Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 51 in total

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  1. Chin YP, Mohamad S, Abas MR
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(9):3459-71.
    PMID: 20957106 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11092459
    The removal of four parabens, methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and benzyl-paraben, by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) polymer from aqueous solution was studied. Different β-CD polymers were prepared by using two cross-linkers, i.e., hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) and toluene-2,6-diisocyanate (TDI), with various molar ratios of cross-linker. β-CD-HMDI polymer with molar ratio of 1:7 and β-CD-TDI polymer with ratio 1:4 gave the highest adsorption of parabens among the β-CD-HMDI and β-CD-TDI series, and were subsequently used for further studies. The adsorption capacity of β-CD-HMDI is 0.0305, 0.0376, 0.1854 and 0.3026 mmol/g for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and benzyl-paraben, respectively. β-CD-TDI have higher adsorption capacities compared with β-CD-HMDI, the adsorption capacity are 0.1019, 0.1286, 0.2551, and 0.3699 mmol/g methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and benzyl-paraben respectively. The parameters studied were adsorption capacity, water retention, and reusability. Role of both cross-linker in adsorption, hydrophobicity of polymers, and adsorption capacity of different parabens were compared and discussed. All experiments were conducted in batch adsorption technique. These polymers were applied to real samples and showed positive results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry*
  2. Sulaiman S, Mokhtar MN, Naim MN, Baharuddin AS, Sulaiman A
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2015 Feb;175(4):1817-42.
    PMID: 25427594 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-014-1417-x
    Nanobiocatalysis is a new frontier of emerging nanosized material support in enzyme immobilization application. This paper is about a comprehensive review on cellulose nanofibers (CNF), including their structure, surface modification, chemical coupling for enzyme immobilization, and potential applications. The CNF surface consists of mainly -OH functional group that can be directly interacted weakly with enzyme, and its binding can be improved by surface modification and interaction of chemical coupling that forms a strong and stable covalent immobilization of enzyme. The knowledge of covalent interaction for enzyme immobilization is important to provide more efficient interaction between CNF support and enzyme molecule. Enzyme immobilization onto CNF is having potential for improving enzymatic performance and production yield, as well as contributing toward green technology and sustainable sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry
  3. Qasim SSB, Nogueria LP, Fawzy AS, Daood U
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2020 Jun 16;21(5):173.
    PMID: 32548717 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-020-01708-x
    Innovative strategies for periodontal regeneration have been the focus of research clusters across the globe for decades. In order to overcome the drawbacks of currently available options, investigators have suggested a novel concept of functionally graded membrane (FGM) templates with different structural and morphological gradients. Chitosan (CH) has been used in the past for similar purpose. However, the composite formulation of composite and tetracycline when cross-linked with glutaraldehyde have received little attention. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the drug loading and release characteristics of novel freeze gelated chitosan templates at different percentages of glutaraldehyde. These were cross-linked with 0.1 and 1% glutaraldehyde and loaded with doxycycline hyclate. The electron micrographs depicted porous morphology of neat templates. After cross-linking, these templates showed compressed ultrastructures. Computerized tomography analysis showed that the templates had 88 to 92% porosity with average pore diameter decreased from 78 to 44.9 μm with increasing concentration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed alterations in the glycosidic segment of chitosan fingerprint region which after drug loading showed a dominant doxycycline spectral composite profile. Interestingly, swelling profile was not affected by cross-linking either at 0.1 and 1% glutaraldehyde and template showed a swelling ratio of 80%, which gained equilibrium after 15 min. The drug release pattern also showed a 40 μg/mL of release after 24 h. These doxycycline-loaded templates show their tendency to be used in a functionally graded membrane facing the defect site.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/pharmacokinetics; Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry*
  4. Shamel MM, Azaha RB, Al-Zuhair S
    PMID: 16317961
    The amount of lipase from Mucor miehei adsorption on ultrafiltration polysulfone hollow fiber membrane chips has been determined using different lipase concentrations at three different temperatures, namely 30, 35, and 40 degrees C. It was experimentally shown that adsorption of lipase increases with temperature. The results were used to evaluate the constants found in the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model coupled with the Van't Hoff's relationship. A temperature dependence correlation for the amount of adsorbed lipase activity, alip,ads, and that present in the supernatant solution, alip,free was determined. The effect of varying the concentration on a cross-linking agent, namely, glutaraldehyde, to the membrane chips was also tested. It was found that, under the same operating conditions, the amount of lipase adsorbed on polysulfone membranes was increased dramatically after pre-treating the membrane with 1% Glutaraldehyde. However, increasing the concentration of the cross-linking agent has a low effect on the amount of lipase adsorbed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents
  5. Daood U, Akram Z, Matinlinna JP, Fawzy AS
    Dent Mater, 2019 07;35(7):1017-1030.
