Objective: A quick assessment tool for screening individuals with depression or anxiety is pertinent in mental-health set up. This study aims to validate the K10 and the K6 to screen patients with non-specific
psychological distress in a Malaysian population.
Methods: Translation of the questionnaire was done from English to Malay. Face validity was conducted on patients, and a pilot study was performed to assess the reliability of the K10 questionnaire. Fieldwork was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the K10 questionnaire based on convenience sampling of healthy individuals and patients diagnosed with psychiatric illness. Malay version for K10 was administered to healthy participants (group without psychological distress) and patients on psychiatric clinic follow up (psychological distress). Data collection was done between August 2016 and September 2016.
Result: A total of 94 subjects were recruited in the study, of which 32 formed the case group. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for K10
were 0.837(control) and 0.885 (case), as for K6 were 0.716 (control) and 0.859 (case). The total score of the
K10 and the K6 clearly differentiated between the control and case groups (p
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué) is widely practiced among stroke patients globally. We conducted a study to determine the pattern of CAM use and its associated factors in stroke survivors attending a tertiary hospital in Malaysia within 6 months after the stroke. This was a prospective cohort study that included all stroke patients who were admitted to a tertiary center in Malaysia from December 2009 to December 2010. Patients were interviewed and examined within 72 hours of admission. The sociodemographic data and medical history were collected. Clinical examinations were done to assess the stroke severity using the Scandinavian Stroke Scale and functional status based on modified Barthel index (MBI). Patients were reassessed at 6 months after the stroke on the CAM use and functional status (MBI). The response rate was 92%. The study population consisted of 52 men and 41 women with a mean age of 63.7 ± 10.3 years. Sixty-seven percent practiced CAM. Massage was the most frequently used method (63.4%), followed by vitamins (7.5%). In multiple logistic regression analysis, functional status (MBI score) on discharge (p = 0.004, odds ratio 1.034, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.06) and Scandinavian Stroke Scale score (p = 0.045, odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.43) were significant predictors for use of CAM. In conclusion, the use of CAM among stroke survivors is high. Patients who have better functional status on discharge and less severe stroke are more likely to use CAM.
This article describes the completed suicide patterns which occurred in the Timur Laut district of Penang Island, Malaysia. In a prospective cohort study over the three years period (2007-2009) there were 138 cases of suicide deaths. The number of suicide deaths for the year 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 45, 41 and 52 deaths, respectively. Majority of the suicide deaths were by jumping from height (47.1%), followed by hanging (34.1%) and by drowning (10.9%). The male victims outnumbered females in a 3 : 1 ratio.
Patient’s belief towards pain management may affect pain management outcomes and quality of life. The main aim of the present study was to determine the impact of a pre-operative pain education package towards pain belief among patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery in a tertiary hospital. A one-group pre-test post-test design study was conducted on orthopaedic surgery patients. Thirty respondents were recruited and pre-operative pain education was administered individually before surgery. Pre-operative and post-operative pain belief, management scores and side effects were measured using the Barrier Questionnaire (BQ-13). The results reported significant differences between pre-test scores (Mean = 41.87, Standard Deviation = 11.467) and post-test scores (Mean=34.80, Standard Deviation=13.026) of pain belief (t = 2.84, p = 0.004). There were also significant differences between pre-test scores (Mean = 37.10, Standard Deviation = 10.610) and post-test scores (Mean=30.80, Standard Deviation = 11.424) of pain management (t = 3.856, p = 0.0005). Respondent’s gender (t = -2.403, p = 0.023) and ethnicity (F = 5.038, p=0.014) reported significant differences with p value < 0.05, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between educational level, ethnicity, prior surgical history with pain belief (p> 0.05). There was positive impact of the pain education package towards pain belief and painmanagement among respondents who underwent orthopaedics surgery in a tertiary hospital. Reinforcement of pain educational program is pivotal in order to achieve optimal post-operative pain management.
