Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Liew SQ, Ngoh GC, Yusoff R, Teoh WH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2016 Dec;93(Pt A):426-435.
    PMID: 27565298 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.08.065
    This study aims to optimize sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) on pomelo peel using citric acid. The effects of pH, sonication time, microwave power and irradiation time on the yield and the degree of esterification (DE) of pectin were investigated. Under optimized conditions of pH 1.80, 27.52min sonication followed by 6.40min microwave irradiation at 643.44W, the yield and the DE value of pectin obtained was respectively at 38.00% and 56.88%. Based upon optimized UMAE condition, the pectin from microwave-ultrasound assisted extraction (MUAE), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were studied. The yield of pectin adopting the UMAE was higher than all other techniques in the order of UMAE>MUAE>MAE>UAE. The pectin's galacturonic acid content obtained from combined extraction technique is higher than that obtained from sole extraction technique and the pectin gel produced from various techniques exhibited a pseudoplastic behaviour. The morphological structures of pectin extracted from MUAE and MAE closely resemble each other. The extracted pectin from UMAE with smaller and more regular surface differs greatly from that of UAE. This has substantiated the highest pectin yield of 36.33% from UMAE and further signified their compatibility and potentiality in pectin extraction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry*
  2. Liew SQ, Teoh WH, Tan CK, Yusoff R, Ngoh GC
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Sep;116:128-135.
    PMID: 29738869 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.05.013
    Low methoxyl (LM) pectin was extracted from pomelo peels using subcritical water in a dynamic mode. The effects of pressure and temperature were analyzed through a face-centred central composite design. Extraction yield and the rate of extraction were found to be predominantly influenced by temperature. Optimization of the subcritical water extraction (SWE) yielded an optimized operating condition of 120°C and 30bar with a predicted pectin yield of 18.8%. The corresponding experimental yield was 19.6%, which is in close agreement with the predicted data. The pectin obtained from the optimized condition was further analyzed for its physicochemical properties. The kinetics of the SWE was also evaluated whereby the one-site kinetic desorption model was found to be in good agreement with experimental data (R2>0.94).
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry*
  3. Cheong MW, Zhu D, Sng J, Liu SQ, Zhou W, Curran P, et al.
    Food Chem, 2012 Sep 15;134(2):696-703.
    PMID: 23107680 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.139
    Calamansi juices from three countries (Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam) were characterised through measuring volatiles, physicochemical properties and non-volatiles (sugars, organic acids and phenolic acids). The volatile components of manually squeezed calamansi juices were extracted using dichloromethane and headspace solid-phase microextraction, and then analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionisation detector, respectively. A total of 60 volatile compounds were identified. The results indicated that the Vietnam calamansi juice contained the highest amount of volatiles. Two principal components obtained from principal component analysis (PCA) represented 89.65% of the cumulative total variations of the volatiles. Among the non-volatile components, these three calamansi juices could be, to some extent, differentiated according to fructose and glucose concentrations. Hence, this study of calamansi juices could lead to a better understanding of calamansi fruits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry*
  4. Bhat R, Kamaruddin NS, Min-Tze L, Karim AA
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2011 Nov;18(6):1295-300.
    PMID: 21550834 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2011.04.002
    Freshly squeezed kasturi lime fruit juice was sonicated (for 0, 30 and 60min at 20°C, 25kHz frequency) to evaluate its impact on selected physico-chemical and antioxidant properties, such as pH, °Brix, titratable acidity, Hunter color values (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)), ascorbic acid, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and flavonols. Additionally, the effect of sonication treatments on the microbial load (TPC, yeast and mold) were also evaluated. Sonication of juice samples for 60min showed enhancement in most of the bioactive compounds compared to samples treated for 30min and control samples (untreated). Significant reductions in the microbial load corresponding to sonication time were also recorded. Results of the present study indicate that sonication may be employed as a suitable technique for kasturi lime juice processing, where antioxidant and other bioactive compound retention or enhancement is desired, along with the achievement of safety and quality standards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry*
  5. Hamada T, Harano K, Niihara R, Kitahara H, Yamamoto M, Vairrapan CS, et al.
    J Oleo Sci, 2020;69(6):643-648.