    PMID: 31064669 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2019.04.005
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate EDC-assisted collagen crosslinking effect with different concentrations of tiopronin-protected gold (TPAu) nanoparticles on demineralized dentine.

    METHODS: TPAu nanoparticles were fabricated from 0.31-g tetrachloroauric acid and 0.38-g of N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine (2.4-mmol). Then co-dissolved using 35-mL of 6:1 methanol/acetic acid and mixed using NaBH4. EDC (0.3-M) was conjugated to TPAu nanoparticles at TPAU/EDC-0.25:1, and TPAU/EDC-0.5:1 treatment formulations ratios. Dentin specimens treated with 0.3-M EDC solution alone or left untreated were used as control. Nanoparticles formulations were characterized in term of particles morphology and size, Zeta potential, thermogravimetric analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering. Dentin substrates were characterized in term of TEM investigation, dentin proteases characterization, hydroxyproline liberation, elastic modulus measurement, Raman analysis and confocal microscopy viewing.

    RESULTS: TEM evaluation of tiopronin protected gold nanoparticles dispersion revealed nano-clusters formations in both groups. However, based on our TEM measurements, the particle-size was ranging from ˜20 to 50 nm with spherical core-shape which were almost similar for both TPAu/EDC ratios (0.5:1 and 0.25:1). Zeta potential measurements indicate negative nanoparticles surface charge. SAXS profiles for both formulations, suggest a typical profile for uni-lamellar nanoparticles. Superior dentin collagen cross-linking effect was found with the TPAu/EDC nanoparticles formulations compared to the control and EDC treated groups.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Cross-linking of dentin collagen using TPAu coupled with EDC through TPAu/EDC nanoparticles formulations is of potential significance in improving the biodegradation resistance, proteases inhibition, mechanical and structural stability of demineralized dentin substrates. In addition, the cross-linking effect is dependent on TPAu/EDC ratio, whereas higher cross-linking effect was found at TPAu/EDC ratio of 0.5:1.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents
  6. Liew KH, Loh PL, Juan JC, Yarmo MA, Yusop RM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:796196.
    PMID: 25054185 DOI: 10.1155/2014/796196
    Cross-linked resin-captured palladium (XL-QPPd) was readily prepared by simple physical adsorption onto the high loading QuadraPure macroporous resin and a subsequent reduction process. To enhance the mechanical stability, entrapped palladium nanocatalysts were cross-linked with succinyl chloride. Both transmission electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the palladium nanoparticles were well dispersed with diameters ranging in 4-10 nm. The catalyst performed good catalytic activity in microwave-promoted Suzuki cross-coupling reactions in water under aerobic condition with mild condition by using various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid. In addition, the catalyst showed an excellent recyclability without significant loss of catalytic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry
  7. Oladoja NA, Adelagun RO, Ahmad AL, Unuabonah EI, Bello HA
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2014 May 1;117:51-9.
    PMID: 24632030 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.02.006
    A novel adsorbent, magnetic, macro-reticulated cross-linked chitosan (MRC) was synthesised for the removal of tetracycline (TC) from water using a source of biogenic waste (gastropod shells) as a pore-forming agent. The insertion of crosslinks into the chitosan frame was confirmed by FTIR analysis, while the stability of the MRC was demonstrated via a stability test performed in an acidic solution. The enhanced porosity of the MRC was confirmed by the evaluation of its porosity, a swelling test and the determination of its specific surface area. The time-concentration profile of the sorption of TC onto the MRC demonstrated that equilibrium was attained relatively quickly (120 min), and the data obtained fitted a pseudo second order (r(2)>0.99) kinetic equation better than a pseudo first order or reversible first order kinetic equation. The optimisation of process variables indicated that the sorption of TC onto the MRC was favoured at a low solution pH and that the presence of organics (simulated by the addition of humic acid) negatively impacted the magnitude of TC removal. The area of coverage of TC on the MRC (2.51 m(2)/g) was low compared to the specific surface area of the MRC (47.95 m(2)/g). The value of the calculated energy of adsorption of TC onto the MRC was 100 kJ/mol, which is far above the range of 1-16 kJ/mol stipulated for physical adsorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry*
  8. Manickam B, Sreedharan R, Elumalai M
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2014;11(1):139-45.