Keywords: pain, education, orthopaedics, patient, surgery
INTRODUCTION: Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental problem associated with childbirth. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of early PPD and possible relevant risk factors among women attending primary health centers in Mazandaran province, Iran for the first time.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 2279 eligible women during weeks 32-42 of pregnancy to determine bio-psycho-socio-cultural risk factors of depression at 2 weeks post-partum using the Iranian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Univariate and hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis.
RESULTS: Among 1,739 mothers whose EPDS scores were ≤ 12 during weeks 32-42 of gestation and at the follow-up study, the cumulative incidence rate of depression was 6.9% (120/1,739) at 2 weeks post-partum. In the multivariate model the factor that predicted depression symptomatology at 2 weeks post-partum was having psychiatric distress in pregnancy based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (OR = 1.06, (95% CI: 1.04-1.09), p = 0.001). The risk of PPD also lower in those with sufficient parenting skills (OR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69-0.88), p = 0.001), increased marital satisfaction (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.9-0.99), p = 0.03), increased frequency of practicing rituals (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.99), p = 0.004) and in those whose husbands had better education (OR = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), p = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that a combination of demographic, sociological, psychological and cultural risk factors can make mothers vulnerable to PPD.
KEYWORDS: depression; incidence; post-partum
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the QTc interval between low and high dose methadone groups and evaluate the pattern of QTc variation.
METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study conducted from December 2010 till August 2011 at Malaysian University of Science's Hospital. Forty six subjects, grouped in high dose (>80mg) and low dose (<80mg) oral methadone, were followed-up at 4-weekly for QTc measurements. Relevant demographic and biochemical profiles were taken at intervals with concurrent QTc measurements.
RESULTS: No significant QTc differences between methadone dosage groups were found at Week 0 (434ms vs 444ms, p = 0.166) and week 8 (446.5ms vs 459ms, p = 0.076), but not at week 4(435ms vs 450ms, p = 0.029). However, there were significant associations between the groups with QTc prolongation at week 0 and 4 (OR 4.29(95% CI 1.01, 18.72) p=0.044 and OR 5.18 (95% CI 1.34, 20.06) p =0.013, respectively) but not at week 8 (OR 2.44 (95% CI 0.74, 8.01) p=0.139). On multivariate analysis, dose group was the sole significant factor for QTc prolongation for week 0 and 4 (p values 0.047 and 0.017, respectively), but not at week 8.
CONCLUSION: High-dose methadone group is more likely to develop prolonged QTc than low-dose group. However, such effects were inconsistent and occurred even during chronic methadone therapy, mandating judicious QTc and serum methadone monitoring.
KEYWORDS: High Dose; Low Dose; Methadone; QTc
This audit report assessed the structure, processes and outcome of the pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) management in adults conducted at eight government health clinics within the high TB burden Gombak district. All newly diagnosed PTB patients from November 2012 to November 2013 were identified from the tuberculosis registry. Patients less than 18 years old, were transferred out or extrapulmonary tuberculosis was excluded from the study. The assessment criteria for PTB were defined according to the latest Malaysian TB clinical practice guidelines (TB CPG) 2012. A total of 117 patients were included in this report and data were extracted and analysed using SPSS version 20.0. The mean age of patients was 40.4 ± 14.4 SD. Majority was men (63.2%). Out of 117 patients, 82.1% were Malaysian citizens and 17.9% were foreigners. Malays were the majority (65%) followed by 7.7% Chinese, 10.3% Indian and 17.1% others. The most common clinical feature was cough (88.0%) followed by loss of weight (58.1%), loss of appetite (57.3%), fever (56.4%), night sweat (30.8%) and haemoptysis (32.5%). Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear was positive in 94% of cases. Chest X-ray and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening results were available for 89.1 and 82.1% cases respectively. The results for the sputum culture were available in 27.4% of patients and 54.7% were documented as done but pending results. The clinics have a successful directly observed therapy (DOT) program with 94.0% patients documented under DOT. Out of 53 patients on maintenance phase, 47.2% were identified as cured. Cure rate for those completed treatment was 100%. The defaulter rate was 17.1%. This audit demonstrated the attempt made by the clinics to adhere to the recommended guidelines. However, improvements are to be made in the documentation of medical records, tracing of investigation results and reduction of the number of defaulters.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) monitoring in hypotensive shock patients presenting to the ED.
METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in a tertiary ED. One hundred three adults in shock with hypotension presenting to the ED were recruited into the study. They were grouped according to different types of shock, hypovolemic, cardiogenic, septic and others. Vital signs and ETCO2 were measured on presentation and at 30-min intervals up to 120 min. Blood gases and serum lactate levels were obtained on arrival. All patients were managed according to standard protocols and treatment regimes. Patient survival up to hospital admission and at 30 days was recorded.
RESULTS: Mean ETCO2 for all patients on arrival was 29.07 ± 9.96 mmHg. Average ETCO2 for patients in hypovolemic, cardiogenic and septic shock was 29.64 ± 11.49, 28.60 ± 9.87 and 27.81 ± 7.39 mmHg, respectively. ETCO2 on arrival was positively correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, MAP, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate when analyzed in all shock patients. Early ETCO2 measurements were found to be significantly lower in patients who did not survive to hospital admission (p = 0.005). All patients who had ETCO2 ≤ 12mmHg died in the ED. However, normal ETCO2 does not ensure patient survival.
CONCLUSION: The use of ETCO2 in the ED has great potential to be used as a method of non-invasive monitoring of patients in shock.
Study site: Emergency department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Malaysia for the year 2001 was 2.8 per 100,000 people. The mortality rate is increasing. A retrospective cohort study measuring the survival of HCC patients who received treatment in Selayang Hospital was conducted from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2006. The main objectives of the study were to measure the survival of the patients and to understand the influencing factors, especially ethnicity. The subjects were newly diagnosed cases of HCC by CT scan and histopathological assessment who underwent futher investigations and treatments in Hospital Selayang (inception cohort). The survival time was measured from the date of diagnosis until the subjects died, or failed to follow-up at the end of the study period (31 December 2007). A total of 299 patients were selected with 95 patients dying, the majority among Chinese (39.1%). Subgroup analysis according to ethnicity proved significantly that Chinese patients who had smaller tumor, less number of nodules, low AFP level, Child Pugh Class A and received surgical treatment had a better median survival rate compared to other ethnic groups. Malay (cHR: 1.3, 95%CI; 0.89-1.85) and Indian (cHR: 1.3, 95%CI; 0.74-2.26) patients had a poor survival compared to Chinese patients, but not in the final model. Therefore ethnicity may play a role in survival of HCC patients, but not as a main hazard prognostic factor.
The association between nutrition and cancer in general had been a controversial issue between scientists in the last
three decades, because some argued that there is a relationship and some nutrients can help in preventing cancer
occurrence, although this has not been a consistent finding by other studies. Studies were identified through a
systematic review of literature available on PubMed in between 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2013. We
included all studies that assessed nutrition or diet with occurrence or mortality of breast cancer. Out of 42 articles,
we included 8 articles in our screening and discussion. Among these 8 studies, there were 2 case-controls, 3 cohort
and 3 randomized control trials (RCT) studies. Although most studies reported that nutrition isassociated with
decreased risk, some reported the contrary,whereas others reported no relation. It was demonstrated a conflict
between the included papers in regards of the association between nutrition and breast cancer. These finding needs
to be re-evaluated in future studies.
Despite evidence showing that structured rehabilitation after stroke improves functional outcomes, providing seamless rehabilitation from hospital to community has been elusive. The service provided should be able to accommodate variable degree of impairments and needs of the stroke survivors. This study aimed to assess the outcome of a multidisciplinary-based outpatient rehabilitation service for stroke patients living in the community. Patients who were discharged from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre after an acute stroke were referred to the Combined Stroke Rehabilitation Clinic (CSRC). Post stroke patients were assigned individually designed programs which were problem based and used task specific activities to achieve desired goals. Patients were reviewed on a regular basis either up to completion of the 2 year program, or are able to be discharged to the community, whichever is earlier. Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and Berg Balance Scores (BBS) were used for monitoring. A total of 68 patients were managed in CSRC for two years since its initiation, with mean age of 62.4 years (SD 12.4) with the mean duration of stroke when first reviewed in CSRC was 11.5 months (SD 11.9). Majority of patients (64.7%) received either two or three types of intervention. Both MBI and BBS demonstrated significant improvement over 12-months period (p value of 0.006 and 0.017 respectively). CSRC proved that structured rehabilitation intervention was beneficial in terms of functional status and improvement in balance to post-stroke patients.
