BACKGROUND: Changes in cell density and morphology of dental pulp cells over time may affect their capability to respond to tooth injury.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-one extracted teeth were obtained from individuals between the ages of 6 and 80 years. The apical 1/3 of the root region was removed from all teeth prior to routine processing for producing histological slides. The histology slides were used to study the changes in cell density and morphology of selected pulp cells; odontoblasts, subodontoblasts and fibroblasts in the crown and root regions of the dental pulp. Student's t-test and one-way anova were used for statistical analyses.
RESULTS: In all age groups, the cell density for all types of cells was found to be higher in the crown than in the root (p pulp cell density was found to decrease with age in both the crown and root regions. However, it was noted that the reduction of coronal odontoblasts occurred later in life (40-49 years) when compared to that of subodontoblasts or fibroblasts (30-39 years).
CONCLUSIONS: The density of the coronal pulp cells reduces and these cells undergo morphological changes with ageing of individuals and this may affect the pulp's ability to resist tooth injury.
METHODOLOGY: Dental pulp stem cells from healthy (DPSCs) and carious teeth (DPSCs-CT) were isolated from young donors. Both cell lines were expanded in identical culture conditions and subsequently differentiated towards DAergic-like cells using pre-defined dopaminergic cocktails. The dopaminergic efficiencies were evaluated both at gene and protein as well as at secretome levels.
RESULTS: The efficiency of DPSCs-CT to differentiate into DAergic-like cells was not equivalent to that of DPSCs. This was further reflected in both gene and protein generation whereby key neuronal markers such as nestin, NURR1 and beta-III-tubulin were expressed significantly lower as compared to differentiated DPSCs (P
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflamed dental pulp-derived stem cells (iDPSCs) were treated with different concentrations of HPL and PRP (10% and 20%) followed by determination of viability using Alamar Blue assay. Expression of angiogenesis-, adhesion-, and inflammation-regulating genes was also analyzed using RT-qPCR array. Furthermore, expression of growth factors at protein level in the cell culture microenvironment was measured using multiplex assay.
RESULTS: Viability of iDPSCs was significantly (p dental pulp regeneration.
METHODS: Here, we show a robust episomal and xeno-free reprogramming strategy for human iPS generation from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) which renders good efficiency (0.19%) over a short time frame (13-18 days).
RESULTS: The robustness of DPSCs as starting cells for iPS induction is found due to their exceptional inherent stemness properties, developmental origin from neural crest cells, specification for tissue commitment, and differentiation capability. To investigate the epigenetic basis for the high reprogramming efficiency of DPSCs, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and found that the epigenetic signature of DPSCs associated with pluripotent, developmental, and ecto-mesenchymal genes is relatively close to that of iPS and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Among these genes, it is found that overexpression of PAX9 and knockdown of HERV-FRD improved the efficiencies of iPS generation.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study provides underlying epigenetic mechanisms that establish a robust platform for efficient generation of iPS cells from DPSCs, facilitating industrial and clinical use of iPS technology for therapeutic needs.