Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Imchen M, Kumavath R
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 2020 10 01;96(10).
    PMID: 32845305 DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fiaa173
    Saline tolerant mangrove forests partake in vital biogeochemical cycles. However, they are endangered due to deforestation as a result of urbanization. In this study, we have carried out a metagenomic snapshot of the mangrove ecosystem from five countries to assess its taxonomic, functional and antibiotic resistome structure. Chao1 alpha diversity varied significantly (P 90% relative abundance. Comparative analysis of mangrove with terrestrial and marine ecosystems revealed the strongest heterogeneity in the mangrove microbial community. We also observed that the mangrove community shared similarities to both the terrestrial and marine microbiome, forming a link between the two contrasting ecosystems. The antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) resistome was comprised of nineteen level 3 classifications dominated by multidrug resistance efflux pumps (46.7 ± 4.3%) and BlaR1 family regulatory sensor-transducer disambiguation (25.2 ± 4.8%). ARG relative abundance was significantly higher in Asian countries and in human intervention datasets at a global scale. Our study shows that the mangrove microbial community and its antibiotic resistance are affected by geography as well as human intervention and are unique to the mangrove ecosystem. Understanding changes in the mangrove microbiome and its ARG is significant for sustainable development and public health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
  2. Brunton LA, Desbois AP, Garza M, Wieland B, Mohan CV, Häsler B, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2019 Oct 15;687:1344-1356.
    PMID: 31412468 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.134
    Aquaculture systems are highly complex, dynamic and interconnected systems influenced by environmental, biological, cultural, socio-economic and human behavioural factors. Intensification of aquaculture production is likely to drive indiscriminate use of antibiotics to treat or prevent disease and increase productivity, often to compensate for management and husbandry deficiencies. Surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic usage (ABU) and antibiotic resistance (ABR) is often lacking or absent. Consequently, there are knowledge gaps for the risk of ABR emergence and human exposure to ABR in these systems and the wider environment. The aim of this study was to use a systems-thinking approach to map two aquaculture systems in Vietnam - striped catfish and white-leg shrimp - to identify hotspots for emergence and selection of resistance, and human exposure to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. System mapping was conducted by stakeholders at an interdisciplinary workshop in Hanoi, Vietnam during January 2018, and the maps generated were refined until consensus. Thereafter, literature was reviewed to complement and cross-reference information and to validate the final maps. The maps and component interactions with the environment revealed the grow-out phase, where juveniles are cultured to harvest size, to be a key hotspot for emergence of ABR in both systems due to direct and indirect ABU, exposure to water contaminated with antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and duration of this stage. The pathways for human exposure to antibiotics and ABR were characterised as: occupational (on-farm and at different handling points along the value chain), through consumption (bacterial contamination and residues) and by environmental routes. By using systems thinking and mapping by stakeholders to identify hotspots we demonstrate the applicability of an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to characterising ABU in aquaculture. This work provides a foundation to quantify risks at different points, understand interactions between components, and identify stakeholders who can lead and implement change.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics*
  3. Ott A, O'Donnell G, Tran NH, Mohd Haniffah MR, Su JQ, Zealand AM, et al.
    Environ Sci Technol, 2021 06 01;55(11):7466-7478.
    PMID: 34000189 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.1c00939
    Pinpointing environmental antibiotic resistance (AR) hot spots in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) is hindered by a lack of available and comparable AR monitoring data relevant to such settings. Addressing this problem, we performed a comprehensive spatial and seasonal assessment of water quality and AR conditions in a Malaysian river catchment to identify potential "simple" surrogates that mirror elevated AR. We screened for resistant coliforms, 22 antibiotics, 287 AR genes and integrons, and routine water quality parameters, covering absolute concentrations and mass loadings. To understand relationships, we introduced standardized "effect sizes" (Cohen's D) for AR monitoring to improve comparability of field studies. Overall, water quality generally declined and environmental AR levels increased as one moved down the catchment without major seasonal variations, except total antibiotic concentrations that were higher in the dry season (Cohen's D > 0.8, P < 0.05). Among simple surrogates, dissolved oxygen (DO) most strongly correlated (inversely) with total AR gene concentrations (Spearman's ρ 0.81, P < 0.05). We suspect this results from minimally treated sewage inputs, which also contain AR bacteria and genes, depleting DO in the most impacted reaches. Thus, although DO is not a measure of AR, lower DO levels reflect wastewater inputs, flagging possible AR hot spots. DO measurement is inexpensive, already monitored in many catchments, and exists in many numerical water quality models (e.g., oxygen sag curves). Therefore, we propose combining DO data and prospective modeling to guide local interventions, especially in LMIC rivers with limited data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
  4. Teh AH, Wang Y, Dykes GA
    Can J Microbiol, 2014 Feb;60(2):105-11.
