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  1. Lim GS, Wey MC, Azami NH, Noor NSM, Lau MN, Haque N, et al.
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2021;16(5):577-588.
    PMID: 33198618 DOI: 10.2174/1574888X15999201116162256
    The concept of regenerative endodontics wherein one can replace damaged pulp structures and recuperate the functionality in erstwhile necrotic and infected root canal systems has been a cutting-edge technology. Though the notion started as early as the 1960s, even before the discovery of stem cells and regenerative medicine, it was in the 2000s that this procedure gained momentum. Ever since then, researchers continue to discover its essential benefit to immature teeth and its ability to overcome the caveats of endodontic therapy, which is commonly known as root canal treatment. Further, through this therapy, one can redevelop root even in immature teeth with necrotic pulps, which overall helps in maintaining skeletal and dental development. Past literature indicates that regenerative endodontic procedures seem to be successful, especially when compared with other conventional techniques such as Mineral Trioxide Aggregate apexification. Besides, many clinicians have begun to apply regenerative endodontic procedures to mature teeth in adult patients, with several clinical case reports that have shown complete resolution of signs and symptoms of pulp necrosis. Generally, the three most desirable outcomes anticipated by clinicians from this procedure include resolution of clinical signs and symptoms, root maturation and redevelopment of the neurogenesis process. Despite this, whether these objectives and true regeneration of the pulp/dentin complex are achieved is still a question mark. Following the discovery that regenerative endodontics indeed is a stem cell-based treatment, addressing the fundamental issue surrounding stem cells might assist in achieving all identified clinical outcomes while favoring tissue formation that closely resembles the pulp-dentin complex.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology
  2. Lee SH, Looi CY, Chong PP, Foo JB, Looi QH, Ng CX, et al.
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2021;16(5):551-562.
    PMID: 32988356 DOI: 10.2174/1574888X15666200928110923
    Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that are gaining worldwide attention for their multi-potential use in tissue engineering-based regenerative medicine. They can be obtained from numerous sources and one of the excellent sources is the dental tissue, such as Stem cells that are extracted from the Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED). SHED are considered ideal due to their inherent characteristics, including the capability to proliferate quickly with minimal oncogenesis risk, multipotency capacity and their ability to suppress the immune system. On top of these positive cell traits, SHED are easily accessible with the patient's safety assured, posing less ethical issues and could also provide a sufficient number of cells for prospective clinical uses. This is primarily attributed to their ability to differentiate into multiple cell linages, including osteoblasts, odontoblasts, neuronal cells, adipocytes, as well as endothelial cells. Albeit SHED having a bright future, there still remains an obstacle to develop reliable experimental techniques to retain the long-term regeneration potential of the stem cells for prospective research and clinical applications. Therefore, this review aims to describe the various isolation, expansion and cryopreservation techniques used by researchers in this stem cell field. Optimization of these techniques is crucial to obtain distinct SHED culture with preserved stem cell properties, which enable more reproducible results that will be the key for further stem cell therapy development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  3. Daud S, Nambiar P, Hossain MZ, Rahman MR, Bakri MM
    Gerodontology, 2016 Sep;33(3):315-21.
    PMID: 25266855 DOI: 10.1111/ger.12154
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the changes in cell density and morphology of selected cells of the ageing human dental pulp.

    BACKGROUND: Changes in cell density and morphology of dental pulp cells over time may affect their capability to respond to tooth injury.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-one extracted teeth were obtained from individuals between the ages of 6 and 80 years. The apical 1/3 of the root region was removed from all teeth prior to routine processing for producing histological slides. The histology slides were used to study the changes in cell density and morphology of selected pulp cells; odontoblasts, subodontoblasts and fibroblasts in the crown and root regions of the dental pulp. Student's t-test and one-way anova were used for statistical analyses.

    RESULTS: In all age groups, the cell density for all types of cells was found to be higher in the crown than in the root (p pulp cell density was found to decrease with age in both the crown and root regions. However, it was noted that the reduction of coronal odontoblasts occurred later in life (40-49 years) when compared to that of subodontoblasts or fibroblasts (30-39 years).

    CONCLUSIONS: The density of the coronal pulp cells reduces and these cells undergo morphological changes with ageing of individuals and this may affect the pulp's ability to resist tooth injury.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  4. Zainal Ariffin SH, Kermani S, Megat Abdul Wahab R, Senafi S, Zainal Ariffin Z, Abdul Razak M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:827149.