    PMID: 32493886 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess19296
    Sour citrus are prized for their flavor and fragrance. This work identified the components of the peel oil of Hetsuka-daidai (Citrus sp. hetsukadaidai), a special sour citrus that is native to the southern part of the Osumi peninsula, Kagoshima, Japan. These compounds were compared to those identified from the peels of six other major sour citrus: lime (Citrus latifolia), lemon (Citrus limon), Yuzu (Citrus junos), Kabusu (Citrus aurantium), Kabosu (Citrus sphaerocarpa), and Sudachi (Citrus sudachi). Peel oil contents were analyzed for the duration of four months during harvest season to investigate the differences in peel oil/fragrance during ripening. These results could facilitate the development of preferred flavor and scent profiles using local species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry*
  6. Cheong MW, Chong ZS, Liu SQ, Zhou W, Curran P, Bin Yu
    Food Chem, 2012 Sep 15;134(2):686-95.
    PMID: 23107679 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.162
    Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry*
  7. Abugassa I, Sarmani SB, Samat SB
    Appl Radiat Isot, 1999 Jun;50(6):989-94.
    PMID: 10355102
    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+ alpha epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the gamma-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry
  8. Shezryna S, Anisah N, Saleh I, Syamsa RA
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Jun 01;37(2):433-442.
    PMID: 33612812
    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus serves as an important ectoparasite of livestock and a vector of several pathogens resulting in diseases, subsequently affecting the agricultural field as well as the economy. The extensive use of synthetic acaricides is known to cause resistance over time and therefore a much safer, effective and environmentally friendly alternative to overcome tick infestation should be implemented. Larval immersion tests (LIT) were done to evaluate the effects of Citrus hystrix (Family: Rutaceae) and Cymbopogon citratus (Family: Poaceae) essential oils (EOs) for their individual and combined (1:1) acaricidal activity against the cattle tick. Results showed that LC50 and LC90 values in 24 and 48 hours for Cit. hystrix EO were 11.98% and 24.84%, and 10.95% and 21.71% respectively. LC50 and LC90 values for Cym. citratus EO were 1.21% and 6.28%, and 1.05% and 6.12% respectively. The mixture of EOs from two plants in 1:1 ratio (Cit. hystrix 50%: Cym. citratus 50%) was found to exhibit antagonistic effect (synergistic factor < 1). The 24 hours and 48 hours LC50 and LC90 values for combined EOs were 1.52% and 2.84%, and 1.50% and 2.76% respectively. Individual and combined essential oils were subjected to qualitative analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to screen the chemical components present in EOs. Our results showed that the combination of Cit. hystrix and Cym. citratus at 1:1 ratio resulted in an antagonistic effect and the use of Cym. citratus alone is more toxic to R. (B.) microplus, making it a better alternative to chemical based acaricide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry*
  9. Tang LI, Ling AP, Koh RY, Chye SM, Voon KG
    PMID: 22244370 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-3
    Dengue fever regardless of its serotypes has been the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases among the world population. The development of a dengue vaccine is complicated by the antibody-dependent enhancement effect. Thus, the development of a plant-based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry
  10. Paul S, Das S, Tanvir EM, Hossen MS, Saha M, Afroz R, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Oct;94:256-264.
    PMID: 28763749 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.07.080
    Increases in the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have aroused strong interest in identifying antioxidants from natural sources for use in preventive medicine. Citrus macroptera (C. macroptera), commonly known as "Satkara", is an important herbal and medicinal plant reputed for its antioxidant, nutritious and therapeutic uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardio-protective effects of ethanol extracts of C. macroptera peel and pulp against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male albino Wistar rats (n=36) were pre-treated with peel and pulp extracts (500mg/kg) for 45days. They received a challenge with ISO (85mg/kg) on the 44th and 45th days. Our findings indicated that subcutaneous injection of ISO induced severe myocardial injuries associated with oxidative stress, as confirmed by elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) and anti-peroxidative enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase, compared with levels observed in control animals. Pre-treatment with C. macroptera peel and pulp extracts prior to ISO administration however, significantly improved many of the investigated biochemical parameters, i.e., cardiac troponin I, cardiac marker enzymes, lipid profile and oxidative stress markers. The fruit peel extract showed stronger cardio-protective effects than the pulp extract. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examinations. Overall, the increased endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity against heightened oxidative stress in the myocardium is strongly suggestive of the cardio-protective potential of C. macroptera.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry*
  11. Misni N, Nor ZM, Ahmad R
    J Vector Borne Dis, 2017 Jan-Mar;54(1):44-53.
    PMID: 28352045
    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Many essential oils have been reported as natural sources of insect repellents; however, due to high volatility, they present low repellent effect. Formulation technique by using microencapsulation enables to control the volatility of essential oil and thereby extends the duration of repellency. In this study, the effectiveness of microencapsulated essential oils of Alpinia galanga, Citrus grandis and C. aurantifolia in the lotion formulations were evaluated against mosquito bites.

