-cycloaddition of azomethine ylides with 3,5-bis[(E)-arylmethylidene]tetrahydro-4(1H)-pyridinones 2a-n. Azomethine ylides were generated in situ from the reaction of 1H-indole-2,3-dione (isatin, 3) with N-methylglycine (sarcosine), phenylglycine, or proline. All compounds (50 μM) were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231), leukemia lymphoblastic (CCRF-CEM), and ovarian carcinoma (SK-OV-3) cells. N-α-Phenyl substituted spiro-pyrrolidine derivatives (5a-n) showed higher antiproliferative activity in MDA-MB-231 than other cancer cell lines. Among spiro-pyrrolizines 6a-n, a number of derivatives including 6a-c and 6i-m showed a comparable activity with doxorubicin in all three cell lines. Among all compounds in three classes, 6a, 6b, and 6m, were found to be the most potent derivatives showing 64%, 87%, and 74% antiproliferative activity in MDA-MB-231, SK-OV-3, and CCRF-CEM cells, respectively. Compound 6b showed an IC50 value of 3.6 mM in CCRF-CEM cells. These data suggest the potential antiproliferative activity of spiro-pyrrolidines/pyrrolizines.
The contributing molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of breast cancer need to be better characterized. The principle of our study was to better understand the genetic mechanism of oncogenesis for human breast cancer and to discover new possible tumor markers for use in clinical practice. We used complimentary DNA (cDNA) microarrays to compare gene expression profiles of treated Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) with recombinant bromelain and untreated MCF-7. SpringGene analysis was carried out of differential expression followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), to understand the underlying consequence in developing disease and disorders. We identified 1,102 known genes differentially expressed to a significant degree (p<0.001) changed between the treatment. Within this gene set, 20 genes were significantly changed between treated cells and the control cells with cutoff fold change of more than 1.5. These genes are RNA-binding motif, single-stranded interacting protein 1 (RBMS1), ribosomal protein L29 (RPL29), glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2), C15orf32, Akt3, B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1), C6orf62, C7orf60, kinesin-associated protein 3 (KIFAP3), FBXO11, AT-rich interactive domain 4A (ARID4A), COPS2, TBPL1|SLC2A12, TMEM59, SNORD46, glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 2 (GLTSCR2), and LRRFIP. Our observation on gene expression indicated that recombinant bromelain produces a unique signature affecting different pathways, specific for each congener. The microarray results give a molecular mechanistic insight and functional effects, following recombinant bromelain treatment. The extent of changes in genes is related to and involved significantly in gap junction signaling, amyloid processing, cell cycle regulation by BTG family proteins, and breast cancer regulation by stathmin1 that play major roles.
Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. White tea is made from the buds and young leaves of the tea plant which are steamed and dried, whilst undergoing minimal oxidation. The MTT assay was used to test the extract on the effect of the proliferation of the colorectal cancer cell line, HT-29. The extract inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells with an IC50 of 87μg/ml. The extract increased the levels of caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity in the cells. DNA damage in 3T3-L1 normal cells was detected by using the comet assay. The extract protected 3T3-L1 cells against H2O2-induced DNA damage. The results from this study show that white tea has antioxidant and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells, but protect normal cells against DNA damage. Regular intake of white tea can help to maintain good health and protect the body against disease.
Recent statistics revealed that cancer is one among the main reasons for death throughout the world. Several treatments are available but still there is no cure when it is detected at late stages. One of the treatment modes for cancer is chemotherapy which utilizes anticancer drugs in order to eradicate the cancer cells by apoptosis. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death through which body maintains homeostasis or kills cancer cells by utilizing its cell machinery. Recent researches have concluded that dietary agents have a putative role in instituting apoptosis of cancer cells. Honey, one of the victuals rich in antioxidants, has a long-standing exposure to humans and its role in cancer prevention and treatment is a topic of current interest. Various researchers have been experimenting honey against different cancers and provided valuable insights about the apoptosis induced by the honey. This review will highlight the recent findings of apoptotic mechanism involved in different cancer cells. Further it also reports antitumor activity of honey in some animal models. Hence it is high-time to initiate more preclinical trials as well as clinical experiments which would further add to the knowledge of anticancer nature of honey and also endorse honey as a potential candidate in the war against cancer.
Zerumbone (ZER) is a naturally occurring dietary compound, present in many natural foods consumed today. The compound derived from several plant species of the Zingiberaceae family that has been found to possess multiple biomedical properties, such as antiproliferative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, evidence of efficacy is sparse, pointing to the need for a more systematic review for assessing scientific evidence to support therapeutic claims made for ZER and to identify future research needs. This review provides an updated overview of in vitro and in vivo investigations of ZER, its cancer chemopreventive properties, and mechanisms of action. Therapeutic effects of ZER were found to be scientifically plausible and could be explained partially by in vivo and in vitro pharmacological activities. Much of the research outlined in this paper will serve as a foundation to explain ZER anticancer bioactivity, which will open the door for the development of strategies in the treatment of malignancies using ZER.
