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  1. Tiong, Xun Ting, Nur Sara Shahira Abdullah, Mohamad Adam Bujang, Fatin Ellisya Sapri, Selvasingam Ratnasingam, Chong, Kok Joon, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: A quick assessment tool for screening individuals with depression or anxiety is pertinent in mental-health set up. This study aims to validate the K10 and the K6 to screen patients with non-specific
    psychological distress in a Malaysian population.

    Methods: Translation of the questionnaire was done from English to Malay. Face validity was conducted on patients, and a pilot study was performed to assess the reliability of the K10 questionnaire. Fieldwork was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the K10 questionnaire based on convenience sampling of healthy individuals and patients diagnosed with psychiatric illness. Malay version for K10 was administered to healthy participants (group without psychological distress) and patients on psychiatric clinic follow up (psychological distress). Data collection was done between August 2016 and September 2016.

    Result: A total of 94 subjects were recruited in the study, of which 32 formed the case group. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for K10
    were 0.837(control) and 0.885 (case), as for K6 were 0.716 (control) and 0.859 (case). The total score of the
    K10 and the K6 clearly differentiated between the control and case groups (p

    Study site: Sarawak General Hospital
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  2. Abdullah N, Kamaruddin MA, Goh YX, Othman R, Dauni A, Jalal NA, et al.
    PMID: 34299667 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18147216
    The attrition rate of longitudinal study participation remains a challenge. To date, the Malaysian Cohort (TMC) study follow-up rate was only 42.7%. This study objective is to identify the cause of attrition among TMC participants and the measures to curb it. A total of 19,343 TMC participants from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor that was due for follow-up were studied. The two most common attrition reasons are undergoing medical treatment at another government or private health center (7.0%) and loss of interest in participating in the TMC project (5.1%). Those who were inclined to drop out were mostly Chinese, aged 50 years and above, unemployed, and had comorbidities during the baseline recruitment. We have also contacted 2183 participants for the home recruitment follow-up, and about 10.9% agreed to join. Home recruitment slightly improved the overall follow-up rate from 42.7% to 43.5% during the three-month study period.
    Study name: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  3. Bhupinder S, Kumara TK, Syed AM
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Jun;65(2):123-6.
    PMID: 23756796
    This article describes the completed suicide patterns which occurred in the Timur Laut district of Penang Island, Malaysia. In a prospective cohort study over the three years period (2007-2009) there were 138 cases of suicide deaths. The number of suicide deaths for the year 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 45, 41 and 52 deaths, respectively. Majority of the suicide deaths were by jumping from height (47.1%), followed by hanging (34.1%) and by drowning (10.9%). The male victims outnumbered females in a 3 : 1 ratio.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  4. Kadir AA, Hamid AH, Mohammad M
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2015 Jul;5(3):157-60.
    PMID: 26151028 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.11.010
    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué) is widely practiced among stroke patients globally. We conducted a study to determine the pattern of CAM use and its associated factors in stroke survivors attending a tertiary hospital in Malaysia within 6 months after the stroke. This was a prospective cohort study that included all stroke patients who were admitted to a tertiary center in Malaysia from December 2009 to December 2010. Patients were interviewed and examined within 72 hours of admission. The sociodemographic data and medical history were collected. Clinical examinations were done to assess the stroke severity using the Scandinavian Stroke Scale and functional status based on modified Barthel index (MBI). Patients were reassessed at 6 months after the stroke on the CAM use and functional status (MBI). The response rate was 92%. The study population consisted of 52 men and 41 women with a mean age of 63.7 ± 10.3 years. Sixty-seven percent practiced CAM. Massage was the most frequently used method (63.4%), followed by vitamins (7.5%). In multiple logistic regression analysis, functional status (MBI score) on discharge (p = 0.004, odds ratio 1.034, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.06) and Scandinavian Stroke Scale score (p = 0.045, odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.43) were significant predictors for use of CAM. In conclusion, the use of CAM among stroke survivors is high. Patients who have better functional status on discharge and less severe stroke are more likely to use CAM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  5. Ho, S.E., Wan Ahmad, L., Tan, Z.Y., Ho, Christopher Ck, Nursharifah, M.S., Choy, Y.C., et al.
