OBJECTIVE: The primary study objective was to evaluate the postprandial fate of tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol in human plasma and lipoproteins.
DESIGN: Seven healthy volunteers (4 males, 3 females) were administered a single dose of vitamin E [1011 mg palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) or 1074 mg alpha-tocopherol] after a 7-d conditioning period with a tocotrienol-free diet. Blood was sampled at baseline (fasted) and 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 24 h after supplementation. Concentrations of tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers in plasma, triacylglycerol-rich particles (TRPs), LDLs, and HDLs were measured at each interval.
RESULTS: After intervention with TRF, plasma tocotrienols peaked at 4 h (4.79 +/- 1.2 microg/mL), whereas alpha-tocopherol peaked at 6 h (13.46 +/- 1.68 microg/mL). Although tocotrienols were similarly detected in TRPs, LDLs, and HDLs, tocotrienol concentrations were significantly lower than alpha-tocopherol concentrations. In comparison, plasma alpha-tocopherol peaked at 8 h (24.3 +/- 5.22 microg/mL) during the alpha-tocopherol treatment and emerged as the major vitamin E isomer detected in plasma and lipoproteins during both the TRF and the alpha-tocopherol treatments.
CONCLUSIONS: Tocotrienols are detected in postprandial plasma, albeit in significantly lower concentrations than is alpha-tocopherol. This finding confirms previous observations that, in the fasted state, tocotrienols are not detected in plasma. Tocotrienol transport in lipoproteins appears to follow complex biochemically mediated pathways within the lipoprotein cascade.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study within the baseline data from the impact evaluation of the Enhanced Primary Health Care (EnPHC) intervention on 40 public clinics in Malaysia. Patients aged 30 and above, diagnosed with T2D, had a clinic visit for T2D between 01 Nov 2016 and 30 April 2017 and had at least one HbA1c, SBP and LDL-C measurement within 1 year from the date of visit were included for analysis. Multilevel linear regression adjusting for patient and clinic characteristics was used to quantify variation at the clinic and patient levels for each outcome.
RESULTS: Variation in intermediate clinical outcomes in T2D lies predominantly (93% and above) at the patient level. The strongest predictors for poor disease control in T2D were the proxy measures for disease severity including duration of diabetes, presence of microvascular complications, being on insulin therapy and number of antihypertensives. Among the three outcomes, HbA1c and LDL-C results provide greatest opportunity for improvement.
CONCLUSION: Clinic variation in HbA1c, SBP and LDL-C accounts for a small percentage from total variation. Findings from this study suggest that standardised interventions need to be applied across all clinics, with a focus on customizing therapy based on individual patient characteristics.
OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare the concentrations of biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress in subjects with low HDL-c compared to normal HDL-c; (2) To examine the association and correlation between HDL-c and these biomarkers and (3) To determine whether HDL-c is an independent predictor of these biomarkers.
METHODS: 422 subjects (mean age±SD = 43.2±11.9 years) of whom 207 had low HDL-c concentrations (HDL-c <1.0 mmol/L and <1.3 mmol/L for males and females respectively) and 215 normal controls (HDL-c ≥1.0 and ≥1.3 mmol/L for males and females respectively) were recruited in this study. The groups were matched for age, gender, ethnicity, smoking status, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Fasting blood samples were collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6)], endothelial activation [soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin)] and oxidative stress [F2-Isoprostanes, oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and Malondialdehyde (MDA)].
RESULTS: Subjects with low HDL-c had greater concentrations of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress biomarkers compared to controls. There were negative correlations between HDL-c concentration and biomarkers of inflammation (IL-6, p = 0.02), endothelial activation (sVCAM-1 and E-selectin, p = 0.029 and 0.002, respectively), and oxidative stress (MDA and F2-isoprostane, p = 0.036 and <0.0001, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis showed HDL-c as an independent predictor of IL-6 (p = 0.02) and sVCAM-1 (p<0.03) after correcting for various confounding factors.
CONCLUSION: Low serum HDL-c concentration is strongly correlated with enhanced status of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress. It is also an independent predictor for enhanced inflammation and endothelial activation, which are pivotal in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related complications.
OBJECTIVE: To examine treatment patterns, goal attainment, and factors influencing treatment among patients in 6 Asian countries who were taking statins.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in China, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, where 437 physicians (41% cardiologists) recruited adults with hypercholesterolemia newly initiated on statin monotherapy.
RESULTS: Of 2622 patients meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria, approximately 66% had coronary heart disease (CHD)/diabetes mellitus, 24% had no CHD but > or =2 risk factors, and 10% had no CHD and <2 risk factors. Most patients ( approximately 90%) received statins at medium or lower equipotency doses. Across all cardiovascular risk categories, 48% of patients attained ATP III targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), including 38% of those with CHD/diabetes (goal: <100 mg/dL), 62% of those without CHD but with > or =2 risk factors (goal: <130 mg/dL), and 81% of those without CHD and <2 risk factors (goal: <160 mg/dL). Most patients who achieved goals did so within the first 3 months. Increasing age (odds ratio (OR)=1.015 per 1-year increment; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.005-1.206; p=0.0038) and initial statin potency (OR=2.253; 95% CI=1.364-3.722; p=0.0015) were directly associated with goal attainment, whereas increased cardiovascular risk (OR=0.085; 95% CI=0.053-0.134; p<0.0001 for CHD/diabetes mellitus at baseline compared with <2 risk factors,) and baseline LDL-C (OR=0.990; 95% CI=0.987-0.993); p<0.0001 per 1-mg/dL increment) were inversely associated with LDL-C goal achievement. Limitations of this study include potential differences in treatment settings and cardiovascular risk factors between different countries and centers. In addition, the effects on cholesterol goal achievement of concomitant changes in lifestyle were not assessed.
CONCLUSION: LDL-C goal attainment is low in Asians, particularly those with CHD/diabetes. More effective patient monitoring, treatments, including combining regimens and dose titration, and adherence to these treatments along with therapeutic lifestyle counseling may facilitate goal attainment.