Displaying all 18 publications

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  1. Sarvesvaran R
    Malays J Pathol, 1992 Dec;14(2):77-83.
    PMID: 1304628
    A body recovered from the water does not necessarily imply that death was due to drowning. The diagnosis of drowning is discussed together with the significance of the "diatom" and biochemical tests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning/classification; Drowning/etiology; Drowning/pathology*; Near Drowning/pathology
  2. Mosayebi Z, Movahedian AH, Mousavi GA
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Aug;66(3):187-90.
    PMID: 22111437
    The aim of this study was to determine possible associations between some prognostic factors and drowning outcome. There were 47 drowning victims during the study period, of whom 39 (83%) survived and 8 (17%) died. All deaths occurred in children aged under 5 including 7 (87.5%) male and 1 (12.5%) female victims. Seven (87.5%) were Iranian and only one (12.5%) was from Afghanistan. Absence of vital signs at hospital arrival, need for resuscitation, GCS < 5 and acidosis all were associated with adverse outcome with a statistical significance (P < 0.05), but hypothermia was the only idependent predictor of poor outcome (OR 13.7; 95% CI 2.27 to 82.7 , P = 0.003). Since prognostic factors do not predict outcome with 100% accuracy, performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation at the scene and continuing it in the hospital can provide higher chances of recovery for the children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning/diagnosis*; Drowning/mortality*; Near Drowning/therapy
  3. Hss AS, Tan PS, Hashim L
    Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot, 2014;21(1):75-80.
    PMID: 23651461 DOI: 10.1080/17457300.2013.792284
    This study aimed to collate data on childhood drowning in Malaysia and review existing drowning prevention measures. This study used secondary data from governmental and non-governmental agencies. All reported fatal drownings from 2000 to 2007 and all reported non-fatal drownings from 2000 to 2008 were included. Data were analysed to provide understanding of the epidemiology of drowning incidents, risk factors and available preventive efforts. On average 286 (range 248-344) children died yearly due to drowning with a death rate of 3.05 per 100,000 annually. An additional average of 207 children drowned but survived annually (1.99 per 100,000). The estimated burden of drowning in children (death and non-death) is 5 per 100,000. There was no reduction in annual drowning fatalities over time. Most drowning took place in east coast regions during the annual monsoon season. It was 3.52 (2.80-4.41) times more common in boys and most prevalent among 10-14 years. Most prevalent sites of all-age drowning were seas and rivers. Limited water safety regulations are currently available in the country. This is the first comprehensive national study in Malaysia on paediatric drowning and highlights the magnitude of the problem. It calls for concerted effort to devise effective national drowning prevention measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning/mortality*; Drowning/epidemiology; Drowning/prevention & control
  4. Bhupinder S, Kumara TK, Syed AM
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Jun;65(2):123-6.
    PMID: 23756796
    This article describes the completed suicide patterns which occurred in the Timur Laut district of Penang Island, Malaysia. In a prospective cohort study over the three years period (2007-2009) there were 138 cases of suicide deaths. The number of suicide deaths for the year 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 45, 41 and 52 deaths, respectively. Majority of the suicide deaths were by jumping from height (47.1%), followed by hanging (34.1%) and by drowning (10.9%). The male victims outnumbered females in a 3 : 1 ratio.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning
  5. Faridah MN, Khairani O
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Dec;58(5):774-6.
    PMID: 15190669
    We report the case of an infant who was found dead in the toilet of a nursery. Examination of the scene revealed an element of neglect in the care of the child. Postmortem showed evidence of drowning. Her blood sample showed a toxicologic evidence of alcohol exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning/etiology*
  6. Mohammed Isa NA, Ramli MZ, Che Othman SF, Yusof MZ
    Nat Hazards (Dordr), 2021 Feb 13.
    PMID: 33612968 DOI: 10.1007/s11069-021-04613-z
    Rip currents are one of the coastal hazards that put Malaysian beachgoers in a risky position. Most of the drowning accidents that occur at beaches worldwide are closely associated with this phenomenon. Research on rip currents is needed to build an effective measuring tool to overcome these issues. However, to date, research on rip currents is mainly focused on its physical aspects, commonly concentrating on the processes that influence and relate to the rips' generation. As an effort to minimize the negative consequences exerted by the rips, there is an urgent need to enhance the rip-related research in the social sciences field. Comprehensive research that includes all fields might produce more beneficial and reliable information. Therefore, this study intends to examine the level of public understanding of rip currents and beach safety knowledge of the Teluk Cempedak Beach. A questionnaire comprising 5 sections and 31 questions was developed as the primary tool in this study. A total of 60 beachgoers have been surveyed for this preliminary study through a questionnaire to investigate their demographic profile, frequency of visiting the beach, swimming ability, and their knowledge of rip currents and beach safety. The results show that the beachgoers have poor knowledge of rip currents. Conversely, they are observed to have higher beach safety knowledge. Also, the findings help in filling the research gaps of this study in terms of the instrument used for the data collection procedure. Above all, an extension of this study may contribute to the development of beneficial tools in assessing public knowledge on beach safety and rip currents throughout Malaysian beaches.

    Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at (10.1007/s11069-021-04613-z).

    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning
  7. Hossain M, Mani KK, Mohd Sidik S, Hayati KS, Rahman AK
    BMC Pediatr, 2015;15:114.
    PMID: 26357879 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0431-7
    Drowning contributes to incapacity and early death in many countries. In low- and middle-income countries, children are the most susceptible to fatalities. Over 50 % of the global drowning deaths occur among children aged under 15 years old with children aged between 1 and 4 years of age being most at risk. In Bangladesh, drowning rates are 10 to 20 times more than those in other developing countries. The object of this study is to determine the socio-demographic, environmental and caring hazard issues for child drowning in Bangladesh.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning/epidemiology*; Drowning/prevention & control
  8. Farizan NH, Sutan R, Mani KK
    Iran J Public Health, 2020 Oct;49(10):1921-1930.
    PMID: 33346223 DOI: 10.18502/ijph.v49i10.4695
    Background: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the health educational booklet intervention in improving parents/guardian's knowledge on prevention of child drowning and, the perception of drowning risk and water safety practice.

    Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted in year 2017 in Selangor, Malaysia among 719 parents/guardians of primary school children. The parent/guardians were randomly assigned as the intervention groups and were given a health educational Be-SAFE booklet on drowning prevention and water safety. The pretest was conducted before the intervention and posttest was done one month of intervention. The data collection tool was using a validated questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice for drowning prevention and water safety.

    Results: There were 719 respondents (response rate of 89.9%) participated at baseline and 53.7% at end line (after the intervention). Significant differences found in knowledge, attitudes and practice on drowning prevention and water safety for the intervention and control groups after the intervention (P<0.001). There was a significant difference in mean scores for knowledge and attitude before and after the intervention, whereas no significant findings noted for practices (P<0.001).