    METHODS: Essential oils and N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were encapsulated by using interfacial pre- cipitation techniques before incorporation into lotion base to form microencapsulated (ME) formulation. The pure essential oil and DEET were also prepared into lotion base to produce non-encapsulated (NE) formulation. All the prepared formulations were assessed for their repellent activity against Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory condition. Field evaluations also were conducted in three different study sites in Peninsular Malaysia. In addi- tion, Citriodiol® (Mosiquard®) and citronella-based repellents (KAPS®, MozAway® and BioZ Natural®) were also included for comparison.

    RESULTS: In laboratory conditions, the ME formulations of the essential oils showed no significant difference with regard to the duration of repellent effect compared to the microencapsulated DEET used at the highest con- centration (20%). It exhibited >98% repellent effect for duration of 4 h (p = 0.06). In the field conditions, these formulations demonstrated comparable repellent effect (100% for a duration of 3 h) to Citriodiol® based repellent (Mosiguard®) (p = 0.07). In both test conditions, the ME formulations of the essential oils presented longer duration of 100% repellent effect (between 1 and 2 h) compared to NE formulations.

    INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The findings of the study demonstrate that the application of the microencapsulation technique during the preparation of the formulations significantly increases the duration of the repellent effect of the essential oils, suggesting that the ME formulation of essential oils have potential to be commercialized as an alternative plant-based repellent in the market against the mosquitoes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry
  12. Yew SE, Lim TJ, Lew LC, Bhat R, Mat-Easa A, Liong MT
    J Food Sci, 2011 Apr;76(3):H108-15.
    PMID: 21535834 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02107.x
    Probiotic delivery system was developed via the use of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) cross-linked soy protein isolate (SPI) incorporated with agrowastes such as banana peel (BE), banana pulp (BU), and pomelo rind (PR). Inoculums of Lactobacillus bulgaricus FTDC 1511 were added to the cross-linked protein matrix. The incorporation of agrowastes had significantly (P<0.05) reduced the strength, pH value, and the lightness of the SPI gel carriers, while sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles revealed that the occurring cross-links within the SPI gel carriers were attributed to the addition of MTG. Scanning electron microscope micrographs illustrated that SPI carriers containing agrowastes have exhibited a less-dense protein matrix. All the SPI carriers possessed maximum swelling ratio at 4 to 4.5 within 15 min in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), whereas the maximum swelling ratios of SPI/BE, SPI/BU, and SPI/PR were higher compared to that of control in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Additionally, SPI carriers in SGF medium did not show degradation of structure, whereas a major collapse of network was observed in SIF medium, indicating controlled-release in the intestines. The addition of agrowastes into SPI carriers led to a significantly (P<0.0001) lower release of L. bulgaricus FTDC 1511 in SGF medium and a higher release in SIF medium, compared to that of the control. SPI carriers containing agrowastes may be useful transports for living probiotic cells through the stomach prior to delivery in the lower intestines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry
  13. Siti HN, Kamisah Y, Mohamed S, Jaarin K
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2019 04;44(4):373-380.
    PMID: 30216735 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0175
    The prolonged intake of diet containing repeatedly heated vegetable oil can cause hypertension in the long run.
    In this study, the effects of citrus leaf extract (CLE) supplementation on vascular reactivity, plasma nitrite, and aortic structure in hypertensive rats were investigated by the consumption of repeatedly heated vegetable oil [corrected]. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 56) were divided into 7 groups corresponding to the respective diets. For 16 weeks, 1 group was given standard rat chow (control) while other groups were given diets containing 15% w/w of palm oil, fresh palm oil (FPO), palm oil heated 5 times (5HPO), and palm oil heated 10 times (10HPO), with or without the incorporation of 0.15% w/w CLE (FPO+CLE, 5HPO+CLE, or 10HPO+CLE). Plasma nitrite levels were measured before and at 16 weeks of treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and aortae were harvested for measuring vascular reactivity and for microscopic study. CLE supplementation had significantly reduced the loss of plasma nitrite and attenuated the vasoconstriction response to phenylephrine in the 5HPO group but not in the 10HPO group. However, CLE had no significant effect on the vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. The elastic lamellae of tunica media in 5HPO, 10HPO, and 10HPO+CLE groups appeared disorganised and disrupted. Obtained findings suggested that CLE was able to enhance nitric oxide bioavailability that might dampen the vasoconstriction effect of phenylephrine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry*
  14. Anwar A, Masri A, Rao K, Rajendran K, Khan NA, Shah MR, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 02 28;9(1):3122.
