Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 202 in total

  1. Capon A, Siri J
    Cad Saude Publica, 2015 Nov;31 Suppl 1:21-2; discussion 22-3.
    PMID: 26648359 DOI: 10.1590/0102-311XCO06S115
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities*
  2. Husain K, Awang A, Kamel N, Aïssa S
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 Mar 12;19(5).
    PMID: 30871001 DOI: 10.3390/s19051242
    Remote monitoring applications in urban vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) enable authorities to monitor data related to various activities of a moving vehicle from a static infrastructure. However, urban environment constraints along with various characteristics of remote monitoring applications give rise to significant hurdles while developing routing solutions in urban VANETs. Since the urban environment comprises several road intersections, using their geographic information can greatly assist in achieving efficient and reliable routing. With an aim to leverage this information, this article presents a receiver-based data forwarding protocol, termed Intersection-based Link-adaptive Beaconless Forwarding for City scenarios (ILBFC). ILBFC uses the position information of road intersections to effectively limit the duration for which a relay vehicle can stay as a default forwarder. In addition, a winner relay management scheme is employed to consider the drastic speed decay in vehicles. Furthermore, ILBFC is simulated in realistic urban traffic conditions, and its performance is compared with other existing state-of-the-art routing protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and packet redundancy coefficient. In particular, the results highlight the superior performance of ILBFC, thereby offering an efficient and reliable routing solution for remote monitoring applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  3. Ayub Q, Ngadi A, Rashid S, Habib HA
    PLoS One, 2018;13(2):e0191580.
    PMID: 29438438 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191580
    Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) multi-copy routing protocols are privileged to create and transmit multiple copies of each message that causes congestion and some messages are dropped. This process is known as reactive drop because messages were dropped re-actively to overcome buffer overflows. The existing reactive buffer management policies apply a single metric to drop source, relay and destine messages. Hereby, selection to drop a message is dubious because each message as source, relay or destine may have consumed dissimilar magnitude of network resources. Similarly, DTN has included time to live (ttl) parameter which defines lifetime of message. Hence, when ttl expires then message is automatically destroyed from relay nodes. However, time-to-live (ttl) is not applicable on messages reached at their destinations. Moreover, nodes keep replicating messages till ttl expires even-though large number of messages has already been dispersed. In this paper, we have proposed Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy (PQB-R) for DTN under City Based Environments. The PQB-R classifies buffered messages into source, relay and destine queues. Moreover, separate drop metric has been applied on individual queue. The experiment results prove that proposed PQB-R has reduced number of messages transmissions, message drop and increases delivery ratio.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities*
  4. Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah, Shamsiah Abdul Rahman, Abdul Khalik Wood
    Atmospheric Pollution due to airborne particle is a major concern to many cities in the Southeast Asian region, including Kuala Lumpur. Within the last six years air particulate samples have been collected from a site in Kuala Lumpur and measured for their PM10, PM2.5 and elemental concentrations. The results showed that the daily PM10 (
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  5. Zhen L, Zhang ZW, Wang YJ, Wang PC, Xu YR, Zhou ZX
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1495-1501.
    Relationship between understory plant diversity and anthropogenic disturbances in urban forests of Wuhan City, Central China, was analyzed by diversity analysis and detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA). The results showed that: understory species diversity was higher in suburban area than in urban area. From forest center to edge, species diversity of Luojia hill, Shizi hill and Maan hill forests gradually increased, however, that of Hong hill gradually decreased. Anthropogenic disturbances gradient resulted from visitors flowrate, shrub coverage, aspect and adjacent land types had significant effects on species diversity of shrub and herb layers in urban forests. High anthropogenic disturbances might increase similar non-native herb species in urban area and low disturbances might promote co-existence of wood species in suburban area. Further analysis on types of anthropogenic disturbances and plant functional groups in urban-suburban gradient should be taken into a consideration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
    This research explores the issue of local management system governing the heritage preservation in UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) Stadthuys, Melaka. Thus far, there is no clearly defined value of cultural heritage that justifies the benefits of preserving cultural heritage as a tourism product and as a sustainable heritage site. Most studies have proven that visitors in general are less interested in visiting cultural heritage sites due to the lack of information available there. Another issue identified in the recent research on cultural heritage assessment is the lack of empirical references on the economic valuation of cultural heritage preservation. This study used contingent valuation method (CVM) and questionnaire for data collection. Four sets of questionnaires were designed and distributed to a total of 100 respondents consisting of local community and domestic tourists. On average, respondents are willing to pay RM8.82, in which this value is higher than the current fee, RM5.00, showing that visitors have the awareness to value cultural heritage through preservation in Stadthuys, Melaka, WHS. Finally, this research has established a framework to be considered by the management regarding the WTP value of the cultural heritage in order to create a more sustainable Melaka Historical City.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  7. Lee SW, Xue K
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Nov;28(44):63346-63358.