    Conclusion: Be SAFE booklet contributed to the increase in parents/guardian's knowledge and attitudes towards drowning prevention and water safety to prevent the risk of child drowning.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning
  9. Tahir N, Asif M, Ahmad S, Malik MSA, Aljuaid H, Butt MA, et al.
    PeerJ Comput Sci, 2021;7:e389.
    PMID: 33817035 DOI: 10.7717/peerj-cs.389
    Keyword extraction is essential in determining influenced keywords from huge documents as the research repositories are becoming massive in volume day by day. The research community is drowning in data and starving for information. The keywords are the words that describe the theme of the whole document in a precise way by consisting of just a few words. Furthermore, many state-of-the-art approaches are available for keyword extraction from a huge collection of documents and are classified into three types, the statistical approaches, machine learning, and graph-based methods. The machine learning approaches require a large training dataset that needs to be developed manually by domain experts, which sometimes is difficult to produce while determining influenced keywords. However, this research focused on enhancing state-of-the-art graph-based methods to extract keywords when the training dataset is unavailable. This research first converted the handcrafted dataset, collected from impact factor journals into n-grams combinations, ranging from unigram to pentagram and also enhanced traditional graph-based approaches. The experiment was conducted on a handcrafted dataset, and all methods were applied on it. Domain experts performed the user study to evaluate the results. The results were observed from every method and were evaluated with the user study using precision, recall and f-measure as evaluation matrices. The results showed that the proposed method (FNG-IE) performed well and scored near the machine learning approaches score.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning
  10. Yen LY, Jayaprakash PT
    Forensic Sci Int, 2007 Jul 20;170(1):1-7.
    PMID: 17023133
    Detection of diatom frustules in bone marrow (diatom test) is used for diagnosing ante-mortem drowning where the usual signs of drowning are not present in dead bodies recovered from water. However, controversies over the reliability of diatom test results are continuing. There have been indications on the possibilities of diatoms entering into systemic circulation from atmospheric air, food and drink. While diatoms have been demonstrated in the gut content of edible marine forms such as shrimps and clams, the present study, for the first time, provides empirical evidence on the prevalence as well as abundance of diatom frustules in the samples of cooked non-vegetarian foodstuffs that impend human consumption in Kelantan, Malaysia. It is found that 50 g each of cleaned and cooked prawns and of clams impending human consumption contain about 8360 and 29,054 diatom frustules, respectively. A person accustomed to prawn and clam food would be ingesting an estimated 2 million diatoms in a single year. Considering the suggestion that detection of five diatom frustules in 10 g of bone marrow would suffice for concluding drowning as mode of death, and the fact that there is yet no proof that diatom frustules do not enter into the human systemic circulation through the digestive tract, the estimated number of diatom frustules routinely ingested acquires significance since entry of a few of such ingested frustules into the systemic circulation can lead to false positive test results. The findings of this research raise two important issues: first, population based routine food related diatom ingestion requires to be estimated, and, second, studies have to be initiated to categorically prove or disprove the possibility of entry of diatom frustules into the systemic circulation via the digestive tract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning/diagnosis*
  11. Amir A, Lee YL
    Malays Fam Physician, 2013;8(3):34-6.
    PMID: 25893056 MyJurnal
    Acute kidney injury following immersion or near-drowning is rarely described and no data from Malaysia have been found. We report a case of acute kidney injury following a near-drowning event. A 20-year-old man who recovered from near-drowning in a swimming pool 5 days earlier presented to our clinic with abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea and polyuria. Dipstick urinalysis showed a trace of blood. The serum creatinine level was 10-fold higher than the normal range. A bedside ultrasound showed features suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. He is then referred to the hospital with the diagnosis of acute kidney injury with the possibility of acute tubular necrosis secondary to near-drowning. We suggest that any patient presenting after immersion or near-drowning to be should assessed for potential acute kidney injury.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning; Near Drowning
  12. Hossain M, Mani KK, Mohd Sidik S, Kadir Shahar H
    Acta Paediatr, 2016 Aug;105(8):e373-8.
    PMID: 27111395 DOI: 10.1111/apa.13447
    AIM: There are an estimated 372 000 worldwide deaths by drowning every year, and it has been described as a secret epidemic in Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to develop an intervention package to prevent children under the age of five from drowning in rural Bangladesh.

    METHODS: This was a qualitative study using focus group discussions in three villages in rural Bangladesh. The 45 participants were mothers and fathers with children under five, the parents of children who had drowned and community leaders.

    RESULTS: The majority of the participants (71%) were male. The focus groups revealed that most drowning's occurred between 11am and 2pm and that risk factors included the following: children not being able to swim, ditches that were not filled in, lack of medical facilities, parents who were not aware of childhood drowning and lack of information through the media about how to prevent of childhood drowning. Suggestions included using a mobile-based short messaging service or voice calls to parents, especially mothers, could increase awareness and reduce the risk of childhood drowning.

    CONCLUSION: A safety education programme could be effective in increasing knowledge and changing attitudes, which could prevent drowning among children in Bangladesh.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning/prevention & control*
  13. Hossain M, Mani KK, Mohd Sidik S, Hayati KS, Rahman AK
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:484.
    PMID: 25957574 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-1823-1
    Drowning is the third leading cause of death for children aged 0-4 years in many Asian countries, and is a serious but neglected health problem in low and middle-income countries like Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to outline the study protocol of a trial to test the efficacy of a mobile coach based intervention for the prevention of childhood drowning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning/prevention & control*
  14. Lin CY, Wang LY, Lu TH
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Oct 28;19(1):1391.
    PMID: 31660919 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7749-2
    BACKGROUND: This study assessed international variations in changes in drowning mortality rates and the quality of reporting specific information in death certificates over the past decade.

    METHODS: Drowning mortality data of 61 countries were extracted from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. We calculated the percentage change (PC) in age-standardized drowning mortality rates and percentage of drowning deaths reported with unspecified codes between 2004 and 2005 and 2014-2015.