    PMID: 24041312
    One of the popular approaches in controlling drug delivery from the polymeric carriers is suitably achieved by the inclusion of crosslinking agents into the formulations at different concentrations. Nevertheless, addition of the chemical crosslinkers such as glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde etc, used in the drug delivery systems causes very serious cytotoxic reactions. These chemical crosslinking agents did not offer any significant advantageous effects when compared to the natural crosslinking agents for instance genipin, which is quite less toxic, biocompatible and offers very stable crosslinked products. Based on the earlier reports the safety of this particular natural crosslinker is very well established, since it has been widely used as a Chinese traditional medicine for long-time, isolated from fruits of the plant Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. This concise article largely portrayed the value of this unique natural crosslinker, utilized in controlling the drug delivery from the various formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry*
  9. Hezaveh H, Muhamad II
    Carbohydr Polym, 2012 Jun 5;89(1):138-45.
    PMID: 24750615 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.02.062
    In this article, silver and magnetite nanofillers were synthesized in modified κ-carrageenan hydrogels using the in situ method. The effect of metallic nanoparticles in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) release of a model drug (methylene blue) has been investigated. The effect of nanoparticles loading and genipin cross-linking on GIT release of nanocomposite is also studied to finally provide the most suitable drug carrier system. In vitro release studies revealed that using metallic nanocomposites hydrogels in GIT studies can improve the drug release in intestine and minimize it in the stomach. It was found that cross-linking and nanofiller loading can significantly improve the targeted release. Therefore, applying metallic nanoparticles seems to be a promising strategy to develop GIT controlled drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry
  10. Azlan K, Wan Saime WN, Lai Ken L
    J Environ Sci (China), 2009;21(3):296-302.
    PMID: 19634439
    The capabilities of chitosan and chitosan-EGDE (ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) beads for removing Acid Red 37 (AR 37) and Acid Blue 25 (AB 25) from aqueous solution were examined. Chitosan beads were cross-linked with EGDE to enhance its chemical resistance and mechanical strength. Experiments were performed as a function of pH, agitation period and concentration of AR 37 and AB 25. It was shown that the adsorption capacities of chitosan for both acid dyes were comparatively higher than those of chitosan-EGDE. This is mainly because cross-linking using EGDE reduces the major adsorption sites -NH3+ on chitosan. Langmuir isotherm model showed the best conformity compared to Freundlich and BET. The kinetic experimental data agreed very well to the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The desorption study revealed that after three cycles of adsorption and desorption by NaOH and HCl, both adsorbents retained their promising adsorption abilities. FT-IR analysis proved that the adsorption of acid dyes onto chitosan-based adsorbents was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that chitosan and chitosan-EGDE beads were favourable adsorbers and could be employed as low-cost alternatives for the removal of acid dyes in wastewater treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry
  11. Gan CY, Alkarkhi AF, Easa AM
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2009 Apr;107(4):366-72.
    PMID: 19332294 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2008.12.007
    D-optimal design was employed to optimize the mixture of cross-linking agents formulation: microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) and ribose, and the processing parameters (i.e. incubation and heating time) in the mixture in order to obtain combined-cross-linked bovine serum albumin gels that have high gel strength, pH close to neutral and yet medium in browning. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the contribution of quadratic term to the model over the linear was significant for pH and L* value, whereas linear model was significant for gel strength. Optimization study using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to the mixture components and process variables and the optimum conditions obtained were: MTGase of 1.34-1.43 g/100 mL, ribose of 1.07-1.16 g/100 mL, incubation time of 5 h at 40 degrees C and heating time of 3 h at 90 degrees C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry*
  12. Tang KF, Abdullah MP, Yusoff K, Tan WS
    J Med Chem, 2007 Nov 15;50(23):5620-6.
