Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 57 in total

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  1. Meka VS, Gorajana A, Dharmanlingam SR, Kolapalli VR
    Invest Clin, 2013 Dec;54(4):347-59.
    PMID: 24502177
    The aim of the present research was to prepare and evaluate a gastroretentive drug delivery system for metformin HCl, using synthetic and semi-synthetic polymers. The floating approach was applied for preparing gastroretentive tablets (GRT) and these tablets were manufactured by the direct compression method. The drug delivery system comprises of synthetic and semi-synthetic polymers such as polyethylene oxide and Carboxymethyl ethyl cellulose (CMEC) as release-retarding polymers. GRT were evaluated for physico-chemical properties like weight variation, hardness, assay friability, in vitro floating behaviour, swelling studies, in vitro dissolution studies and rate order kinetics. Based upon the drug release and floating properties, two formulations (MP04 & MC03) were selected as optimized formulations. The optimized formulations MP04 and MC03 followed zero order rate kinetics, with non-Fickian diffusion and first order rate kinetics with erosion mechanism, respectively. The optimized formulation was characterised with FTIR studies and it was observed that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  2. Meka VS, Songa AS, Nali SR, Battu JR, Kukati L, Kolapalli VR
    Invest Clin, 2012 Sep;53(3):223-36.
    PMID: 23248967
    The aim of the present investigation was to formulate thermally sintered floating tablets of propranolol HCl, and to study the effect of sintering conditions on drug release, as well as their in vitro buoyancy properties. A hydrophilic polymer, polyethylene oxide, was selected as a sintered polymer to retard the drug release. The formulations were prepared by a direct compression method and were evaluated by in vitro dissolution studies. The results showed that sintering temperature and time of exposure greatly influenced the buoyancy, as well as the dissolution properties. As the sintering temperature and time of exposure increased, floating lag time was found to be decreased, total floating time was increased and drug release was retarded. An optimized sintered formulation (sintering temperature 50 degrees C and time of exposure 4 h) was selected, based on their drug retarding properties. The optimized formulation was characterized with FTIR and DSC studies and no interaction was found between the drug and the polymer used.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  3. Sengupta P, Chatterjee B, Tekade RK
    Int J Pharm, 2018 May 30;543(1-2):328-344.
    PMID: 29635054 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.04.007
    Different regulatory guidelines recommend establishing stability profile of pharmaceuticals at the time of drug development. The expiry date, retesting period and storage conditions of active drugs or products are established through stability analysis. Several regulatory guidelines exist for stability testing of pharmaceuticals. Mostly, ICH stability guidelines are followed in practice. This guideline recommends to validate stability indicating method using forced degradation samples that contains all possible degradation impurities. ICH guidelines provide general recommendations for inclusion of stability indicating parameters in a stability testing protocol. However, those guidelines do not provide specific requirements and experimental methodology to be followed for stability studies. Due to this gap, often confusion arises in the scientific community in designing stability testing protocol. Therefore, significant variations are observed in reported literature in selection of stability indicating parameters. Procedural dissimilarity amongst reported stability studies is also evident. This review discusses the regulatory guidelines and procedures to follow in performing stability testing of pharmaceuticals. Scope of this review also includes recommendations on practical approaches for designing stability testing protocol to fulfill current regulatory requirements for drug substances and their formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  4. Sivakumar M, Tang SY, Tan KW
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2014 Nov;21(6):2069-83.
    PMID: 24755340 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.03.025
    Novel nanoemulsion-based drug delivery systems (DDS) have been proposed as alternative and effective approach for the delivery of various types of poorly water-soluble drugs in the last decade. This nanoformulation strategy significantly improves the cell uptake and bioavailability of numerous hydrophobic drugs by increasing their solubility and dissolution rate, maintaining drug concentration within the therapeutic range by controlling the drug release rate, and reducing systemic side effects by targeting to specific disease site, thus offering a better patient compliance. To date, cavitation technology has emerged to be an energy-efficient and promising technique to generate such nanoscale emulsions encapsulating a variety of highly potent pharmaceutical agents that are water-insoluble. The micro-turbulent implosions of cavitation bubbles tear-off primary giant oily emulsion droplets to nano-scale, spontaneously leading to the formation of highly uniform drug contained nanodroplets. A substantial body of recent literatures in the field of nanoemulsions suggests that cavitation is a facile, cost-reducing yet safer generation tool, remarkably highlighting its industrial commercial viability in the development of designing novel nanocarriers or enhancing the properties of existing pharmaceutical products. In this review, the fundamentals of nanoemulsion and the principles involved in their formation are presented. The underlying mechanisms in the generation of pharmaceutical nanoemulsion under acoustic field as well as the advantages of using cavitation compared to the conventional techniques are also highlighted. This review focuses on recent nanoemulsion-based DDS development and how cavitation through ultrasound and hydrodynamic means is useful to generate the pharmaceutical grade nanoemulsions including the complex double or submicron multiple emulsions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  5. Al-Amiery AA, Musa AY, Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB
    Molecules, 2011 Aug 10;16(8):6833-43.