    Medicine & Health, 2015;10(1):58-65.
    MyJurnal
    Patient’s belief towards pain management may affect pain management outcomes and quality of life. The main aim of the present study was to determine the impact of a pre-operative pain education package towards pain belief among patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery in a tertiary hospital. A one-group pre-test post-test design study was conducted on orthopaedic surgery patients. Thirty respondents were recruited and pre-operative pain education was administered individually before surgery. Pre-operative and post-operative pain belief, management scores and side effects were measured using the Barrier Questionnaire (BQ-13). The results reported significant differences between pre-test scores (Mean = 41.87, Standard Deviation = 11.467) and post-test scores (Mean=34.80, Standard Deviation=13.026) of pain belief (t = 2.84, p = 0.004). There were also significant differences between pre-test scores (Mean = 37.10, Standard Deviation = 10.610) and post-test scores (Mean=30.80, Standard Deviation = 11.424) of pain management (t = 3.856, p = 0.0005). Respondent’s gender (t = -2.403, p = 0.023) and ethnicity (F = 5.038, p=0.014) reported significant differences with p value < 0.05, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between educational level, ethnicity, prior surgical history with pain belief (p> 0.05). There was positive impact of the pain education package towards pain belief and painmanagement among respondents who underwent orthopaedics surgery in a tertiary hospital. Reinforcement of pain educational program is pivotal in order to achieve optimal post-operative pain management.
    Keywords: pain, education, orthopaedics, patient, surgery
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  6. Abdollahi F, Zarghami M, Sazlina SG, Zain AM, Mohammad AJ, Lye MS
    Arch Med Sci, 2016 Oct 1;12(5):1043-1051.
    PMID: 27695496
    INTRODUCTION: Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental problem associated with childbirth. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of early PPD and possible relevant risk factors among women attending primary health centers in Mazandaran province, Iran for the first time.
    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 2279 eligible women during weeks 32-42 of pregnancy to determine bio-psycho-socio-cultural risk factors of depression at 2 weeks post-partum using the Iranian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Univariate and hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis.
    RESULTS: Among 1,739 mothers whose EPDS scores were ≤ 12 during weeks 32-42 of gestation and at the follow-up study, the cumulative incidence rate of depression was 6.9% (120/1,739) at 2 weeks post-partum. In the multivariate model the factor that predicted depression symptomatology at 2 weeks post-partum was having psychiatric distress in pregnancy based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (OR = 1.06, (95% CI: 1.04-1.09), p = 0.001). The risk of PPD also lower in those with sufficient parenting skills (OR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69-0.88), p = 0.001), increased marital satisfaction (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.9-0.99), p = 0.03), increased frequency of practicing rituals (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.99), p = 0.004) and in those whose husbands had better education (OR = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), p = 0.04).
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that a combination of demographic, sociological, psychological and cultural risk factors can make mothers vulnerable to PPD.
    KEYWORDS: depression; incidence; post-partum
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  7. Teh Faradilla Abdul Rahman, Zamri Abu Bakar
    Jurnal Inovasi Malaysia, 2019;2(2):19-39.
    MyJurnal