Study site: Combined Stroke Rehabiltation clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The objectives were to identify factors associated with early revisit of adult patients with acute asthma exarcebation discharged from the Emergency Department (ED). It was a retrospective cohort study with patients aged 12 years or more within a period of 1 month and who were treated for acute asthma and discharged from the ED of Sarawak General Hospital. A total of 397 patients fulfilled sampling criteria and out of this number, 13.9% had revisit to the ED within 2 weeks. In all of these revisit cases, 9.1% were actually admitted. Prescription rate of oral corticosteroid was found to be low (24.9%) and abscond rate was high (25.1%). Patients who absconded from the ED and their concurrent infection were associated with early ED revisit.
Objective: EpiNet was established to encourage epilepsy research. EpiNet is used for multicenter cohort studies and investigator-led trials. Physicians must be accredited to recruit patients into trials. Here, we describe the accreditation process for the EpiNet-First trials.
Methods: Physicians with an interest in epilepsy were invited to assess 30 case scenarios to determine the following: whether patients have epilepsy; the nature of the seizures (generalized, focal); and the etiology. Information was presented in two steps for 23 cases. The EpiNet steering committee determined that 21 cases had epilepsy. The steering committee determined by consensus which responses were acceptable for each case. We chose a subset of 18 cases to accredit investigators for the EpiNet-First trials. We initially focused on 12 cases; to be accredited, investigators could not diagnose epilepsy in any case that the steering committee determined did not have epilepsy. If investigators were not accredited after assessing 12 cases, 6 further cases were considered. When assessing the 18 cases, investigators could be accredited if they diagnosed one of six nonepilepsy patients as having possible epilepsy but could make no other false-positive errors and could make only one error regarding seizure classification.
Results: Between December 2013 and December 2014, 189 physicians assessed the 30 cases. Agreement with the steering committee regarding the diagnosis at step 1 ranged from 47% to 100%, and improved when information regarding tests was provided at step 2. One hundred five of the 189 physicians (55%) were accredited for the EpiNet-First trials. The kappa value for diagnosis of epilepsy across all 30 cases for accredited physicians was 0.70.
Significance: We have established criteria for accrediting physicians using EpiNet. New investigators can be accredited by assessing 18 case scenarios. We encourage physicians with an interest in epilepsy to become EpiNet-accredited and to participate in these investigator-led clinical trials.
BACKGROUND: Elder abuse and neglect (EAN) is a growing public health problem, and numerous adverse health effects of abuse in late life have been documented. Little is known, however, about the impact of elder abuse on sleep quality. This study examines the longitudinal relationship between EAN and sleep quality.
METHODS: This was a 2-year prospective cohort study involving 1927 older adults in a rural Malaysian district, Kuala Pilah. A multi-stage cluster sampling strategy was employed. After 2 years, 1189 respondents were re-assessed. EAN was determined using the modified Conflict Tactic Scale, while sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).
RESULTS: The prevalence of elder abuse was 8.1% (95% CI:6.9,9.3). Longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equations showed that elder abuse contributed to higher PSQI scores (B:0.49, 95% CI:0.17,0.58). Sub-analyses demonstrated that psychological abuse and neglect had significant longitudinal relationships with increase of PSQI scores, while other subtypes did not.
CONCLUSION: Abuse in late life, particularly psychological abuse and neglect, result in greater PSQI scores. Even though this may imply decline in sleep quality, our findings were not considered clinically significant as they did not exceed the clinical cut-off score of five. Nevertheless, sleep quality is an important determinant of health and a predictor of mortality among older adults; thus, understanding its relationship with abuse is useful to health care providers and policy-makers in improving health services and upgrading preventive measures.