    PMID: 30816269 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-39528-0
    Herein, we report green synthesized nanoparticles based on stabilization by plant gums, loaded with citrus fruits flavonoids Hesperidin (HDN) and Naringin (NRG) as novel antimicrobial agents against brain-eating amoebae and multi-drug resistant bacteria. Nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by using zetasizer, zeta potential, atomic force microscopy, ultravoilet-visible and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic techniques. The size of these spherical nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 100-225 nm. The antiamoebic effects of these green synthesized Silver and Gold nanoparticles loaded with HDN and NRG were tested against Acanthamoeba castellanii and Naegleria fowleri, while antibacterial effects were evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1. Amoebicidal assays revealed that HDN loaded Silver nanoparticles stabilized by gum acacia (GA-AgNPs-HDN) quantitatively abolished amoeba viability by 100%, while NRG loaded Gold nanoparticles stabilized by gum tragacanth (GT-AuNPs-NRG) significantly reduced the viability of A. castellanii and N. fowleri at 50 µg per mL. Furthermore, these nanoparticles inhibited the encystation and excystation by more than 85%, as well as GA-AgNPs-HDN only completely obliterated amoeba-mediated host cells cytopathogenicity. Whereas, GA-AgNPs-HDN exhibited significant bactericidal effects against MRSA and E. coli K1 and reduced bacterial-mediated host cells cytotoxicity. Notably, when tested against human cells, these nanoparticles showed minimal (23%) cytotoxicity at even higher concentration of 100 µg per mL as compared to 50 µg per mL used for antimicrobial assays. Hence, these novel nanoparticles formulations hold potential as therapeutic agents against infections caused by brain-eating amoebae, as well as multi-drug resistant bacteria, and recommend a step forward in drug development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry
  15. Abu Bakar Sajak A, Azlan A, Abas F, Hamzah H
    Nutrients, 2021 Oct 12;13(10).
    PMID: 34684574 DOI: 10.3390/nu13103573
    An herbal mixture composed of lemon, apple cider, garlic, ginger and honey as a polyphenol-rich mixture (PRM) has been reported to contain hypolipidemic activity on human subjects and hyperlipidemic rats. However, the therapeutic effects of PRM on metabolites are not clearly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to provide new information on the causal impact of PRM on the endogenous metabolites, pathways and serum biochemistry. Serum samples of hyperlipidemic rats treated with PRM were subjected to biochemistry (lipid and liver profile) and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA enzyme reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) analyses. In contrast, the urine samples were subjected to urine metabolomics using 1H NMR. The serum biochemistry revealed that PRM at 500 mg/kg (PRM-H) managed to lower the total cholesterol level and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) (p < 0.05) and reduce the HMG-CoA reductase activity. The pathway analysis from urine metabolomics reveals that PRM-H altered 17 pathways, with the TCA cycle having the highest impact (0.26). Results also showed the relationship between the serum biochemistry of LDL-C and HMG-CoA reductase and urine metabolites (trimethylamine-N-oxide, dimethylglycine, allantoin and succinate). The study's findings demonstrated the potential of PRM at 500 mg/kg as an anti-hyperlipidemic by altering the TCA cycle, inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and lowering the LDL-C in high cholesterol rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry*
  16. Tsai ML, Lin CD, Khoo KA, Wang MY, Kuan TK, Lin WC, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Dec 05;22(12).
    PMID: 29206180 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22122154
    'Mato Peiyu' pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck 'Mato Peiyu') leaves from pruning are currently an agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to isolate essential oils from these leaves through steam distillation (SD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and to evaluate their applicability to skin care by analyzing their antimicrobial, antioxidant (diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and nitric oxide scavenging assay), anti-inflammatory (5-lipoxygenase inhibition assay), and antityrosinase activities. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results indicated that the main components of 'Mato Peiyu' leaf essential oils were citronellal and citronellol, with a total percentage of 50.71% and 59.82% for SD and SFME, respectively. The highest bioactivity among all assays was obtained for 5-lipoxygenase inhibition, with an IC50 value of 0.034% (v/v). The MIC90 of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans ranged from 0.086% to 0.121% (v/v). Citronellal and citronellol were the main contributors, accounting for at least 54.58% of the essential oil's bioactivity. This paper is the first to report the compositions and bioactivities of 'Mato Peiyu' leaf essential oil, and the results imply that the pomelo leaf essential oil may be applied in skin care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry*
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