    PMID: 21832973 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16086833
    New coumarin derivatives, namely 7-[(5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)methoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one, 5-[(2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)methyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2(3H)-one, 2-[2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)acetyl]-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide, 7-[(5-(phenylamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)methoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one and 7-[(5-mercapto-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one were prepared starting from the natural compound umbelliferone. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR).
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  6. Wong TW
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2008 Apr;5(2):77-84.
    PMID: 18393808
    Microwave has received a widespread application in pharmaceuticals and food processing, microbial sterilization, biomedical therapy, scientific and biomedical analysis, as well as, drug synthesis. This paper reviews the basis of application of microwave to prepare pharmaceutical dosage forms such as agglomerates, gel beads, microspheres, nanomatrix, solid dispersion, tablets and film coat. The microwave could induce drying, polymeric crosslinkages as well as drug-polymer interaction, and modify the structure of drug crystallites via its effects of heating and/or electromagnetic field on the dosage forms. The use of microwave opens a new approach to control the physicochemical properties and drug delivery profiles of pharmaceutical dosage forms without the need for excessive heat, lengthy process or toxic reactants. Alternatively, the microwave can be utilized to process excipients prior to their use in the formulation of drug delivery systems. The intended release characteristics of drugs in dosage forms can be met through modifying the physicochemical properties of excipients using the microwave.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  7. Kam TS, Lim KH
    Alkaloids Chem Biol, 2008;66:1-111.
    PMID: 19025097
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  8. Mahesparan VA, Bin Abd Razak FS, Ming LC, Uddin AH, Sarker MZI, Bin LK
    Int J Pharm Compd, 2020 3 21;24(2):148-155.
    PMID: 32196477
    Orodispersible tablets disintegrate rapidly (within 3 minutes) in the oral cavity and release the medicament before swallowing. The mode of disintegrant addition might affect the properties of orodispersible tablets. The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate orodispersible tablets by studying different modes of disintegration addition with varying concentrations of disintegrants. The wet granulation method was used to produce the orodispersible tablets. Two methods of disintegration addition were compared (i.e., intragranular, extragranular). Three disintegrants (i.e., cornstarch, sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone) were used at three levels (5%, 10%, and 15%) in the study. The formulations were tested for the powder flowability (angle of repose) and characterized physically (hardness, weight, thickness, friability, disintegration time). The mangosteen pericarp extract was used as a model active pharmaceutical ingredient to be incorporated into the optimum formulation. It was observed that the extragranular method produced granules with better flowability compared to that of the intragranular method. Crospovidone was found as the most efficient disintegrant among the three. The optimum formulation selected was one with the highest concentration of crospovidone (15%), which showed the fastest disintegration time. The mode of disintegrant addition into the orodispersible tablets formulation was found to show a marked difference in the disintegration, as well as other physical characteristics of the orodispersible tablets where the extragranular mode of addition showed better property, which caused the orodispersible tablets to disintegrate the fastest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  9. Samiun WS, Ashari SE, Salim N, Ahmad S
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2020;15:1585-1594.
    PMID: 32210553 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S198914
    Background: Aripiprazole, which is a quinolinone derivative, has been widely used to treat schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder.

    Purpose: A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used purposely to optimize process parameters conditions for formulating nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole using high emulsification methods.

    Methods: This design is used to investigate the influences of four independent variables (overhead stirring time (A), shear rate (B), shear time (C), and the cycle of high-pressure homogenizer (D)) on the response variable namely, a droplet size (Y) of nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole.