    PMID: 22919354 DOI: 10.1100/2012/827149
    A major challenge in the application of mesenchymal stem cells in cartilage reconstruction is that whether the cells are able to differentiate into fully mature chondrocytes before grafting. The aim of this study was to isolate mouse dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and differentiate them into chondrocytes. For this investigation, morphological, molecular, and biochemical analyses for differentiated cells were used. To induce the chondrocyte differentiation, DPSC were cultured in chondrogenic medium (Zen-Bio, Inc.). Based on morphological analyses using toluidine blue staining, proteoglycan products appear in DPSC after 21 days of chondrocyte induction. Biochemical analyses in differentiated group showed that alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly increased at day 14 as compared to control (P < 0.05). Cell viability analyses during the differentiation to chondrocytes also showed that these cells were viable during differentiation. However, after the 14th day of differentiation, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the viability proportion among differentiated cells as compared to the control cells. In RT-PCR molecular analyses, mouse DPSC expressed Cd146 and Cd166 which indicated that these cells belong to mesenchymal stem cells. Coll I and Coll II markers showed high expression after 14 and 21 days, respectively. In conclusion, this study showed that DPSC successfully differentiated into chondrocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  5. Ching HS, Luddin N, Rahman IA, Ponnuraj KT
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2017;12(1):71-79.
    PMID: 27527527
    The odontogenic and osteogenic potential of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth (SHED) have been shown clearly by various in vitro and in vivo studies. The findings are promising and demonstrated that dental tissue engineering can give a new hope to the individuals suffering from tooth loss and dental diseases. The evaluation of odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs and SHED is commonly carried out by an illustration of the expression of varied related markers. In this review, few commonly used markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type 1 (Col I), dentin matrix acid phosphoprotein 1 (DMP1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), osteocalcin (OCN), and osteopontin (OPN). DSPP, DMP1, and MEPE (odontogenic markers), which play an important role during early odontoblastic differentiation and late dentin mineralization, have been highlighted. Osteoblastic proliferation and early/late osteoblastic differentiation can be assessed by estimating the expression of Col I, ALP, OCN and OPN. Despite that, till date, there is no marker which could demonstrate for certain, the differentiation of human DPSCs and SHED towards the odontogenic and osteogenic lineage. This review suggests that SHED are noticeably different from DPSCs and exhibited higher capacity for osteogenic differentiation compared to DPSCs. On the other hand, different expression levels are shown by SHED and DPSCs with regards to the osteoblast markers for osteoblastic differentiation, where, SHED expressed higher levels of ALP, Col I and OCN compared to DPSCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  6. Wahab NWA, Guad RM, Subramaniyan V, Fareez IM, Choy KW, Bonam SR, et al.
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2021;16(5):563-576.
    PMID: 32957893 DOI: 10.2174/1574888X15999200918105623
    Stem cells can multiply into more cells with similar types in an undifferentiated form and differentiate into other types of cells. The great success and key essence of stem cell technology is the isolation of high-quality Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) with high potency, either with multipotent or pluripotent property. In this line, Stem cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are highly proliferative stem cells from dental pulp and have multipoint differentiation capacity. These cells play a pivotal role in regenerative medicine, such as cell repair associated with neurodegenerative, hepatobiliary, and pancreatic diseases. In addition, stem cell therapy has been widely used to regulate immune response and repair of tissue lesions. This overview captured the differential biological characteristics, and the potential role of stem cell technology and paid special attention to human welfare SHEDs in eliminating the above-mentioned diseases. This review provides further insights into stem cell technology by expanding the therapeutic potential of SHEDs in tissue engineering and cell organ repairs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  7. Fuloria S, Jain A, Singh S, Hazarika I, Salile S, Fuloria NK
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2021;16(5):507-517.
    PMID: 33390148 DOI: 10.2174/1574888X16999201231213206
    The current decade witnesses the regenerative potential of Stem Cells (SCs) based lifesaving therapies for the treatment of various disease conditions. Human teeth act as a reservoir for SCs that exist in high abundance in baby, wisdom, and permanent teeth. The collection of Stem cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED) is considered a simple process as it offers the convenience of little or no pain. In comparison to the SCs from dental or bone marrow or other tissues, the SHED offers the benefit of higher cellular differentiation and proliferation. Massive in vitro and in vivo studies reveal the regenerative potential of SHED in the engineering of the dental pulp tissue, neuronal tissue, root, bio root, cardiovascular tissues, lymphatic tissues, renal tissues, dermal tissues, hepatic tissues, and bone tissues. The current review describes the methods of collection/ isolation/storage, various biomarkers, and types of SHED. This review highlights the regenerative potential of SHED in the engineering of different tissues of the human body. As per the available research evidence, the present study supports that SHED may differentiate into the endothelial cells, neurons, odontoblasts, pancreatic β-cells, hepatocytes, renal cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, and many other types of cells. The present study recommends that further clinical trials are required before the clinical application of SHED-based therapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  8. Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Abu Kasim NH
    Int Endod J, 2016 Oct;49(10):937-49.