    PMID: 17918821
    The core protein (HBcAg) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been shown to interact with the large surface antigen during HBV morphogenesis, and these interactions can be blocked by small peptides selected from either linear or constrained phage display peptide libraries. The association of HBcAg with peptide inhibitors was quantitatively evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The thermodynamic data show that the interaction between HBcAg and peptide MHRSLLGRMKGA is enthalpy-driven and occurs at a 3:1 stoichiometry and dissociation constant (Kd) value of 79.4 muM. However, peptide WSFFSNI displays a higher binding affinity for HBcAg with a Kd value of 18.5 muM when compared to peptide MHRSLLGRMKGA. A combinatorial approach using chemical cross-linking and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry shows that the Lys of peptide MHRSLLGRMKGA interacted either with D64, E77, or D78 of HBcAg.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry
  13. Ngah WS, Ab Ghani S, Kamari A
    Bioresour Technol, 2005 Mar;96(4):443-50.
    PMID: 15491825
    A batch adsorption system was applied to study the adsorption of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions from aqueous solution by chitosan and cross-linked chitosan beads. The adsorption capacities and rates of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions onto chitosan and cross-linked chitosan beads were evaluated. Chitosan beads were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GLA), epichlorohydrin (ECH) and ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) in order to enhance the chemical resistance and mechanical strength of chitosan beads. Experiments were carried out as function of pH, agitation period, agitation rate and concentration of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Equilibrium data agreed very well with the Langmuir model. The kinetic experimental data correlated well with the second-order kinetic model, indicating that the chemical sorption was the rate-limiting step. Results also showed that chitosan and cross-linked chitosan beads were favourable adsorbers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry*
  14. Azila AA, Barbari T, Searson P
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:51-2.
    PMID: 15468814
    Considerable effort has been focused on the method of immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) for amperometric glucose biosensors since the technique employed may influence the available activity of the enzyme and thus affect the performance of the sensor. Narrow measuring range and low current response are still considered problems in this area. In this work, poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) was investigated as a potential matrix for GOD immobilization. GOD was entrapped in cross-linked PVA. The use of a PVA-GOD membrane as the enzymatic component of a glucose biosensor was found to be promising in both the magnitude of its signal and its relative stability over time. The optimum PVA-GOD membrane (cross-linking density of 0.06) was obtained through careful selection of the cross-linking density of the PVA matrix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents*
  15. Fan HY, Duquette D, Dumont MJ, Simpson BK
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Dec;120(Pt A):263-273.
    PMID: 30130612 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.08.084
    Composite films comprised of salmon (Salmo salar) skin gelatin and zein were prepared via crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize film composition to maximize tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EAB), and to minimize water solubility (WS) of the films. The significant (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry*
  16. Sutirman ZA, Sanagi MM, Abd Karim J, Abu Naim A, Wan Ibrahim WA
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Feb;107(Pt A):891-897.
    PMID: 28935540 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.09.061
    Crosslinked chitosan beads were grafted with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) using ammonium persulfate (APS) as free radical initiator. Important variables on graft copolymerization such as temperature, reaction time, concentration of initiator and concentration of monomer were optimized. The results revealed optimum conditions for maximum grafting of NVP on 1g crosslinked chitosan as follows: reaction temperature, 60°C; reaction time, 2h and concentrations of APS and NVP of 2.63×10-1M and 26.99×10-1M, respectively. The modified chitosan beads were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, 13C NMR, SEM and BET to provide evidence of successful crosslinking and grafting reactions. The resulting material (cts(x)-g-PNVP) was evaluated as adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions in a batch experiment. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were also applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The results showed that the adsorption of the copper ions onto the beads agreed well with Langmuir model with the maximum capacity (qmax) of 122mgg-1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry
  17. Ong CB, Annuar MSM
    Prep Biochem Biotechnol, 2018 Feb 07;48(2):181-187.
    PMID: 29341838 DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2018.1425707
    Immobilization of cross-linked tannase on pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was successfully performed. Cross-linking of tannase molecules was made through glutaraldehyde. The immobilized tannase exhibited significantly improved pH, thermal, and recycling stability. The optimal pH for both free and immobilized tannase was observed at pH 5.0 with optimal operating temperature at 30°C. Moreover, immobilized enzyme retained greater biocatalytic activities upon 10 repeated uses compared to free enzyme in solution. Immobilization of tannase was accomplished by strong hydrophobic interaction most likely between hydrophobic amino acid moieties of the glutaraldehyde-cross-linked tannase to the MWCNT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry*
  18. Ullah F, Javed F, Othman MBH, Khan A, Gul R, Ahmad Z, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2018 03;29(4):376-396.