    PMID: 24498987 DOI: 10.1139/cjm-2013-0633
    Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli are one of the most common forms of human disease. In this study, the effect of the presence of newly acquired antibiotic resistance genes on biofilm formation of UTI-associated E. coli strains was examined. Two clinical UTI-associated E. coli strains (SMC18 and SMC20) carrying different combinations of virulence genes were transformed with pGEM-T, pGEM-T::KmΔAmp, or pGEM-T::Km to construct ampicillin-resistant (Km(S)Amp(R)), kanamycin-resistant (Km(R)Amp(S)), or ampicillin- and kanamycin-resistant (Km(R)Amp(R)) strains. Transformed and wild-type strains were characterized for biofilm formation, bacterial surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, morphology, and attachment to abiotic surfaces. Transformation with a plasmid carrying an ampicillin resistance gene alone decreased (p < 0.05) biofilm formation by SMC18 (8 virulence marker genes) but increased (p < 0.05) biofilm formation by SMC20 (5 virulence marker genes). On the other hand, transformation with a plasmid carrying a kanamycin resistance gene alone or both ampicillin and kanamycin resistance genes resulted in a decrease (p < 0.05) in biofilm formation by SMC18 but did not affect (p > 0.05) the biofilm formation by SMC20. Our results suggest that transformation of UTI-associated E. coli with plasmids carrying different antibiotic resistance gene(s) had a significant impact on biofilm formation and that these effects were both strain dependent and varied between different antibiotics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics*
  5. Ismail R, Allaudin ZN, Lila MA
    Vaccine, 2012 Sep 7;30(41):5914-20.
    PMID: 22406276 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.02.061
    Gene therapy and vaccines are rapidly developing field in which recombinant nucleic acids are introduced in mammalian cells for enhancement, restoration, initiation or silencing biochemical function. Beside simplicity in manipulation and rapid manufacture process, plasmid DNA-based vaccines have inherent features that make them promising vaccine candidates in a variety of diseases. This present review focuses on the safety concern of the genetic elements of plasmid such as propagation and expression units as well as their host genome for the production of recombinant plasmid DNA. The highlighted issues will be beneficial in characterizing and manufacturing plasmid DNA for save clinical use. Manipulation of regulatory units of plasmid will have impact towards addressing the safety concerns raised in human vaccine applications. The gene revolution with plasmid DNA by alteration of their plasmid and production host genetics will be promising for safe delivery and obtaining efficient outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
  6. Huys G, Bartie K, Cnockaert M, Hoang Oanh DT, Phuong NT, Somsiri T, et al.
    Res. Microbiol., 2007 Apr;158(3):228-35.
    PMID: 17350231
    In the present study, samples of pond water, sediment and farmed species were collected at 12 fish and shrimp farms in Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the biodiversity and environmental distribution of chloramphenicol-resistant (CmR) mesophilic heterotrophs in Southeast Asian aquaculture sites. Following isolation on Iso-Sensitest agar supplemented with 35mug ml(-1) Cm and dereplication using (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting, 557 genotypically unique CmR strains were subjected to polyphasic identification. The 557 mesophilic heterotrophic CmR isolates represented 18 different genera largely dominated by the genera Escherichia (40.2%), Pseudomonas (11.7%), Acinetobacter (11.1%), Klebsiella (7.5%) and Bacillus (5.9%). A total of 439 CmR isolates were further assigned to 31 described species or species groups, mainly including organisms that have been associated with various human opportunistic infections such as Escherichia coli (n=219), Pseudomonas putida (n=47), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=38) and Acinetobacter baumannii (n=23). Strains of Escherichia, and most notably, of E. coli, were the only common group of CmR heterotrophs irrespective of country, sample type or farm type. Together with other predominant but less widespread groups such as acinetobacters and pseudomonads, the results of this biodiversity study suggest that E. coli can be regarded as a potential indicator of Cm resistance in Southeast Asian aquaculture environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
  7. You KG, Bong CW, Lee CW
    Environ Monit Assess, 2016 Mar;188(3):171.
