Using cow-baited net traps in the coastal and hilly areas of northern peninsular Malaysia, 21 species of Anopheles mosquitoes were found. The distribution of common Anopheles is presented. The composition of the anopheline mosquito fauna was more diversified in the coastal areas than in the hilly areas. The displacement of Anopheles sundaicus by Anopheles subpictus and the disappearance of Anopheles hackeri in the coastal area were noted.
The first section of this paper is devoted to an analysis of some theoretical aspects of the Chinese system of reckoning ages, and the second section offers a method of collecting the age statistics of a Chinese population: A discussion of the errors found in the age returns and the unsuccessful measures taken to eradicate these errors in the Malayan censuses conducted prior to1957 leads to an appraisal of the method of collecting Chinese age data in the 1957 census.
The nature, extent and definition of a collaboration varies between individuals, disciplines, departments and institutions. It depends upon such factors as the people involved, the nature of the research problem, the research environment, the institutional culture and demographic factors. This paper will examine the concept of collaborative research and discuss its place and position in an evolving university.
The analysis of the spatial data has been carried out in many disciplines such as demography, meteorology, geology and remote sensing. The spatial data modelling is important because it recognizes the phenomenon of spatial correlation in field experiments. Three main categories of the spatial models, namely, the simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models (Whittle, 1954), the conditional autoregressive (CAR) models (Bartlett, 1971), and the moving average (MA) models (Haining, 1978) have been studied. Whittle (1954) presented a form of bilateral autoregressive (AR) models, whereas Basu and Reinsel (1993) considered the first-order autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model of the quadrant type. Awang, N. and Mahendran Shitan (2003) presented the second-order ARMA model, and established some explicit stationary conditions for the model. When fitting the spatial models and making prediction, it is assumed that, the properties of the process would not change with sites. Properties like stationarities have to be assumed, and for this reason, it was therefore imperative that the researchers had made certain that the process was stationary. This could be achieved by providing the explicit stationarity conditions for the model. The explicit conditions, for a stationary representation of the second-order spatial unilateral ARMA model denoted as ARMA(2,1;2,1), have been established (Awang, N. and Mahendran Shitan, 2003) and in this paper, some explicit conditions are established for a stationary representation of the second-order spatial unilateral ARMA model, denoted as ARMA(2,2;2,2).
Street food in NST province is crucial for the people due to the changing of lifestyles. The
consumers demand enhances the number of street vendors in the province. Nevertheless, there
are vendors that are not practicing good hygienic compared to other province. The objectives
of this study are to identify the pattern of street food consumption, and consumers’ opinion
towards the street food. Observation and in-depth interview were used to collect data. Ten
respondents with various demographic backgrounds were interviewed on their experiences,
and opinions toward street food. The data found that the street food consuming pattern was
formed in six major themes: consumer characteristic, type of food, location, time of consuming,
ways to consume and reasons of consuming. Additionally, the study also declared consumer’s
opinion on the problems related to street food. The finding aims local authority to have more
understanding on the culture of street food consumption, and the problems that have been
existed to find the appropriate improvement, and do not induce any conflict between local
authority with street vendors and authority with consumers.
The increasing evidence that spirituality is a critical component for promoting health and well-being has made spirituality more significant to nursing practice. However, although nurses' perceptions of spirituality have been studied in western countries, there has been little research on this topic in Southeast Asian countries where religions other than Christianity predominate. This study explores Malaysian nurses' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care and examines associations between socio-demographics and their perceptions. The Malaysian Nurse Forum Facebook closed group was used for data collection with 208 completed the online survey. The participants considered that spirituality is a fundamental aspect of nursing. Nonetheless, half of the respondents were uncertain regarding the use of the spiritual dimension for individuals with no religious affiliation. Significant differences were found between educational levels in mean scores for spirituality and spiritual care. There was also a positive relationship between perception of spirituality and spiritual care among the respondents. Despite the positive perceptions of nurses of spirituality in nursing care, the vast majority of nurses felt that they required more education and training relating to spiritual aspects of care, delivered within the appropriate cultural context.
This study was carried out to determine the influence of LMX towards the SCB worker dimension in a national automotive company in Malaysia. There were 360 respondents from the automotive company involved in this study. Data collected from respondents were analysed using descriptive (demographic frequencies) and inferential statistics (correlation and regression analysis). The results showed that one of the four independent variables has a positive influence on SCB. In terms of the demographic factors, none of the variables (age, gender and period of service) made any significant difference on LMX and SCB, except the position category. Further suggestions regarding LMX and SCB are discussed based on the findings.
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) is regarded as multifactorial in origin
and this may influence the diagnosis and treatment plan. Early detection of TMD with suitable
management may provide good response. This study was to relate demographic factors, signs and
symptoms, diagnosis, stage of detection and treatment modalities on review outcome. (Copied from article).
There are numerous parametric models for analyzing survival data such as exponential, Weibull, log-normal and gamma. One of such models is the Gompertz model which is widely used in biology and demography. Most of these models are extended to new forms for accommodating different types of censoring mechanisms and different types of covariates. In this paper the performance of the Gompertz model with time-dependent covariate in the presence of right censored data was studied. Moreover, the performance of the model was compared at different censoring proportions (CP) and sample sizes. Also, the model was compared with fixed covariate model. In addition, the effect of fitting a fixed covariate model wrongly to a data with time-dependent covariate was studied. Finally, two confidence interval estimation techniques, Wald and jackknife, were applied to the parameters of this model and the performance of the methods was compared.