    PMID: 34224094 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-15235-0
    Sustainable urban development has been a popular subject in urban studies and related disciplines. Owing to the challenges faced by cities worldwide to accommodate the growing urban populations, it is becoming ever more important for innovative research on sustainable urban development to be performed to help cities achieve sustainability. This study develops and tests an integrated approach to sustainable city assessment, which is a combination of importance-performance analysis (IPA) and modified analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Questionnaires designed following the IPA concept were distributed to residents of three cities. The importance scores from the collected data were factorized and the factors' relative scores were then calculated using a formula developed in this study to represent pairwise comparisons. The derived criteria weights were applied to the performance scores to evaluate the cities' relative overall sustainability performance. This approach replaces the AHP's 1-9 scale with the IPA's importance rating scale, which is a Likert scale, in the questionnaire. Based on the findings, implications and future research suggestions were provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  8. Sing KW, Dong H, Wang WZ, Wilson JJ
    Genome, 2016 Sep;59(9):751-61.
    PMID: 27314400 DOI: 10.1139/gen-2015-0192
    During 30 years of unprecedented urbanization, plant diversity in Shenzhen, a young megacity in southern China, has increased dramatically. Although strongly associated with plant diversity, butterfly diversity generally declines with urbanization, but this has not been investigated in Shenzhen. Considering the speed of urbanization in Shenzhen and the large number of city parks, we investigated butterfly diversity in Shenzhen parks. We measured butterfly species richness in four microhabitats (groves, hedges, flowerbeds, and unmanaged areas) across 10 parks and examined the relationship with three park variables: park age, park size, and distance from the central business district. Butterflies were identified based on wing morphology and DNA barcoding. We collected 1933 butterflies belonging to 74 species from six families; 20% of the species were considered rare. Butterfly species richness showed weak negative correlations with park age and distance from the central business district, but the positive correlation with park size was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Among microhabitat types, highest species richness was recorded in unmanaged areas. Our findings are consistent with others in suggesting that to promote urban butterfly diversity it is necessary to make parks as large as possible and to set aside areas for limited management. In comparison to neighbouring cities, Shenzhen parks have high butterfly diversity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities*
  9. Murad MW, Siwar C
    Waste Manag Res, 2007 Feb;25(1):3-13.
    PMID: 17346002
    This study assesses waste management and recycling practices of the urban poor households residing as squatters and in low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. To attain the objective, the study employed some statistical techniques such as t-tests of equality of means, one-way analysis of variance, chi-squared 'likelihood ratio' tests, and simple descriptive statistics. The statistical techniques were used to determine and analyse the factors that significantly influence the environmental behaviour of the urban poor concerning solid waste management, particularly their recycling practices. The findings of the study show that the urban poor and low-income communities have been proved to behave in ways that are consistent with and conducive to environmentally friendly solid waste management. This study provides evidence that the urban poor and low-income communities are the main recyclers, re-users, and source-reducers of their household solid waste. The study, however, suggests that policies should be formulated to focus on promoting knowledge, education, and the skills of the urban poor and, in addition, to empower them as a means of improving their quality of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities*
  10. Chapman R, Howden-Chapman P, Capon A
    Environ Int, 2016 Sep;94:380-387.
    PMID: 27126780 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.04.014
    Understanding cities comprehensively as systems is a costly challenge and is typically not feasible for policy makers. Nevertheless, focusing on some key systemic characteristics of cities can give useful insights for policy to advance health and well-being outcomes. Moreover, if we take a coevolutionary systems view of cities, some conventional assumptions about the nature of urban development (e.g. the growth in private vehicle use with income) may not stand up. We illustrate this by examining the coevolution of urban transport and land use systems, and institutional change, giving examples of policy implications. At a high level, our concern derives from the need to better understand the dynamics of urban change, and its implications for health and well-being. At a practical level, we see opportunities to use stylised findings about urban systems to underpin policy experiments. While it is now not uncommon to view cities as systems, policy makers appear to have made little use so far of a systems approach to inform choice of policies with consequences for health and well-being. System insights can be applied to intelligently anticipate change - for example, as cities are subjected to increasing natural system reactions to climate change, they must find ways to mitigate and adapt to it. Secondly, systems insights around policy cobenefits are vital for better informing horizontal policy integration. Lastly, an implication of system complexity is that rather than seeking detailed, 'full' knowledge about urban issues and policies, cities would be well advised to engage in policy experimentation to address increasingly urgent health and climate change issues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities*
  11. Yap HT, Ngien SK
    Water Sci Technol, 2017 Dec;76(11-12):2918-2927.