    PMID: 26884358 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-016-5163-0
    Vibrio species isolated from four different sampling stations in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were screened for their antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles. A total of 138 isolates belonging to 15 different species were identified. Vibrio campbellii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. harveyi, and V. tubiashii were found to predominance species at all stations. High incidence of erythromycin, ampicillin, and mecillinam resistance was observed among the Vibrio isolates. In contrast, resistance against aztreonam, cefepime, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfonamides was low. All the Vibrio isolates in this study were found to be susceptible to imipenem, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and oxytetracycline. Ninety-five percent of the Vibrio isolates were resistant to one or more different classes of antibiotic, and 20 different resistance antibiograms were identified. Thirty-two distinct plasmid profiles with molecular weight ranging from 2.2 to 24.8 kb were detected among the resistance isolates. This study showed that multidrug-resistant Vibrio spp. were common in the aquatic environments of west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics*
  8. Li Q, Wang Y, Zou YD, Liao XD, Liang JB, Xin W, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2015 Sep 15;527-528:126-34.
    PMID: 25958362 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.117
    The behavior of veterinary antibiotics in the soil is commonly studied using the following methods to add antibiotics to the soil: (A) adding manure collected from animals fed a diet that includes antibiotics; (B) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics; and (C) the direct addition of antibiotics. However, most studies have only used methods (B) and (C) in their research, and few studies have simultaneously compared the different antibiotic addition methods. This study used tylosin A (TYLA) as a model antibiotic to compare the effects of these three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on the dissipation rates of TYLA and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed that the three treatment methods produced similar TYLA degradation trends; however, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the TYLA degradation half-life (t1/2) among the three methods. The half-life of TYLA degradation in treatments A, B and C was 2.44 ± 0.04, 1.21 ± 0.03 and 5.13 ± 0.11 days, respectively. The presence of manure resulted in a higher electrical conductivity (EC), higher relative abundance of Citrobacter amalonaticus, higher macrolide resistant gene (ermB, ermF and ermT) count and lower ecological toxicity in the soil, which could partially explain the higher TYLA degradation rate in the treatments containing manure. The higher degradation rate of TYLA in treatment B when compared to treatment A could be due to the lower concentrations of tylosin B (TYLB) and tylosin D (TYLD). The main route for veterinary antibiotics to enter the soil is via the manure of animals that have been administered antibiotics. Therefore, the more appropriate method to study the degradation and ecotoxicity of antibiotic residues in the soil is by using manure from animals fed/administered the particular antibiotic rather than by adding the antibiotic directly to the soil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics*
  9. Aarestrup FM, Lertworapreecha M, Evans MC, Bangtrakulnonth A, Chalermchaikit T, Hendriksen RS, et al.
    J Antimicrob Chemother, 2003 Oct;52(4):715-8.
    PMID: 12972453
    This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella Weltevreden isolates from different sources in South-East Asia (Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam), Australia, Denmark, New Zealand and the USA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics*
  10. Ansary A, Radu S
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 1992 Mar 01;70(2):125-8.
    PMID: 1587459
    Six Campylobacter jejuni clinical isolates were examined for the occurrence of plasmids in association with antibiotic resistances as well as conjugal transfer. All the isolates were found to carry three similar plasmids of 78 kb, 12.6 kb and 3.3 kb in size. Multiple resistance to at least three of the antibiotics tested was observed with resistance to tetracycline most common. En bloc transfer of donor resistances at frequencies ranging from 10(-8) to 10(-4) were seen in all but one of the isolates during conjugation. The conjugal transfer of erythromycin, neomycin and streptomycin were observed to occur at frequencies similar to that of chloramphenicol, kanamycin and tetracycline. In isolate ABA94, three different antibiotic resistance phenotypes of the transconjugants were seen. In addition to en bloc transfer of the donor resistances, in approximately 10% of the transconjugants the streptomycin resistance was lost although these transconjugants carried the donor complement of three plasmids. In a further 1% of the transconjugants, resistance to kanamycin only was detected and these transconjugants did not carry any plasmids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
  11. Son R, Rusu G, Karim MI
    J Appl Microbiol, 1997 Feb;82(2):240-4.