    Results: The optimum conditions suggested by the predicted model were: 120 min of overhead stirring time, 15 min of high shear homogenizer time, 4400 rpm of high shear homogenizer rate and 11 cycles of high-pressure homogenizer, giving a desirable droplet size of nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole of 64.52 nm for experimental value and 62.59 nm for predicted value. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed the quadratic polynomial fitted the experimental values with F-value (9.53), a low p-value (0.0003) and a non-significant lack of-fit. It proved that the models were adequate to predict the relevance response. The optimized formulation with a viscosity value of 3.72 mPa.s and pH value of 7.4 showed good osmolality value (297 mOsm/kg) and remained stable for three months in three different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 45°C).

    Conclusion: This proven that response surface methodology is an efficient tool to produce desirable droplet size of nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole for parenteral delivery application.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  10. Anuar MS, Briscoe BJ
    Int J Pharm, 2010 Mar 15;387(1-2):42-7.
    PMID: 19963050 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.11.031
    The predilection of a bi-layered tablet to fail in the interface region after its initial formation in the compaction process reduces its practicality as a choice for controlled release solid drug delivery system. Hence, a fundamental appreciation of the governing mechanism that causes the weakening of the interfacial bonds within the bi-layered tablet is crucial in order to improve the overall bi-layered tablet mechanical integrity. This work has shown that the occurrence of the elastic relaxation in the interface region during the ejection stage of the compaction process decreases with the increase in the bi-layered tablet interface strength. This is believed to be due to the increase in the plastic bonding in the interface region. The tablet diametrical elastic relaxation affects the tablet height elastic relaxation, where the impediment of the tablet height expansion is observed when the interface region experiences a diametrical expansion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  11. A VBR, Yusop Z, Jaafar J, Aris AB, Majid ZA, Umar K, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2016 Sep 05;128:141-148.
    PMID: 27262107 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.05.026
    In this study a sensitive and selective gradient reverse phase UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six process related impurities viz., Imp-I, Imp-II, Imp-III, Imp-IV, Imp-V and Imp-VI in darunavir. The chromatographic separation was performed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) column using gradient elution of acetonitrile-methanol (80:20, v/v) and 5.0mM ammonium acetate containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Both negative and positive electrospray ionization (ESI) modes were operated simultaneously using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for the quantification of all six impurities in darunavir. The developed method was fully validated following ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision, robustness and sample solution stability. The method was able to quantitate Imp-I, Imp-IV, Imp-V at 0.3ppm and Imp-II, Imp-III, and Imp-VI at 0.2ppm with respect to 5.0mg/mL of darunavir. The calibration curves showed good linearity over the concentration range of LOQ to 250% for all six impurities. The correlation coefficient obtained was >0.9989 in all the cases. The accuracy of the method lies between 89.90% and 104.60% for all six impurities. Finally, the method has been successfully applied for three formulation batches of darunavir to determine the above mentioned impurities, however no impurity was found beyond the LOQ. This method is a good quality control tool for the trace level quantification of six process related impurities in darunavir during its synthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  12. Wong TW, Dhanawat M, Rathbone MJ
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2014 Sep;11(9):1419-34.
    PMID: 24960192 DOI: 10.1517/17425247.2014.924499
    Vaginal infection is widespread and > 80% of females encounter such infections during their lives. Topical treatment and prevention of vaginal infection allows direct therapeutic action, reduced drug doses and adverse effects, convenient administration and improved compliance. The advent of nanotechnology results in the use of nanoparticulate vehicle to control drug release, to enhance dosage form mucoadhesive properties and vaginal retention, and to promote mucus and epithelium permeation for both extracellular and intracellular drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
  13. Lim FP, Dolzhenko AV
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Oct 6;85:371-90.
    PMID: 25105925 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.07.112
    Purines can be considered as the most ubiquitous and functional N-heterocyclic compounds in nature. Structural modifications of natural purines, particularly using isosteric ring systems, have been in the focus of many drug discovery programs. Fusion of 1,3,5-triazine ring with pyrrole, pyrazole, imidazole, 1,2,3-triazole or 1,2,4-triazole results in seven bicyclic heterocyclic systems isosteric to purine. Application of the isosterism concept for the development of new compounds with therapeutic potential in areas involving purinergic regulation or purine metabolism led to significant advances in medicinal chemistry of the azolo[1,3,5]triazines. These 1,3,5-triazine-based purine-like scaffolds significantly increase level of molecular diversity and allow covering chemical space in the important areas of medicinal chemistry. Some of these azolo[1,3,5]triazine systems have become privileged scaffolds in the development of inhibitors of various kinases, phosphodiesterase, xanthine oxidase, and thymidine phosphorylase, antagonists of adenosine and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors, anticancer and antiviral agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  14. Ahmad A, Othman I, Md Zain AZ, Chowdhury EH
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2015;12(2):210-22.