    PMID: 26354006 DOI: 10.1111/iej.12545
    AIM: To investigate whether dental pulp stem cells from carious teeth (DPSCs-CT) can differentiate into functional dopaminergic-like (DAergic) cells and provide an alternative cell source in regenerative medicine.

    METHODOLOGY: Dental pulp stem cells from healthy (DPSCs) and carious teeth (DPSCs-CT) were isolated from young donors. Both cell lines were expanded in identical culture conditions and subsequently differentiated towards DAergic-like cells using pre-defined dopaminergic cocktails. The dopaminergic efficiencies were evaluated both at gene and protein as well as at secretome levels.

    RESULTS: The efficiency of DPSCs-CT to differentiate into DAergic-like cells was not equivalent to that of DPSCs. This was further reflected in both gene and protein generation whereby key neuronal markers such as nestin, NURR1 and beta-III-tubulin were expressed significantly lower as compared to differentiated DPSCs (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  9. Bindal P, Gnanasegaran N, Bindal U, Haque N, Ramasamy TS, Chai WL, et al.
    Clin Oral Investig, 2019 Oct;23(10):3821-3831.
    PMID: 30687907 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-02811-5
    OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to determine the suitable concentrations of human platelet lysate (HPL) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for maintaining the in vitro proliferative and angiogenic potential of inflamed dental pulp stem cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflamed dental pulp-derived stem cells (iDPSCs) were treated with different concentrations of HPL and PRP (10% and 20%) followed by determination of viability using Alamar Blue assay. Expression of angiogenesis-, adhesion-, and inflammation-regulating genes was also analyzed using RT-qPCR array. Furthermore, expression of growth factors at protein level in the cell culture microenvironment was measured using multiplex assay.

    RESULTS: Viability of iDPSCs was significantly (p dental pulp regeneration.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  10. Abdullah MF, Abdullah SF, Omar NS, Mahmood Z, Fazliah Mohd Noor SN, Kannan TP, et al.
    Cell Biol Int, 2014 May;38(5):582-90.
    PMID: 24375868 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.10229
    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) obtained from the dental pulp of human extracted tooth were cultured and characterized to confirm that these were mesenchymal stem cells. The proliferation rate was assessed using AlamarBlue® cell assay. The differentially expressed genes in SHED and DPSCs were identified using the GeneFishing™ technique. The proliferation rate of SHED (P < 0.05) was significantly higher than DPSCs while SHED had a lower multiplication rate and shorter population doubling time (0.01429, 60.57 h) than DPSCs (0.00286, 472.43 h). Two bands were highly expressed in SHED and three bands in DPSCs. Sequencing analysis showed these to be TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1), and ribosomal protein s8, (RPS8) in SHED and collagen, type I, alpha 1, (COL1A1), follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1), lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 1, (LGALS1) in DPSCs. TIMP1 is involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix, cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic function and RPS8 is involved as a rate-limiting factor in translational regulation; COL1A1 is involved in the resistance and elasticity of the tissues; FSTL1 is an autoantigen associated with rheumatoid arthritis; LGALS1 is involved in cell growth, differentiation, adhesion, RNA processing, apoptosis and malignant transformation. This, along with further protein expression analysis, holds promise in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  11. Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Kathirvaloo P, Musa S, Abu Kasim NH
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2018 02;12(2):e881-e893.