    PMID: 12452600
    Thirty-six strains of Escherichia coli isolated from animals in Bario, a remote area in Sarawak, Malaysia, were examined for presence of plasmid DNA and their susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents. Of the total 36 isolates, five bovine and six canine isolates were found to contain plasmid DNA ranging in sizes from 2.6 to 70 kilobases. All were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and neomycin but resistance to ampicillin (47%), erythromycin (19%), streptomycin (25%) and tetracycline (11%) was observed. Resistance was associated with carriage of a 47 kb (SC98), 70 kb, (SC133) and 56 and 4.6 kb (SC119) plasmids which were transmissible to the Escherichia coli K12 recipient. It is concluded that animals form a potential reservoir of R plasmids carrying E. coli in the study area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
  12. Ng C, Chen H, Goh SG, Haller L, Wu Z, Charles FR, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2018 Oct;135:475-480.
    PMID: 30301062 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.07.055
    Poor microbial water quality jeopardizes the health and safety of food produced by aquaculture farms. Three fish farms and transect sites in Singapore were assessed for microbial water quality and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Of the 33 multidrug resistant E. coli isolated from surface waters of the Johor Straits, 81.8% were ESBL producers. The relative abundance of sul1, qnrA and intI1 genes were higher in sediments than surface waters. Among the surface water samples, higher concentrations (10-1-101) of beta-lactamases (blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCTX-M) were detected in the transect sites. This study highlights a potential antimicrobial resistance transmission chain from environmental waters, to animal carriers and humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics*
  13. Adzitey F, Rusul G, Huda N, Cogan T, Corry J
    Int J Food Microbiol, 2012 Mar 15;154(3):197-205.
    PMID: 22285201 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.01.006
    We report for the first time on the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and RAPD types of Campylobacter species in ducks and duck related environmental samples in Malaysia. Samples were examined by enrichment in Bolton Broth followed by plating onto modified Charcoal Cefoperazone Deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and/or plating directly onto mCCDA. A total of 643 samples were screened, and the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in samples from different sources ranged from 0% to 85%. The method of isolation had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the isolation rate. One hundred and sixteen Campylobacter isolates, comprising of 94 Campylobacter jejuni, 19 Campylobacter coli and three Campylobacter lari, were examined for their sensitivity to 13 antibiotics. Majority of the C. jejuni isolates were resistant to cephalothin (99%), tetracycline (96%), suphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (96%), and very few were resistant to gentamicin (5%), chloramphenicol (7%) and erythromycin (1%). All C. coli isolates were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and tetracycline but susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin. The three C. lari isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics tested except chloramphenicol and gentamicin (1/3 and 2/3 susceptible, respectively). Genetic diversity of Campylobacter isolates were determined using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). C. jejuni and C. coli isolates belong to fifty-eight and twelve RAPD types, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics*
  14. Palillo ES, Salleh MA
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1992;36(11):1195-200.
    PMID: 1491621
    Four hundred and ninety-eight predominantly pyocin-type 10 clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were analyzed for resistance to carbenicillin, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, gentamicin, amikacin and netilmicin. Based on NCCLS-recommended MIC breakpoints, 245 strains were found to be resistant, of which 41.6% were resistant to carbenicillin, 38% to gentamicin, 37.8% to netilmicin, 26.3% to cefoperazone, 17.9% to cefotaxime, 0.6% to amikacin and none to ceftazidime. Quadruple resistance to carbenicillin, cefoperazone, gentamicin and netilmicin was the most frequent pattern observed. Resistance to older antibiotics (kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline) and to mercuric chloride were also common. Conjugation experiments suggested that self-transmissible and non-transmissible plasmids occurred in at least 66 strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics*
  15. Parasakthi N, Vadivelu J, Ariffin H, Iyer L, Palasubramaniam S, Arasu A
    Int J Infect Dis, 2000;4(3):123-8.
    PMID: 11179914
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility, genomic profiles, and control of a nosocomial outbreak of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (MRKP) that occurred in the pediatric oncology unit of the University of Malaya Medical Centre in Kuala Lumpur.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective epidemiologic and microbiologic study was conducted of MRKP isolated from the blood and wound of a boy with necrotizing fasciitis after a 7-day course of ceftazidime and amikacin. In the following 2 weeks, phenotypically similar MRKP were isolated from the blood cultures of four other patients and rectal swabs of another three patients and two liquid soap samples located in the same ward.

    RESULTS: Antimicrobial profiles demonstrated that all the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, sensitive to imipenem and ciprofloxacin, and confirmed to be extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Plasmids of varying molecular weights were present in all isolates. In eight of these isolates, which included four from blood, there were common large molecular weight plasmids ranging from 80 kb to 100 kb. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis using XbaI demonstrated six different DNA profiles, A to F. Profile A was shared by two blood culture isolates and were related by 91%. Profile B was found in one rectal swab isolate and one isolate from liquid soap and were related by 94%. Profile C was shared by one blood isolate and one liquid soap isolate and showed 100% relatedness. Profiles D, E, and F each were demonstrated by one blood isolate and two rectal swab isolates, respectively. These showed only 65% relatedness.