    PMID: 29285989 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2017.1421347
    Addressing the functional biomaterials as next-generation therapeutics, chitosan and alginic acid were copolymerized in the form of chemically crosslinked interpenetrating networks (IPNs). The native hydrogel was functionalized via carbodiimide (EDC), catalyzed coupling of soft ligand (1,2-Ethylenediamine) and hard ligand (4-aminophenol) to replace -OH groups in alginic acid units for extended hydrogel- interfaces with the aqueous and sparingly soluble drug solutions. The chemical structure, Lower solution critical temperature (LCST ≈ 37.88 °C), particle size (Zh,app ≈ 150-200 nm), grain size (160-360 nm), surface roughness (85-250 nm), conductivity (37-74 mv) and zeta potential (16-32 mv) of native and functionalized hydrogel were investigated by using FT-IR, solid state-13C-NMR, TGA, DSC, FESEM, AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The effective swelling, drug loading (47-78%) and drug release (53-86%) profiles were adjusted based on selective functionalization of hydrophobic IPNs due to electrostatic complexation and extended interactions of hydrophilic ligands with the aqueous and drug solutions. Drug release from the hydrogel matrices with diffusion coefficient n ≈ 0.7 was established by Non- Fickian diffusion mechanism. In vitro degradation trials of the hydrogel with a 20% loss of wet mass in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and 38% loss of wet mass in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), were investigated for 400 h through bulk erosion. Consequently, a slower rate of drug loading and release was observed for native hydrogel, due to stronger H-bonding, interlocking and entanglement within the IPNs, which was finely tuned and extended by the induced hydrophilic and functional ligands. In the light of induced hydrophilicity, such functional hydrogel could be highly attractive for extended release of sparingly soluble drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry
  19. Mohd Syukri MS, A Rahman R, Mohamad Z, Md Illias R, Nik Mahmood NA, Jaafar NR
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Jan 01;166:876-883.
    PMID: 33144251 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.10.244
    Enzyme immobilization has been known to be one of the methods to improve the stability and reusability of enzyme. In this study, a strategy to optimize laccase immobilization on polyethylene terephthalate grafted with maleic anhydride electrospun nanofiber mat (PET-g-MAH ENM) was developed. The development involves the screening and optimization processes of the crucial factors that influence the immobilization yield such as enzyme concentration, pH values, covalent bonding (CV) time, CV temperature, crosslinking (CL) time, CL temperature and glutaraldehyde concentration using two-level factorial design and Box-Behnken design (BBD), respectively. It was found that laccase concentration, pH values and glutaraldehyde concentration play important role in enhancing the immobilization yield of laccase on PET-g-MAH ENM in the screening process. Subsequently, the optimization result showed at 0.28 mg/ml laccase concentration, pH 3 and 0.45% (v/v) glutaraldehyde concentrations gave the highest immobilization yield at 87.64% which was 81.2% increment from the immobilization yield before optimization. Under the optimum condition, the immobilized laccase was able to oxidize 2, 2-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS) in a broad range of pH (pH 3-6) and temperature (20- 70 °C). Meanwhile, the kinetic parameters for Km and Vmax were 1.331 mM and 0.041 mM/min, respectively. It was concluded that the optimization of immobilized laccase on PET-g-MAH ENM enhance the performance of this biocatalyst.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry
  20. Ahmad N, Colak B, Zhang DW, Gibbs MJ, Watkinson M, Becer CR, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 Apr 08;19(7).
    PMID: 30965649 DOI: 10.3390/s19071677
    Peptide cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel has been widely used for drug delivery and tissue engineering. However, the use of this material as a biosensor for the detection of collagenase has not been explored. Proteases play a key role in the pathology of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The detection of this class of enzyme using the degradable hydrogel film format is promising as a point-of-care device for disease monitoring. In this study, a protease biosensor was developed based on the degradation of a peptide cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel film and demonstrated for the detection of collagenase. The hydrogel was deposited on gold-coated quartz crystals, and their degradation in the presence of collagenase was monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The biosensor was shown to respond to concentrations between 2 and 2000 nM in less than 10 min with a lower detection limit of 2 nM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry
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