    PMID: 28079995 DOI: 10.1002/term.2401
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by tremors and cognitive issues, and is due to the death of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in brain circuits that are responsible for producing neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). Currently, cell replacement therapies are underway to improve upon existing therapeutic approaches such as drug treatments and electrical stimulation. Among the widely available sources, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from deciduous teeth have gained popularity because of their neural crest origin and inherent propensity toward neuronal lineage. Despite the various pre-clinical studies conducted, an important factor yet to be elucidated is the influence of growth phases in a typical trans-differentiation process. This study selected DPSCs at three distinct time points with variable growth phase proportions (G0/G1, S and G2/M) for in vitro trans-differentiation into DA-ergic-like cells. Using commercially available PCR arrays, we identified distinct gene profiles pertaining to cell cycles in these phases. The differentiation outcomes were assessed in terms of morphology and gene and protein expression, as well as with functional assays. It was noted that DPSCs with the highest G0/G1 phase were comparatively the best, representing at least a 2-fold up regulation (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  12. Sangkert S, Kamonmattayakul S, Chai WL, Meesane J
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 Jun;105(6):1624-1636.
    PMID: 28000362 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35983
    Maxillofacial bone defect is a critical problem for many patients. In severe cases, the patients need an operation using a biomaterial replacement. Therefore, to design performance biomaterials is a challenge for materials scientists and maxillofacial surgeons. In this research, porous silk fibroin scaffolds with mimicked microenvironment based on decellularized pulp and fibronectin were created as for bone regeneration. Silk fibroin scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying before modification with three different components: decellularized pulp, fibronectin, and decellularized pulp/fibronectin. The morphologies of the modified scaffolds were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Existence of the modifying components in the scaffolds was proved by the increase in weights and from the pore size measurements of the scaffolds. The modified scaffolds were seeded with MG-63 osteoblasts and cultured. Testing of the biofunctionalities included cell viability, cell proliferation, calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), mineralization and histological analysis. The results demonstrated that the modifying components organized themselves into aggregations of a globular structure. They were arranged themselves into clusters of aggregations with a fibril structure in the porous walls of the scaffolds. The results showed that modified scaffolds with a mimicked microenvironment of decellularized pulp/fibronectin were suitable for cell viability since the cells could attach and spread into most of the pores of the scaffold. Furthermore, the scaffolds could induce calcium synthesis, mineralization, and ALP activity. The results indicated that modified silk fibroin scaffolds with a mimicked microenvironment of decellularized pulp/fibronectin hold promise for use in tissue engineering in maxillofacial bone defects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1624-1636, 2017.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology
  13. Alsaeedi HA, Lam C, Koh AE, Teh SW, Mok PL, Higuchi A, et al.
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2020 Jan;203:111727.
    PMID: 31862637 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111727
    Blindness and vision impairment are caused by irremediable retinal degeneration in affected individuals worldwide. Cell therapy for a retinal replacement can potentially rescue their vision, specifically for those who lost the light sensing photoreceptors in the eye. As such, well-characterized retinal cells are required for the replacement purposes. Stem cell-based therapy in photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium transplantation is well received, however, the drawbacks of retinal transplantation is the limited clinical protocols development, insufficient number of transplanted cells for recovery, the selection of potential stem cell sources that can be differentiated into the target cells, and the ability of cells to migrate to the host tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) belong to a subset of mesenchymal stem cells, and are recently being studied due to its high capability of differentiating into cells of the neuronal lineage. In this review, we look into the potential uses of DPSC in treating retinal degeneration, and also the current data supporting its application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  14. Neelakantan P, Ahmed HMA, Wong MCM, Matinlinna JP, Cheung GSP
    Int Endod J, 2018 Aug;51(8):847-861.
    PMID: 29377170 DOI: 10.1111/iej.12898
    The aim of this systematic review was to address the question: Do different irrigating protocols have an impact on the dislocation resistance of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based materials? The review was performed using a well-defined search strategy in three databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) to include laboratory studies performed between January 1995 and May 2017, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers analysed the papers, assessed the risk of bias and extracted data on teeth used, sample size, size of root canal preparation, type of MTA-based material, irrigants, canal filling method, storage method and duration, region of roots and the parameters of push-out testing (slice thickness, plunger dimensions and plunger loading direction), the main results and dislocation resistance values (in MPa). From 255 studies, 27 were included for full-text analysis. Eight papers that met the inclusion criteria were included in this review. There was a wide variation in dislocation resistance due to differences in irrigation sequence, time and concentration of irrigants, storage method and duration, and the parameters of push-out bond strength testing. A meta-analysis was not done but qualitative synthesis of the included studies was performed. No definitive conclusion could be drawn to evaluate the effect of irrigation protocols on dislocation resistance of MTA-based materials. Recommendations have been provided for standardized testing methods and reporting of future studies, so as to obtain clinically relevant information and to understand the effects of irrigating protocols on root canal sealers and their interactions with the dentine walls of root canals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology
  15. Govindasamy V, Ronald VS, Abdullah AN, Nathan KR, Ab Aziz ZA, Abdullah M, et al.
    J Dent Res, 2011 May;90(5):646-52.