    RESULTS: Of the 61 countries studied, 50 exhibited a reduction in drowning mortality rates from 2004 to 2005 to 2014-2015. Additionally, five countries-Lithuania, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Romania, and El Salvador-with a high mortality rate in 2004-2005 (> 40 deaths per 100,000) showed improvement (PC  40%) exhibited a marked reduction (PC 

    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning/mortality*
  15. Noor Hamzani Farizan, Rosnah Sutan, Kulanthayan KC Mani
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: The magnitude of drowning as one of the leading causes of death among children in Malaysia may have been underestimated. Little is known on the level of awareness on water safety among parents as it might be associated with appropriateness and adequacy of the supervision. This study aims to describe perceptions of water safety among parents of primary school children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 719 respondent conduct- ed to obtain information on parents self-reported on their children’s water-involved activity and swimming ability, self-estimated ability to rescue their child and perceptions of the risk of drowning and water safety for their children. Results: The result revealed that about 21.6% of respondents did not perceive drowning as one of the unintentional injury leading causes of death among children. Parents reported that their children had experienced a near- drown- ing incident (16.1%), and only 12.2% of the child had attended a formal swimming lesson. Majority of the parents did not involve in any water safety program (98.7%), can’t swim (61.6%), not been certified in CPR (87.3%) and not confident (87.3%) to perform resuscitation (CPR). Respondents also perceived their children could swim (42.1%), and they felt confident when their child in the water (45.6%). There were statistical differences between parents who reported their child had a near-drowning experience with their perception of children’s swimming ability. Conclu- sion: An exploration of parent’s perception of water safety provided an overview of the need for promoting aware- ness on drowning risk and water safety education in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning; Near Drowning
  16. Badrul Hisham, A.S., Nor Azian Shaharom, C.M.D., Marzukhi, M.I., Norli, R., Fatimah, O., Kee, KF, et al.
    MyJurnal
    The state of Johore, Malaysia had been hit by the worst flood in the Malaysian modern history on the 19th December 2006 (first wave) and the 12th January 2007 (second wave) affecting all the eight districts. A total number of 157,018 and 155,368 Johore population had been displaced by the first and the second wave event respectively. The Johore State Health Department activated the Flood Action Plan which include mobilising medical teams to conduct daily clinical examinations on the flood victims and health teams to inspect flood relief centres, food premises and homes at flood-hit areas with regard to prevent and control communicable diseases. The spreadsheet format was used to collect data on diseases, injury and death throughout the Johore flood disaster period starting from the 19th December 2006 until 19th February 2007. Analyses showed that 19,670 flood victims (36.3%) had communicable diseases and 34,530 (67.0%) had non-communicable diseases. As for the communicable diseases and symptoms/syndromes related to communicable disease, 41.3% were acute respiratory infections (ARI) followed by 25.9% skin infections, 19.1% fever, 10.1% acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and 3.0% acute conjunctivitis. Other infectious diseases include 61 notifiable diseases (46 food poisoning, 14 dengue fever and one tuberculosis), 20 leptospirosis (with two deaths), 20 chicken pox and two melioidosis cases. The Batu Pahat district had the highest incidence for the majority of the communicable diseases because of the prolonged flooding period. No cholera, typhoid, malaria, measles or hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) cases were detected among the Johore flood victims. Trends of disease incidence follow the number of evacuees placed in the relief centres corresponding to respective wave. A total of 507 flood victims had physical injuries related to flood mostly due to fall onto wet floor at the relief centres. Fifteen deaths due to drowning were mainly caused by accidental fall into the flood water. The incidence of communicable diseases encountered had been appropriately anticipated and managed attributed to enhanced public health control programmes augmented by syndromic and laboratory surveillance on potentialy fatal infectious diseases. Equal emphasis should be given to the surveillance and control of chronic diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drowning
  17. Quah BS, Malik AS, Simpson H
    Malays J Med Sci, 2000 Jan;7(1):27-32.
    PMID: 22844212 MyJurnal
    Experience of acute medical, surgical conditions, and clinical procedures of undergraduate students were assessed via a questionnaire survey during the final week of the 1993/1998 programme at the School of Medical Sciences, Univestiti Sains Malaysia. Individual performances were assessed by a scoring system. One hundred and twenty four students responded, (response rate 97%). More than 90% had seen myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, pneumonia, respiratory distress, gastroenteritis, coma, and snake bite. Less than 33% had witnessed acute psychosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, acute hepatic failure, status epilepticus, near drowning, hypertensive encephalopathy, acute haemolysis or child abuse.Acute surgical/obstetrics cases, seen by >90% students, included fracture of long bones, head injury, acute abdominal pain, malpresentation and foetal distress. Less than 33% had observed epistaxis, sudden loss of vision, peritonitis or burns. Among operations only herniorrhaphy, Caesarian section, internal fixation of fracture and cataract extraction were seen by >80% students. The main deficits in clinical procedures are in rectal and vaginal examinations, urine collection and microscopic examinations. The performance of individual students, assessed by a scoring system, showed 15 students had unacceptably low scores (<149/230, 50%), 37 had good scores (>181.4/230, 70%) and 5 had superior scores (197.6/230, 80%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Near Drowning
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