    PMID: 22452407
    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease accompanied by a multitude of problems worldwide with subcutaneously administered insulin being the most common therapy currently. Controlledrelease insulin is assumed to be of high importance for long-term glycaemic control by reducing the number of daily injections. Long-acting insulin also mimics the basal insulin levels in normal individuals that may be lacking in diabetic patients. Nanoparticles of carbonate apatite as established for efficient intracellular transport of DNA and siRNA have the potential to be used for sustained release of insulin as responsive nano-carriers. The flexibility in the synthesis of the particles over a wide range of pHs with eventual adjustment of pH-dependent particle dissolution and the manageable variability of particle-integrity by incorporating selective ions into the apatite structure are the promising features that could help in the development of sustained release formulations for insulin. In particular strontium-incorporated carbonate apatite particles were formulated and compared with those of unsubstituted apatite in the context of insulin binding and subsequent release kinetics in DMEM, simulated buffer and finally human blood over a period of 20 hours. Clearly, the former demonstated to have a stronger electrostatic affinity towards the acidic insulin molecules and facilitate to some extent sustained release of insulin by preventing the initial burst effect at physiological pH in comparison with the latter. Thus, our findings suggest that optimization of the carbonate apatite particle composition and structure would serve to design an ideal insulin nano-carrier with a controlled release profile.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  15. Tang SY, Manickam S, Wei TK, Nashiru B
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2012 Mar;19(2):330-45.
    PMID: 21835676 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2011.07.001
    In the present study, response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the influence of main emulsion composition variables, namely drug loading, oil content, emulsifier content as well as the effect of the ultrasonic operating parameters such as pre-mixing time, ultrasonic amplitude, and irradiation time on the properties of aspirin-loaded nanoemulsions. The two main emulsion properties studied as response variables were: mean droplet size and polydispersity index. The ultimate goal of the present work was to determine the optimum level of the six independent variables in which an optimal aspirin nanoemulsion with desirable properties could be produced. The response surface analysis results clearly showed that the variability of two responses could be depicted as a linear function of the content of main emulsion compositions and ultrasonic processing variables. In the present investigation, it is evidently shown that ultrasound cavitation is a powerful yet promising approach in the controlled production of aspirin nanoemulsions with smaller average droplet size in a range of 200-300 nm and with a polydispersity index (PDI) of about 0.30. This study proved that the use of low frequency ultrasound is of considerable importance in the controlled production of pharmaceutical nanoemulsions in the drug delivery system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  16. Elbashir AA, Suliman FE, Saad B, Aboul-Enein HY
    Talanta, 2009 Feb 15;77(4):1388-93.
    PMID: 19084654 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2008.09.029
    A capillary electrophoretic method for the separation of the aminoglutethimide (AGT) enantiomers using methylated-beta-cyclodextrin (M-beta-CD) as chiral selector is described. Several parameters affecting the separation were studied, including the type and concentration of chiral selector, buffer pH, voltage and temperature. Good chiral separation of the racemic mixture was achieved in less than 9 min with resolution factor Rs=2.1, using a fused-silica capillary and a background electrolyte (BGE) of tris-phosphate buffer solution (50 mmol L(-1), pH 3.0) containing 30 mgm L(-1) of M-beta-CD. The separation was carried out in normal polarity mode at 25 degrees C, 16 kV and using hydrostatic injection. Acceptable validation criteria for selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy/recovery were included. The proposed method was successfully applied to the assay of AGT enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulations. The computational calculations for the inclusion complexes of the R- and S-AGT-M-beta-CD rationalized the reasons for the different migration times between the AGT enantiomers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  17. Abdulbaqi IM, Darwis Y, Khan NA, Assi RA, Khan AA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2016;11:2279-304.