    PMID: 21335539 DOI: 10.1177/0022034510396879
    The post-natal dental pulp tissue contains a population of multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells known as dental pulp stromal/stem cells (DPSCs), with high proliferative potential for self-renewal. In this investigation, we explored the potential of DPSCs to differentiate into pancreatic cell lineage resembling islet-like cell aggregates (ICAs). We isolated, propagated, and characterized DPSCs and demonstrated that these could be differentiated into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineage upon exposure to an appropriate cocktail of differentiating agents. Using a three-step protocol reported previously by our group, we succeeded in obtaining ICAs from DPSCs. The identity of ICAs was confirmed as islets by dithiozone-positive staining, as well as by expression of C-peptide, Pdx-1, Pax4, Pax6, Ngn3, and Isl-1. There were several-fold up-regulations of these transcription factors proportional to days of differentiation as compared with undifferentiated DPSCs. Day 10 ICAs released insulin and C-peptide in a glucose-dependent manner, exhibiting in vitro functionality. Our results demonstrated for the first time that DPSCs could be differentiated into pancreatic cell lineage and offer an unconventional and non-controversial source of human tissue that could be used for autologous stem cell therapy in diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  16. Abdullah M, Rahman FA, Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Abu Kasim NH, Musa S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:235941.
    PMID: 24616615 DOI: 10.1155/2014/235941
    Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure continues to be a significant public health problem. Therefore, it is vital to have a continuous epidemiological dataset for a better understanding of Pb(2+) toxicity. In the present study, we have exposed stem cells isolated from deciduous and permanent teeth, periodontal ligament, and bone marrow to five different types of Pb(2+) concentrations (160, 80, 40, 20, and 10 µM) for 24 hours to identify the adverse effects of Pb(2+) on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression on these cell lines. We found that Pb(2+) treatment altered the morphology and adhesion of the cells in a dose-dependent manner. There were no significant changes in terms of cell surface phenotypes. Cells exposed to Pb(2+) continued to differentiate into chondrogenesis and adipogenesis, and a severe downregulation was observed in osteogenesis. Gene expression studies revealed a constant expression of key markers associated with stemness (Oct 4, Rex 1) and DNA repair enzyme markers, but downregulation occurred with some ectoderm and endoderm markers, demonstrating an irregular and untimely differentiation trail. Our study revealed for the first time that Pb(2+) exposure not only affects the phenotypic characteristics but also induces significant alteration in the differentiation and gene expression in the cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology
  17. Abu Kasim NH, Govindasamy V, Gnanasegaran N, Musa S, Pradeep PJ, Srijaya TC, et al.
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2015 Dec;9(12):E252-66.
    PMID: 23229816 DOI: 10.1002/term.1663
    The discovery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from a myriad of tissues has triggered the initiative of establishing tailor-made stem cells for disease-specific therapy. Nevertheless, lack of understanding on the inherent differential propensities of these cells may restrict their clinical outcome. Therefore, a comprehensive study was done to compare the proliferation, differentiation, expression of cell surface markers and gene profiling of stem cells isolated from different sources, viz. bone marrow, Wharton's jelly, adipose tissue and dental pulp. We found that although all MSCs were phenotypically similar to each other, Wharton's jelly (WJ) MSCs and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were highly proliferative as compared to bone marrow (BM) MSCs and adipose tissue (AD) MSCs. Moreover, indistinguishable cell surface characteristics and differentiation capacity were confirmed to be similar among all cell types. Based on gene expression profiling, we postulate that BM-MSCs constitutively expressed genes related to inflammation and immunodulation, whereas genes implicated in tissue development were highly expressed in AD-MSCs. Furthermore, the transcriptome profiling of WJ-MSCs and DPSCs revealed an inherent bias towards the neuro-ectoderm lineage. Based on our findings, we believe that there is no unique master mesenchymal stem cell that is appropriate to treat all target diseases. More precisely, MSCs from different sources exhibit distinct and unique gene expression signatures that make them competent to give rise to specific lineages rather than others. Therefore, stem cells should be subjected to rigorous characterization and utmost vigilance needs to be adopted in order to choose the best cellular source for a particular disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology
  18. Sebastian AA, Kannan TP, Norazmi MN, Nurul AA
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2018 08;12(8):1856-1866.