    The co-curricular is important for students at The Centre of Foundation Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA Dengkil to score. This is because it contributes 10% of the merits in the students’ applications for their degree program as set up by Bahagian Pengurusan Kemasukan Pelajar (UPU). In each new cohort, almost 5,000 students registered at this academic center. Previously, the grading process was done manually based on the number of activity coupon collected by the students in their co-curricular activity card. The use of co- curricular activity card had some challenges such as involving high cost, loss of coupons and activity cards, stolen activity cards and it was difficult for the students to monitor their achievement throughout their study. The process of recording thousands of students’ marks took place almost everyday, hence it must be improvised. To solve the problems mentioned, the CRS developers had came up with the idea of using QR code as an approach to ease and speed up the scoring process. Hence, this system helps supervisors to reduce human error and ease users (supervisors and administrators). Besides, the students could monitor their co-curricular total score from time to time to know how well they are doing so far. As a result, it has fruitfully benefited to almost 5,000 students, supervisors and administrator at the Student Affairs Division (HEP) as well as reducing the cost of buying co-curricular activity cards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  8. Kow CS, Hasan SS, Thiruchelvam K, Aldeyab M
    Br J Anaesth, 2021 03;126(3):e108-e110.
    PMID: 33358046 DOI: 10.1016/j.bja.2020.12.002
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  9. Rehiman SH, Lim SM, Neoh CF, Majeed ABA, Chin AV, Tan MP, et al.
    Ageing Res Rev, 2020 07;60:101066.
    PMID: 32294542 DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2020.101066
    In order to gauge the impact of proteomics in discovery of Alzheimer's disease (AD) blood-based biomarkers, this study had systematically reviewed articles published between 1984-2019. Articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were assessed for risk of bias. A meta-analysis was performed for replicable candidate biomarkers (CB). Of the 1651 articles that were identified, 17 case-control and two cohort studies, as well as three combined case-control and longitudinal designs were shortlisted. A total of 207 AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) CB were discovered, with 48 reported in >2 studies. This review highlights six CB, namely alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M)ps, pancreatic polypeptide (PP)ps, apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1)ps, afaminp, insulin growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2)ps and fibrinogen-γ-chainp, all of which exhibited consistent pattern of regulation in >three independent cohorts. They are involved in AD pathogenesis via amyloid-beta (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Meta-analysis indicated that ApoA-1ps was significantly downregulated in AD (SMD = -1.52, 95% CI: -1.89, -1.16, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  10. Hall GL, Cooper BG
    Respirology, 2018 12;23(12):1090-1091.
    PMID: 30024083 DOI: 10.1111/resp.13373
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  11. Abdul Aziz NA, Toh TH, Loh EC, Capelle DP, Goh KJ, Abdul Latif L, et al.
    PMID: 33726578 DOI: 10.1080/21678421.2021.1893336
    Objective: To compare two ALS staging systems, King's clinical staging and Milano-Torino (MiToS) functional staging, using prospective data from a multi-ethnic cohort of ALS patients. Methods: The stages of disease were determined prospectively based on existing definitions. The two systems were compared for timing of stages using box plots, correspondence using chi-square tests and association using Spearman's rank correlation. Results: The distribution of stages differed between the two systems. The proportions of disease stages of the King's staging system were more evenly distributed whereas in MiToS, there was greater weight seen at the later stages of disease. At the early stages, patients moved consecutively in the MiToS staging system but not in the King's staging system where patients tended to skip stages to reach later stages. Both systems had good correlation (Spearman's rho = 0.869) and the King's stage 4 most frequently corresponded to MiToS stage 2. Conclusion: We found the King's staging was helpful in determining the stages of disease burden, whereas both were helpful in determining the time to functional dependence with MiToS further refining the levels of dependence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  12. Bhavadharini B, Dehghan M, Mente A, Rangarajan S, Sheridan P, Mohan V, et al.
    PMID: 32423962 DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000826
    OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to assess the association of dairy intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (cross-sectionally) and with incident hypertension and incident diabetes (prospectively) in a large multinational cohort study.

    METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a prospective epidemiological study of individuals aged 35 and 70 years from 21 countries on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.1 years. In the cross-sectional analyses, we assessed the association of dairy intake with prevalent MetS and its components among individuals with information on the five MetS components (n=112 922). For the prospective analyses, we examined the association of dairy with incident hypertension (in 57 547 individuals free of hypertension) and diabetes (in 131 481 individuals free of diabetes).

    RESULTS: In cross-sectional analysis, higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day compared with zero intake; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.80, p-trend<0.0001) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS after multivariable adjustment. Higher intakes of whole fat dairy consumed alone (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78, p-trend<0.0001), or consumed jointly with low fat dairy (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.98, p-trend=0.0005), were associated with a lower MetS prevalence. Low fat dairy consumed alone was not associated with MetS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.38, p-trend=0.13). In prospective analysis, 13 640 people with incident hypertension and 5351 people with incident diabetes were recorded. Higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day vs zero serving/day) was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p-trend=0.02) and diabetes (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.02, p-trend=0.01). Directionally similar associations were found for whole fat dairy versus each outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of whole fat (but not low fat) dairy was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS and most of its component factors, and with a lower incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Our findings should be evaluated in large randomized trials of the effects of whole fat dairy on the risks of MetS, hypertension, and diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  13. Firdaus MKZH, Jittanoon P
    Enferm Clin, 2021 04;31 Suppl 2:S243-S246.
    PMID: 33849173 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2020.09.009
    This literature review conducted to explore the best available intervention for diabetic foot care. Online databases (ProQuest, CINAHL, Science Direct and Google Scholar) were searched to retrieve relevant articles. The keywords diabetic foot care, diabetic foot care program, diabetic foot care intervention, diabetic foot education were used for data retrieval and PICO analysis. After screening analysis was completed, only 15 (from 7423) articles, published within 2007-2017, were included in a qualitative synthesis of the data. The articles were categorized as: systematic review (n=1), randomized control trial (n=3), quasi-experimental (n=3), pre-test-post-test (n=4), cohort (n=2), cross-sectional (n=1) and surveys (n=1). Themes synthesized from the analysis were: effective approach (group or individual), project leader, specialized skills required and adaptation of technology. A combination of identified approaches would help design a technology-friendly program for managing diabetic foot care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  14. Jang JH, Wong L, Ko BS, Yoon SS, Li K, Baltcheva I, et al.
    Blood Adv, 2022 08 09;6(15):4450-4460.
    PMID: 35561315 DOI: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2022006960
    Iptacopan (LNP023) is a novel, oral selective inhibitor of complement factor B under clinical development for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). In this ongoing open-label phase 2 study, PNH patients with active hemolysis were randomized to receive single-agent iptacopan twice daily at a dose of either 25 mg for 4 weeks followed by 100 mg for up to 2 years (cohort 1) or 50 mg for 4 weeks followed by 200 mg for up to 2 years (cohort 2). At the time of interim analysis, of 13 PNH patients enrolled, all 12 evaluable for efficacy achieved the primary endpoint of reduction in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels by ≥60% by week 12 compared with baseline; mean LDH levels dropped rapidly and durably, namely by 77% and 85% at week 2 and by 86% and 86% at week 12 in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Most patients achieved a clinically meaningful improvement in hemoglobin (Hb) levels, and all but 1 patient remained transfusion-free up to week 12. Other markers of hemolysis, including bilirubin, reticulocytes, and haptoglobin, showed consistent improvements. No thromboembolic events were reported, and iptacopan was well tolerated, with no severe or serious adverse events reported until the data cutoff. In addition to the previously reported beneficial effect of iptacopan add-on therapy to eculizumab, this study showed that iptacopan monotherapy in treatment-naïve PNH patients resulted in normalization of hemolytic markers and rapid transfusion-free improvement of Hb levels in most patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03896152.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  15. Tsan SEH, Ng KT, Lau J, Viknaswaran NL, Wang CY
    Braz J Anesthesiol, 2020 11 09;70(6):667-677.
    PMID: 33288219 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjan.2020.08.009
    OBJECTIVES: Positioning during endotracheal intubation (ETI) is critical to ensure its success. We aimed to determine if the ramping position improved laryngeal exposure and first attempt success at intubation when compared to the sniffing position.

    METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched systematically from inception until January 2020. Our primary outcomes included laryngeal exposure as measured by Cormack-Lehane Grade 1 or 2 (CLG 1/2), CLG 3 or 4 (CLG 3/4), and first attempt success at intubation. Secondary outcomes were intubation time, use of airway adjuncts, ancillary maneuvers and complications during ETI.

    RESULTS: Seven studies met our inclusion criteria, of which 4 were RCTs and 3 were cohort studies. The meta-analysis was conducted by pooling the effect estimates for all 4 included RCTs (n=632). There were no differences found between ramping and sniffing positions for odds of CLG 1/2, CLG 3/4, first attempt success at intubation, intubation time, use of ancillary airway maneuvers and use of airway adjuncts, with evidence of high heterogeneity across studies. However, the ramping position in surgical patients is associated with increased likelihood of CLG 1/2 (OR=2.05, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.32, p=0.004) and lower likelihood of CLG 3/4 (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.79, p=0.004), moderate quality of evidence.

    CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the ramping position may benefit surgical patients undergoing ETI by improving laryngeal exposure. Large-scale well-designed multicentre RCTs should be carried out to further elucidate the benefits of the ramping position in the surgical and intensive care unit patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  16. Wu W, Ding D, Zhao Q, Xiao Z, Luo J, Ganguli M, et al.
    Alzheimers Dement, 2023 Jan;19(1):107-122.
    PMID: 35290713 DOI: 10.1002/alz.12628
    INTRODUCTION: Though consistent evidence suggests that physical activity may delay dementia onset, the duration and amount of activity required remains unclear.

    METHODS: We harmonized longitudinal data of 11,988 participants from 10 cohorts in eight countries to examine the dose-response relationship between late-life physical activity and incident dementia among older adults.

    RESULTS: Using no physical activity as a reference, dementia risk decreased with duration of physical activity up to 3.1 to 6.0 hours/week (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 1.15 for 0.1 to 3.0 hours/week; HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.89 for 3.1 to 6.0 hours/week), but plateaued with higher duration. For the amount of physical activity, a similar pattern of dose-response curve was observed, with an inflection point of 9.1 to 18.0 metabolic equivalent value (MET)-hours/week (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.22 for 0.1 to 9.0 MET-hours/week; HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.93 for 9.1 to 18.0 MET-hours/week).

    DISCUSSION: This cross-national analysis suggests that performing 3.1 to 6.0 hours of physical activity and expending 9.1 to 18.0/MET-hours of energy per week may reduce dementia risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  17. Duan D, Li H, Xu J, Wong L, Xu G, Kong F, et al.
    J Diabetes Res, 2019;2019:2591709.
    PMID: 30805371 DOI: 10.1155/2019/2591709
    Objective: To estimate the incident risk of ischemic stroke (IS) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects according to different body mass index (BMI) and height categories.

    Methods: A total of 25,130 newly diagnosed T2D subjects were included in this study. All T2D subjects were enrolled consecutively from the Chronic Disease Surveillance System (CDSS) of Ningbo. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) stratified by BMI categories and height quartiles were used to estimate the incident risk of IS in T2D subjects.

    Results: In total, 22,795 subjects completed the follow-up. Among them, 1268 newly diagnosed IS cases were identified, with 149,675 person-years. The SIRs of normal BMI (18.5-24.0 kg/m2), overweight (24.0-28.0 kg/m2), and obese (≥28.0 kg/m2) in overall subjects were 2.56 (95% CI 1.90-3.13), 2.13 (95% CI 1.90-3.13), and 1.87 (95% CI 1.29-2.43), respectively (Ptrend < 0.01), comparing to the general population of Ningbo. For each 1 kg/m2 increment in BMI, the SIR was 0.948 (95% CI 0.903-0.999). For height quartiles, the SIRs of male subjects in quartile 1 (<160 cm), quartile 2 (161-165 cm), quartile 3 (165-170 cm), and quartile 4 (≥171 cm) were 2.27 (95% CI 1.99-2.56), 2.01 (95% CI 1.67-2.45), 1.37 (95% CI 1.05-1.68), and 0.91 (95% CI 0.40-1.32), respectively (Ptrend < 0.01). While for female subjects, the SIRs in quartile 1 (<155 cm), quartile 2 (156-160 cm), quartile 3 (161-165 cm), and quartile 4 (≥166 cm) were 3.57 (95% CI 3.11-3.49), 2.96 (95% CI 2.61-3.31), 1.94 (95% CI 1.51-2.36), and 1.71 (95% CI 0.95-2.47), respectively (Ptrend < 0.01).