    PMID: 27307730 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S105016
    Ethosomal systems are novel lipid vesicular carriers containing a relatively high percentage of ethanol. These nanocarriers are especially designed for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. Ethosomes have undergone extensive research since they were invented in 1996; new compounds were added to their initial formula, which led to the production of new types of ethosomal systems. Different preparation techniques are used in the preparation of these novel carriers. For ease of application and stability, ethosomal dispersions are incorporated into gels, patches, and creams. Highly diverse in vivo models are used to evaluate their efficacy in dermal/transdermal delivery, in addition to clinical trials. This article provides a detailed review of the ethosomal systems and categorizes them on the basis of their constituents to classical ethosomes, binary ethosomes, and transethosomes. The differences among these systems are discussed from several perspectives, including the formulation, size, ζ-potential (zeta potential), entrapment efficiency, skin-permeation properties, and stability. This paper gives a detailed review on the effects of ethosomal system constituents, preparation methods, and their significant roles in determining the final properties of these nanocarriers. Furthermore, the novel pharmaceutical dosage forms of ethosomal gels, patches, and creams are highlighted. The article also provides detailed information regarding the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted for the evaluation of these vesicular systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  18. Peh KK, Lim CP, Quek SS, Khoh KH
    Pharm. Res., 2000 Nov;17(11):1384-8.
    PMID: 11205731
    PURPOSE: To use artificial neural networks for predicting dissolution profiles of matrix-controlled release theophylline pellet preparation, and to evaluate the network performance by comparing the predicted dissolution profiles with those obtained from physical experiments using similarity factor.

    METHODS: The Multi-Layered Perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to predict the dissolution profiles of theophylline pellets containing different ratios of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and glyceryl monostearate (GMS). The concepts of leave-one-out as well as a time-point by time-point estimation basis were used to predict the rate of drug release for each matrix ratio. All the data were used for training, except for one set which was selected to compare with the predicted output. The closeness between the predicted and the reference dissolution profiles was investigated using similarity factor (f2).

    RESULTS: The f2 values were all above 60, indicating that the predicted dissolution profiles were closely similar to the dissolution profiles obtained from physical experiments.

    CONCLUSION: The MLP network could be used as a model for predicting the dissolution profiles of matrix-controlled release theophylline pellet preparation in product development.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  19. Virk NA, Rehman A, Abbasi MA, Siddiqui SZ, Rashid U, Iqbal J, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2018 Jul;31(4(Supplementary)):1501-1510.
    PMID: 30058542
    N-(Substituted)-5-(1-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio) acetamide were synthesized by following conventional as well as microwave assisted protocol through five consecutive steps under the impact of various reaction conditions to control the reaction time and the yield of product. Starting from 4-methoxybenzenesulfonyl chloride and ethyl isonipecotate, product 3 was obtained which was converted into product 4 by treating with hydrazine hydrate. In step 3, the product 4 was refluxed with methyl isothiocyanate and KOH to yield compound 5 which was finally treated with variety of N-substituted acetamides to yield an array of different new compounds (8a-k). These synthesized compounds were evaluated for their inhibition potential against bovine carbonic anhydrase (bCA-II), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. Compound 8g demonstrated good activity against bCA-II, AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 8.69 ± 0.38 μM, 11.87±0.19 μM and 26.01±0.55 μM respectively. SAR studies assisted with molecular docking were carried out to explore the mode of binding of the compounds against the studied enzymes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
  20. Singh I, Nair RS, Gan S, Cheong V, Morris A
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2019 Apr;24(4):448-454.
    PMID: 30084268 DOI: 10.1080/10837450.2018.1509347
    The drawbacks associated with chemical skin permeation enhancers such as skin irritation and toxicity necessitated the research to focus on potential permeation enhancers with a perceived lower toxicity. Crude palm oil (CPO) is obtained by direct compression of the mesocarp of the fruit of the oil palm belonging to the genus Elaeis. In this research, CPO and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil were evaluated for the first time as skin permeation enhancers using full-thickness human skin. The in vitro permeation experiments were conducted using excised human skin mounted in static upright 'Franz-type' diffusion cells. The drugs selected to evaluate the enhancing effects of these palm oil derivatives were 5-fluorouracil, lidocaine and ibuprofen: compounds covering a wide range of Log p values. It was demonstrated that CPO and TRF were capable of enhancing the percutaneous permeation of drugs across full-thickness human skin in vitro. Both TRF and CPO were shown to significantly enhance the permeation of ibuprofen with flux values of 30.6 µg/cm2 h and 23.0 µg/cm2 h respectively, compared to the control with a flux of 16.2 µg/cm2 h. The outcome of this research opens further scope for investigation on the transdermal penetration enhancement activity of pure compounds derived from palm oil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods*
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