    PMID: 29774992 DOI: 10.1002/term.2706
    Stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) represent a promising cell source for bone tissue regeneration. This study evaluated the effects of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) on the osteogenic differentiation of SHED. SHED were cultured in complete alpha minimum essential medium supplemented with osteoinducing reagents and treated with recombinant IL-17A. The cells were quantitatively analysed for proliferative activity by MTS assay, cell markers expression, and apoptotic activity by flow cytometry. For osteogenic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was quantified; mineralization assays were carried out using von Kossa and Alizarin red, and expression of osteogenic markers were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The results showed that treatment with IL-17A increased proliferative activity in a dose-dependent manner, but reduced the expression of stem cell markers (c-Myc and Nanog) as the days progressed. IL-17A induced osteogenic differentiation in SHED as evidenced by high ALP activity, increased matrix mineralization, and upregulation of the mRNA expression of the osteogenic markers ALP, alpha 1 type 1 collagen (Col1A1), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) but downregulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) as well as altering the OPG/RANKL ratio. Findings from our study indicate that IL-17A enhances proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of SHED by regulating OPG/RANKL mechanism thus suggests therapeutic potential of IL-17A in bone regeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology
  19. Thekkeparambil Chandrabose S, Sriram S, Subramanian S, Cheng S, Ong WK, Rozen S, et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther, 2018 03 20;9(1):68.
    PMID: 29559008 DOI: 10.1186/s13287-018-0796-2
    BACKGROUND: While a shift towards non-viral and animal component-free methods of generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is preferred for safer clinical applications, there is still a shortage of reliable cell sources and protocols for efficient reprogramming.

    METHODS: Here, we show a robust episomal and xeno-free reprogramming strategy for human iPS generation from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) which renders good efficiency (0.19%) over a short time frame (13-18 days).

    RESULTS: The robustness of DPSCs as starting cells for iPS induction is found due to their exceptional inherent stemness properties, developmental origin from neural crest cells, specification for tissue commitment, and differentiation capability. To investigate the epigenetic basis for the high reprogramming efficiency of DPSCs, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and found that the epigenetic signature of DPSCs associated with pluripotent, developmental, and ecto-mesenchymal genes is relatively close to that of iPS and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Among these genes, it is found that overexpression of PAX9 and knockdown of HERV-FRD improved the efficiencies of iPS generation.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study provides underlying epigenetic mechanisms that establish a robust platform for efficient generation of iPS cells from DPSCs, facilitating industrial and clinical use of iPS technology for therapeutic needs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
  20. Vasanthan P, Govindasamy V, Gnanasegaran N, Kunasekaran W, Musa S, Abu Kasim NH
    J Cell Mol Med, 2015 Mar;19(3):566-80.
    PMID: 25475098 DOI: 10.1111/jcmm.12381
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate translation of mRNA into protein and play a crucial role for almost all biological activities. However, the identification of miRNAs from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), especially from dental pulp, is poorly understood. In this study, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were characterized in terms of their proliferation and differentiation capacity. Furthermore, 104 known mature miRNAs were profiled by using real-time PCR. Notably, we observed 19 up-regulated miRNAs and 29 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in DPSCs in comparison with bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs). The 19 up-regulated miRNAs were subjected to ingenuity analysis, which were composed into 25 functional networks. We have chosen top 2 functional networks, which comprised 10 miRNA (hsa-miR-516a-3p, hsa-miR-125b-1-3p, hsa-miR-221-5p, hsa-miR-7, hsa-miR-584-5p, hsa-miR-190a, hsa-miR-106a-5p, hsa-mir-376a-5p, hsa-mir-377-5p and hsa-let-7f-2-3p). Prediction of target mRNAs and associated biological pathways regulated by each of this miRNA was carried out. We paid special attention to hsa-miR-516a-3p and hsa-miR-7-5p as these miRNAs were highly expressed upon validation with qRT-PCR analysis. We further proceeded with loss-of-function analysis with these miRNAs and we observed that hsa-miR-516a-3p knockdown induced a significant increase in the expression of WNT5A. Likewise, the knockdown of hsa-miR-7-5p increased the expression of EGFR. Nevertheless, further validation revealed the role of WNT5A as an indirect target of hsa-miR-516a-3p. These results provide new insights into the dynamic role of miRNA expression in DPSCs. In conclusion, using miRNA signatures in human as a prediction tool will enable us to elucidate the biological processes occurring in DPSCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Pulp/cytology*
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