    PMID: 29210679 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2017.463
    Inflow and infiltration are important aspects of sewerage systems that need to be considered during the design stage and constantly monitored once the sewerage system is in operation. The aim of this research is to analyse the relationship of rainfall as well as inflow infiltration with sewage flow patterns through data collected from fieldwork. Three sewer pipelines were selected at the residential areas of Taman Lepar Hilir Saujana, Bandar Putra and Kota Sas for data collection. Sewage flow data were collected in terms of flowrate, velocity and depth of flow using flowmeters with ultrasonic sensors that utilize the continuous Doppler effect in the sewer pipelines, while rainfall intensity data were collected using rain gauges installed at the study locations. Based on the result, the average infiltration rates of Qpeak and Qave for the locations were 17% and 21%, which exceeded the respective values of 5% and 10% stated in Hammer and Hammer. The flowrate of wastewater in the sewer pipelines was found to be directly proportional to rainfall. These findings indicate that the sewer pipelines in the study areas may have been affected by capacity reduction, whereas the sewerage treatment plants receiving the wastewater influent may have been overloaded.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities*
  12. Wong LP, Alias H, Aghamohammadi N, Aghazadeh S, Nik Sulaiman NM
    Biomed Environ Sci, 2018 Jul;31(7):545-550.
    PMID: 30145991 DOI: 10.3967/bes2018.074
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities*
  13. He Z, Chin Y, Yu S, Huang J, Zhang CJP, Zhu K, et al.
    JMIR Public Health Surveill, 2021 01 25;7(1):e20495.
    PMID: 33232262 DOI: 10.2196/20495
    BACKGROUND: The influence of meteorological factors on the transmission and spread of COVID-19 is of interest and has not been investigated.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the associations between meteorological factors and the daily number of new cases of COVID-19 in 9 Asian cities.

    METHODS: Pearson correlation and generalized additive modeling (GAM) were performed to assess the relationships between daily new COVID-19 cases and meteorological factors (daily average temperature and relative humidity) with the most updated data currently available.

    RESULTS: The Pearson correlation showed that daily new confirmed cases of COVID-19 were more correlated with the average temperature than with relative humidity. Daily new confirmed cases were negatively correlated with the average temperature in Beijing (r=-0.565, P

    Matched MeSH terms: Cities/epidemiology
  14. Yang J, Siri JG, Remais JV, Cheng Q, Zhang H, Chan KKY, et al.
    Lancet, 2018 05 26;391(10135):2140-2184.
    PMID: 29678340 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30486-0
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities*
  15. Bong CP, Goh RKY, Lim JS, Ho WS, Lee CT, Hashim H, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2017 Dec 01;203(Pt 2):679-687.
    PMID: 27267145 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.05.033
    Rapid population growth and urbanisation have generated large amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many cities. Up to 40-60% of Malaysia's MSW is reported to be food waste where such waste is highly putrescible and can cause bad odour and public health issue if its disposal is delayed. In this study, the implementation of community composting in a village within Iskandar Malaysia is presented as a case study to showcase effective MSW management and mitigation of GHG emission. The selected village, Felda Taib Andak (FTA), is located within a palm oil plantation and a crude palm oil processing mill. This project showcases a community-composting prototype to compost food and oil palm wastes into high quality compost. The objective of this article is to highlight the economic and environment impacts of a community-based composting project to the key stakeholders in the community, including residents, oil palm plantation owners and palm oil mill operators by comparing three different scenarios, through a life cycle approach, in terms of the greenhouse gas emission and cost benefit analysis. First scenario is the baseline case, where all the domestic waste is sent to landfill site. In the second scenario, a small-scale centralised composting project was implemented. In the third scenario, the data obtained from Scenario 2 was used to do a projection on the GHG emission and costing analysis for a pilot-scale centralised composting plant. The study showed a reduction potential of 71.64% on GHG emission through the diversion of food waste from landfill, compost utilisation and significant revenue from the compost sale in Scenario 3. This thus provided better insight into the feasibility and desirability in implementing a pilot-scale centralised composting plant for a sub-urban community in Malaysia to achieve a low carbon and self-sustainable society, in terms of environment and economic aspects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  16. Aziz NA, Daly E, Allen S, Rowson B, Greig C, Forman D, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016;9:56.