Introduction: The LA-i was found to be valid, reliable, simple and easy to be administered and consumed minimal time. However, to author knowledge, none of articles reported its stability across multiple observations. Realising its potential, continued research is required to optimize its role, usefulness and applicability as a tool to help educators to understand their students’ learning approaches. Objective: To determine stability of the LA-i to measure characteristics of students’ learning approaches at different time and occasions in a sample of medical students.Method: A prospective cohort study was done on 177 first year medical students. It was administered to a cohort of medical students at four different intervals. The Cronbach’s alpha and intra-class correlation analysis were applied to measure internal consistency and agreement level across the
intervals. The analysis was done using SPSS 18. Result: A total of 157 (88.7%) first year medical students responded completely to the inventory. The overall Cronbach’s alpha value of the LA-i at different intervals ranged between 0.79 and 0.92, The Cronbach’s alpha values for surface learning
approach subscale ranged between 0.65 and 0.80. The Cronbach’s alpha value for strategic learning approach subscale ranged between 0.76 and 0.84. The Cronbach’s alpha value for deep learning approach subscale ranged between 0.83 and 0.95. ICC values for the three learning approach subscales ranged between 0.46 and 0.50. Conclusion: This study reflected that the LA-i had high level of internal stability to measure students’ learning approaches at different time and occasions. Continued research is required to optimize its role, usefulness and applicability at various educational settings.
The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age.
A one year follow up was conducted on 87 patients above 60 years of age who sustained a hip fracture following a trivial injury. All patients admitted to the University Malaya Medical Center between October 1995 and September 1996 were screened and treated according following standard treatment protocols. An activity of daily living index i.e. the Barthel Index was administered both at admission and one year later. Information was obtained either through the telephone or directly from the patient at the clinic. The one year mortality rate was 26% while that at six months was 22%, with patients in the above 80 years group showing a 50% mortality. We found no correlation between the mortality rate and the duration of hospital stay, delay before surgery, ASA grade premorbid medical conditions, type of fracture or premorbid activity level. There was no deterioration of dependency after three months following discharge. The mortality rate was similar to other studies. The level of disability following fracture suggests ongoing home is needed and that domiciliary rehabilitation within the first six months of discharge may needed.
Introduction. The burden of tuberculosis is high in eastern Malaysia, and rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine M. tuberculosis susceptibility and document management after receipt of susceptibility results.
Methods. Prospective study of adult outpatients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Sabah, Malaysia. Additionally, hospital clinicians accessed the reference laboratory for clinical purposes during the study.
Results. 176 outpatients were enrolled; 173 provided sputum samples. Mycobacterial culture yielded M. tuberculosis in 159 (91.9%) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) in three (1.7%). Among outpatients there were no instances of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Seven people (4.5%) had isoniazid resistance (INH-R); all were switched to an appropriate second-line regimen for varying durations (4.5-9 months). Median delay to commencement of the second-line regimen was 13 weeks. Among 15 inpatients with suspected TB, 2 had multidrug resistant TB (one extensively drug resistant), 2 had INH-R, and 4 had NTM.
Conclusions. Current community rates of MDR-TB in Sabah are low. However, INH-resistance poses challenges, and NTM is an important differential diagnosis in this setting, where smear microscopy is the usual diagnostic modality. To address INH-R management issues in our setting, we propose an algorithm for the treatment of isoniazid-resistant PTB.
Study site: Tuberculosis clinic, Klinik Kesihatan Luyang, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
METHODS: Information on sociodemographics, dependency using the Barthel index and fall characteristics were collected from consecutive patients attending the ED over a 6-month period. Barthel score was reassessed at 12 months. Ten-year mortality data were obtained through the National Registry Department.
RESULTS: A total of 198 participants, with a mean age (standard deviation) of 76.2 years (6.3 years) and 74% women, were recruited. Of these, 70% sustained falls indoors, while 49% of falls occurred between 06.00 to 12.00 hours. Total Barthel scores were significantly lower at 1-year follow up compared with baseline (median [interquartile range], 20  vs 18 , P