Breast cancer is among the most frequent types of cancer in women worldwide. Current conventional treatment options are accompanied by side effects. Mistletoe is amongst the important herbal medicines traditionally used as complementary remedies. An increasing number of studies have reported anticancer activity of mistletoe extracts on breast cancer cells and animal models. Some recent evidence suggests that cytotoxic activity of mistletoe may be mediated through different mechanisms. These findings provide a good base for clinical trials. Various studies on mistletoe therapy for breast cancer patients revealed similar findings concerning possible benefits on survival time, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), remission rate, and alleviating adverse reactions to conventional therapy. This review provides an overview of the recent findings on preclinical experiments and clinical trials of mistletoe for its cytotoxic and antitumor activity and its effect on HRQoL in breast cancer patients. Moreover, studies investigating molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying antitumor activity of mistletoe are discussed in this paper. The analyzed trials provided evidence that there might be a combination of pharmacological and motivational aspects mediated by the mistletoe extract application which may contribute to the clinical benefit and positive outcome such as improved HRQoL and self-regulation in breast cancer patients.
The antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass) extracts were investigated. The extracts were isolated by solvent maceration method and thereafter subjected to antiproliferative activity test on five different cancer cells: human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), breast carcinoma (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231), ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3 and COAV), and a normal liver cell line (WRL 68). The cell viability was determined using MTT assay. The DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed a concentration dependent trend. A maximum percentage inhibition of 45% and an IC50 of 278 μg/mL were observed when aqueous extract was evaluated. In contrast, 48.3% and IC50 of 258.9 μg/mL were observed when 50% ethanolic extract was evaluated. Both extracts at concentration of 50 to 800 μg/mL showed appreciative metal chelating activity with IC50 value of 172.2 ± 31 μg/mL to 456.5 ± 30 μg/mL. Depending on extraction solvent content, extract obtained from 50% ethanolic solvent proved to be more potent on breast cancer MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 68 μg/mL). On the other hand, 90% ethanolic extract showed a moderate potency on the ovarian cancer (COAV) and MCF-7 cells having an IC50 of 104.6 μg/mL each. These results suggested antiproliferative efficacy of C. citratus ethanolic extract against human cancer cell lines.
Aminoanthraquinones were successfully synthesized via two reaction steps. 1,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone (1) was first subjected to methylation, reduction and acylation to give an excellent yield of anthracene-1,4-dione (3), 1,4-dimethoxyanthracene-9,10-dione (5) and 9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-1,4-diyl diacetate (7). Treatment of 1, 3, 5 and 7 with BuNH2 in the presence of PhI(OAc)2 as catalyst produced seven aminoanthraquinone derivatives 1a, b, 3a, and 5a-d. Amination of 3 and 5 afforded three new aminoanthraquinones, namely 2-(butylamino)anthracene-1,4-dione (3a), 2-(butylamino)anthracene-9,10-dione (5a) and 2,3-(dibutylamino)anthracene-9,10-dione (5b). All newly synthesised aminoanthraquinones were examined for their cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive human breast) and Hep-G2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma) cancer cells using MTT assay. Aminoanthraquinones 3a, 5a and 5b exhibited strong cytotoxicity towards both cancer cell lines (IC50 1.1-13.0 µg/mL).
Mushrooms have been used to treat various diseases for thousands of years. In the present study, the effects of Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom on lipogenesis, lipolysis and oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 cells were investigated. The β-glucan-rich polysaccharides (GE) from P. sajor-caju stimulated lipogenesis and lipolysis but attenuated protein carbonyl and lipid hydroperoxide levels in 3T3-L1 cells. This extract caused an increase in the expression of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit γ-2 (PKRAG2) and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit γ-3 (PKRAG3) when compared to control (untreated) cells. Moreover, GE induced the expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose triglyceride lipase enzymes, leptin, adiponectin and glucose transporter-4 in 3T3-L1 cells which may have contributed to the lipolytic and insulin-like activities observed in this study. These findings suggest that GE is a novel AMPK activator that may be valuable in the formulation of nutraceuticals and functional food for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Andrographolide (Andro) is a diterpenoid that is isolated from Andrographis paniculata and reported to be active against several cancer cell lines. However, few in-depth studies have been carried out on its effects on ovarian cancer cell lines alone or in combination with cisplatin (Cis), which is commonly used to treat ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Andro administered alone and in combination with Cis in the ovarian A2780 and A2780(cisR) cancer cell lines using five different sequences of administration (Cis/Andro h): 0/0h, 4/0 h, 0/4 h, 24/0 h and 0/24 h. The results were evaluated in terms of medium-effect dose (Dm) and combination indices (CI) using the CalcuSyn software. Unlike Cis, whose activity was lower in the resistant A2780(cisR) cell line than in the parent A2780 cell line, Andro was found to be three times more active in the A2780(cisR) cell line as compared to that in A2780 cell line. Synergism was observed when Cis and Andro were administered using the sequences 0/4 h and 4/0 h. The percentage of apoptotic cell death was found to be greater for the 0/4 h combination of Andro and Cis as compared to those values from single-drug treatments. The results may be clinically significant if confirmed in vivo.