OBJECTIVE: To conduct an umbrella review to determine whether there is an association between CVDs and the prevalence of AP in adults.
METHODS: The protocol of the review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42020185753). The literature search was conducted using the following electronic databases: Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science Scopus, PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from inception to May, 2020, with no language restrictions. Systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis that evaluated the association between CVDs and AP were included. Other types of studies, including narrative reviews, were excluded. Two reviewers independently performed a literature search, data extraction and quality assessment of included studies. Any disagreements or doubts were resolved by a third reviewer. The quality of the reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR 2 tool (A measurement tool to assess systematic reviews), with 16 items. A final categorization of the systematic reviews classified each as of 'high', 'moderate', 'low' or 'critically low' quality.
RESULTS: Four systematic reviews were included in the current review. Three reviews were graded by AMSTAR 2 as 'moderate' quality, whereas one review was graded as 'critically low' quality.
DISCUSSION: Only one systematic review included a meta-analysis. Substantial heterogeneity amongst the primary studies included within each systematic review was notable in preventing a pooled analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: From the limited 'moderate' to 'critically low' quality evidence available, the current umbrella review concluded that a weak association exists between CVDs and AP. In the future, well-designed, longitudinal clinical studies with long-term follow-up are required.
METHODS: A literature review of existing studies related to HIE efforts from 2005 was undertaken. Four electronic research databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere) were searched for articles addressing different phases of HIE assimilation process.
RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-four articles were initially selected. Out of 254, 44 studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The assimilation of HIE is a complicated and a multi-staged process. Our findings indicated that HIE assimilation process consisted of four main phases: initiation, organizational adoption decision, implementation and institutionalization. The data helped us recognize the assimilation pattern of HIE in healthcare organizations.
CONCLUSIONS: The results provide useful theoretical implications for research by defining HIE assimilation pattern. The findings of the study also have practical implications for policy makers. The findings show the importance of raising national awareness of HIE potential benefits, financial incentive programs, use of standard guidelines, implementation of certified technology, technical assistance, training programs and trust between healthcare providers. The study highlights deficiencies in the current policy using the literature and identifies the "pattern" as an indication for a new policy approach.
RESULTS: The Condorcet fusion method was examined. This approach combines the outputs of similarity searches from eleven association and distance similarity coefficients, and then the winner measure for each class of molecules, based on Condorcet fusion, was chosen to be the best method of searching. The recall of retrieved active molecules at top 5% and significant test are used to evaluate our proposed method. The MDL drug data report (MDDR), maximum unbiased validation (MUV) and Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD) data sets were used for experiments and were represented by 2D fingerprints.
CONCLUSIONS: Simulated virtual screening experiments with the standard two data sets show that the use of Condorcet fusion provides a very simple way of improving the ligand-based virtual screening, especially when the active molecules being sought have a lowest degree of structural heterogeneity. However, the effectiveness of the Condorcet fusion was increased slightly when structural sets of high diversity activities were being sought.