    PMID: 26830203 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1338-3
    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a highly pathogenic metastrongylid nematode affecting dogs, which uses gastropod molluscs as intermediate hosts. The geographical distribution of the parasite appears to be heterogeneous or patchy and understanding of the factors underlying this heterogeneity is limited. In this study, we compared the species of gastropod present and the prevalence of A. vasorum along a rural-urban gradient in two cities in the south-west United Kingdom.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  17. Koh HL, Lim PE
    Environ Monit Assess, 1991 Oct;19(1-3):373-82.
    PMID: 24233954 DOI: 10.1007/BF00401326
    Georgetown of Penang, an old city, is noted for its narrow streets. The existing traffic dispersal system is utterly inadequate to cope with the ever increasing number of cars and motorcycles on the road. The principal objective of this study is to build prediction models of CO to be employed as one of the planning tools in the future design of Penang urban traffic dispersal system. This study involves the monitoring of kerbside CO levels at selected sites and the fitting of hourly-averaged CO data to linear regression models incorporating the residual effect of CO emission due to traffic in the earlier periods and also different categories of vehicles. The best overall regression model appears to be the one based upon the total traffic count of motorcycles. This can be accounted for by the fact that the traffic counts of motorcycles and cars are highly correlated in most cases and that the emissions of CO from motorcycles are more readily detected as they travel closer to the kerb. The inclusion of residual CO in the models significantly improves the correlation coefficient from about 0.4 to about 0.7.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  18. Arifin MH, Kayode JS, Azahar MA, Jamil H, Sabri SFA
    Data Brief, 2018 Jun;18:1864-1868.
    PMID: 29904689 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.04.119
    The paper presents the data from the surface and subsurface mapping of this area for the purpose of siting industrial city in the area. The field data collected combine with the borehole data was to successfully apply these to solving geological, environmental and engineering complications posed by the complexity of the subsurface geological structures underlain this area. The Electrical Resistivity, (ER) and Induced Polarization, (IP) data were initially processed using RES2DINV software model to generate the depth to the lithological units together with topographic correction. The 2-D ER and IP data were collected from 23rd April 2017 up until 7th May 2017 covering a total of about 17.6 km along 44 survey lines using ABEM Terrameter SAS4000 for the field measurement. A total of 20 Borehole logs data were recorded to better characterized in-situ, the subsurface geological formations emplaced in the study area. The study area is located at Bagan Datuk, Perak Darul Ridzuan situated on Latitude 2° 44.653'N and Longitudes 104° 28.79' E along the west coast Peninsula Malaysia. The topography of the area is generally flat low-laying and elevation range from about 0 m to 32 m above mean sea level (MSL).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  19. Yigitcanlar T, Butler L, Windle E, Desouza KC, Mehmood R, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2020 May 25;20(10).
    PMID: 32466175 DOI: 10.3390/s20102988
    In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has started to manifest itself at an unprecedented pace. With highly sophisticated capabilities, AI has the potential to dramatically change our cities and societies. Despite its growing importance, the urban and social implications of AI are still an understudied area. In order to contribute to the ongoing efforts to address this research gap, this paper introduces the notion of an artificially intelligent city as the potential successor of the popular smart city brand-where the smartness of a city has come to be strongly associated with the use of viable technological solutions, including AI. The study explores whether building artificially intelligent cities can safeguard humanity from natural disasters, pandemics, and other catastrophes. All of the statements in this viewpoint are based on a thorough review of the current status of AI literature, research, developments, trends, and applications. This paper generates insights and identifies prospective research questions by charting the evolution of AI and the potential impacts of the systematic adoption of AI in cities and societies. The generated insights inform urban policymakers, managers, and planners on how to ensure the correct uptake of AI in our cities, and the identified critical questions offer scholars directions for prospective research and development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
  20. Lan S, Tseng ML, Yang C, Huisingh D
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Apr 10;712:136381.
    PMID: 31940512 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136381
    "Smart cities" have become the development direction pursued by city leaders to address challenges related to rapid growth in urban areas. The sustainable development of the logistics sector has important practical significance for the evolution of smart cities. This study assessed the inefficiency rate and total factor productivity (TFP) of logistics in 36 Chinese cities from 2006 to 2015. The directional distance function (DDF) and Luenberger productivity index analytical approaches were used to assess the relevant parameters. The results revealed that the logistics system inefficiency rate of the eastern region was much higher than that of the central and western regions, while that of the western region was slightly higher than that of the central region. This study identified the main constraints of the logistics TFP in different regions in China. This finding is used to promote policy-making and investment planning to improve China's competitive advantage. The results documented that the central region of China needs to accelerate logistics reforms and use its location advantage of its location to form an organic connection with the eastern and western regions. Countries can use such metrics to take actions to improve their logistics performance, as such an improvement has a causal relationship with economic development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cities
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