    Conclusion: Compared to the general population of Ningbo, T2D subjects had a higher incident risk of IS. Furthermore, the IS incident risk was not only higher in newly diagnosed T2D subjects with normal BMI but also lower in taller newly diagnosed T2D subjects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies*
  18. Mohamad N, Abdul Jalal MI, Hassan A, Abdulkarim Ibrahim M, Salehuddin R, Abu Bakar NH
    Pak J Med Sci, 2013 Sep;29(5):1132-6.
    PMID: 24353706
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the QTc interval between low and high dose methadone groups and evaluate the pattern of QTc variation.
    METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study conducted from December 2010 till August 2011 at Malaysian University of Science's Hospital. Forty six subjects, grouped in high dose (>80mg) and low dose (<80mg) oral methadone, were followed-up at 4-weekly for QTc measurements. Relevant demographic and biochemical profiles were taken at intervals with concurrent QTc measurements.
    RESULTS: No significant QTc differences between methadone dosage groups were found at Week 0 (434ms vs 444ms, p = 0.166) and week 8 (446.5ms vs 459ms, p = 0.076), but not at week 4(435ms vs 450ms, p = 0.029). However, there were significant associations between the groups with QTc prolongation at week 0 and 4 (OR 4.29(95% CI 1.01, 18.72) p=0.044 and OR 5.18 (95% CI 1.34, 20.06) p =0.013, respectively) but not at week 8 (OR 2.44 (95% CI 0.74, 8.01) p=0.139). On multivariate analysis, dose group was the sole significant factor for QTc prolongation for week 0 and 4 (p values 0.047 and 0.017, respectively), but not at week 8.
    CONCLUSION: High-dose methadone group is more likely to develop prolonged QTc than low-dose group. However, such effects were inconsistent and occurred even during chronic methadone therapy, mandating judicious QTc and serum methadone monitoring.
    KEYWORDS: High Dose; Low Dose; Methadone; QTc
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  19. Kheng CP, Rahman NH
    Int J Emerg Med, 2012;5(1):31.
    PMID: 22828152 DOI: 10.1186/1865-1380-5-31
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) monitoring in hypotensive shock patients presenting to the ED.
    METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in a tertiary ED. One hundred three adults in shock with hypotension presenting to the ED were recruited into the study. They were grouped according to different types of shock, hypovolemic, cardiogenic, septic and others. Vital signs and ETCO2 were measured on presentation and at 30-min intervals up to 120 min. Blood gases and serum lactate levels were obtained on arrival. All patients were managed according to standard protocols and treatment regimes. Patient survival up to hospital admission and at 30 days was recorded.
    RESULTS: Mean ETCO2 for all patients on arrival was 29.07 ± 9.96 mmHg. Average ETCO2 for patients in hypovolemic, cardiogenic and septic shock was 29.64 ± 11.49, 28.60 ± 9.87 and 27.81 ± 7.39 mmHg, respectively. ETCO2 on arrival was positively correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, MAP, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate when analyzed in all shock patients. Early ETCO2 measurements were found to be significantly lower in patients who did not survive to hospital admission (p = 0.005). All patients who had ETCO2 ≤ 12mmHg died in the ED. However, normal ETCO2 does not ensure patient survival.
    CONCLUSION: The use of ETCO2 in the ED has great potential to be used as a method of non-invasive monitoring of patients in shock.
    Study site: Emergency department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
  20. Azmawati M, Krisnan R
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(12):6023-6.
    PMID: 23464397
    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Malaysia for the year 2001 was 2.8 per 100,000 people. The mortality rate is increasing. A retrospective cohort study measuring the survival of HCC patients who received treatment in Selayang Hospital was conducted from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2006. The main objectives of the study were to measure the survival of the patients and to understand the influencing factors, especially ethnicity. The subjects were newly diagnosed cases of HCC by CT scan and histopathological assessment who underwent futher investigations and treatments in Hospital Selayang (inception cohort). The survival time was measured from the date of diagnosis until the subjects died, or failed to follow-up at the end of the study period (31 December 2007). A total of 299 patients were selected with 95 patients dying, the majority among Chinese (39.1%). Subgroup analysis according to ethnicity proved significantly that Chinese patients who had smaller tumor, less number of nodules, low AFP level, Child Pugh Class A and received surgical treatment had a better median survival rate compared to other ethnic groups. Malay (cHR: 1.3, 95%CI; 0.89-1.85) and Indian (cHR: 1.3, 95%CI; 0.74-2.26) patients had a poor survival compared to Chinese patients, but not in the final model. Therefore ethnicity may play a role in survival of HCC patients, but not as a main hazard prognostic factor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cohort Studies
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