    CONCLUSIONS: The MRKP strains in this outbreak were not clonal in origin. The decline of the outbreak after 4 weeks was attributed to the reemphasis of standard infection control procedures and the implementation of a program that addressed sites of environmental contamination.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
  16. Thong KL, Bhutta ZA, Pang T
    Int J Infect Dis, 2000;4(4):194-7.
    PMID: 11231181
    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to report the molecular analysis of antibiotic-sensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Salmonella typhi, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), with a particular emphasis on the coexistence of these strains in a typhoid-endemic region of Karachi, Pakistan.

    METHODS: One hundred isolates of S. typhi in humans (50 MDR and 50 antibiotic-sensitive isolates) from sporadic cases of typhoid fever were analyzed by Vi-phage typing, antibiograms and PFGE.

    RESULTS: The MDR S. typhi strains were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Analysis by PFGE showed that 50 MDR isolates of S. typhi had a single, homogenous PFGE profile, which was distinctly different from that of 50 antibiotic-sensitive isolates obtained in the same time frame from the same area. This latter group of isolates showed much greater diversity of PFGE profiles, as has been observed in other endemic regions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Multidrug-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible strains of S. typhi can coexist in endemic areas as epidemiologically independent pathogens and are not in competition for continued persistence and transmission.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
  17. Radu S, Mutalib SA, Rusul G, Hassan Z, Yeang LK
    Microbios, 2001;104(407):39-47.
    PMID: 11229656
    Ten strains of Salmonella weltevreden isolated from poultry sources were examined and found to contain plasmid DNA ranging in size from 1.8 to 68.5 MD. All isolates were susceptible to carbenicillin, cephalothin, ceftriazone, gentamicin, kanamycin and nalidixic acid, but resistance to bacitracin (100%), penicillin G (100%), rifampicin (100%), sulphamethoxazole (100%), cefuroxime (80%) and tetracycline (60%) was recorded. The 55 MD plasmid of strain SW5 determined resistance to penicillin G and tetracycline, which was transmissible to the E. coli K12 recipient at a frequency of 3.52 x 10(-5) transconjugants per input donor cell. The results of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR), using two 10-mer oligonucleotides and PCR-ribotyping to differentiate between the ten strains of S. weltevreden were compared. The strains were separated into ten different genome types by AP-PCR but were indistinguishable by PCR-ribotyping. These results suggest that poultry may constitute a reservoir for disseminating antibiotic resistance and that AP-PCR may be a valuable tool for epidemiological studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
  18. Son R, Rusul G, Sahilah AM, Zainuri A, Raha AR, Salmah I
    Lett Appl Microbiol, 1997 Jun;24(6):479-82.
    PMID: 9203404
    Strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from skin lesions of the common freshwater fish, Telapia mossambica, were screened for the presence of plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents. Of the 21 fish isolates examined, all were resistant to ampicillin and sensitive to gentamycin. Most isolates were resistant to streptomycin (57%), tetracycline (48%) and erythromycin (43%). While seven of 21 isolates harboured plasmids, with sizes ranging from 3 to 63.4 kilobase pair (kb), it was only possible to associate the presence of a plasmid with antibiotic resistance (ampicillin and tetracycline) in strain AH11. Both the plasmid and the associated antimicrobial resistance could be transferred to an Escherichia coli recipient by single-step conjugation at a frequency of 4.3 x 10(-3) transconjugants per donor cell.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
  19. Mirza S, Kariuki S, Mamun KZ, Beeching NJ, Hart CA
    J Clin Microbiol, 2000 Apr;38(4):1449-52.
    PMID: 10747124
    Molecular analysis of chromosomal DNA from 193 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from 1990 to 1995 from Pakistan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Bangladesh, and India produced a total of five major different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Even within a particular country MDR S. enterica serovar Typhi DNA was found to be in different PFGE groups. Similar self-transferable 98-MDa plasmids belonging to either incompatibility group incHI1 or incHI1/FIIA were implicated in the MDR phenotype in S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates from all the locations except Quetta, Pakistan, where the majority were of incFIA. A total of five different PFGE genotypes with six different plasmids, based on incompatibility and restriction endonuclease analysis groups, were found among these MDR S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics*
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