MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective epidemiologic and microbiologic study was conducted of MRKP isolated from the blood and wound of a boy with necrotizing fasciitis after a 7-day course of ceftazidime and amikacin. In the following 2 weeks, phenotypically similar MRKP were isolated from the blood cultures of four other patients and rectal swabs of another three patients and two liquid soap samples located in the same ward.
RESULTS: Antimicrobial profiles demonstrated that all the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, sensitive to imipenem and ciprofloxacin, and confirmed to be extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Plasmids of varying molecular weights were present in all isolates. In eight of these isolates, which included four from blood, there were common large molecular weight plasmids ranging from 80 kb to 100 kb. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis using XbaI demonstrated six different DNA profiles, A to F. Profile A was shared by two blood culture isolates and were related by 91%. Profile B was found in one rectal swab isolate and one isolate from liquid soap and were related by 94%. Profile C was shared by one blood isolate and one liquid soap isolate and showed 100% relatedness. Profiles D, E, and F each were demonstrated by one blood isolate and two rectal swab isolates, respectively. These showed only 65% relatedness.
CONCLUSIONS: The MRKP strains in this outbreak were not clonal in origin. The decline of the outbreak after 4 weeks was attributed to the reemphasis of standard infection control procedures and the implementation of a program that addressed sites of environmental contamination.
METHODS: One hundred isolates of S. typhi in humans (50 MDR and 50 antibiotic-sensitive isolates) from sporadic cases of typhoid fever were analyzed by Vi-phage typing, antibiograms and PFGE.
RESULTS: The MDR S. typhi strains were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Analysis by PFGE showed that 50 MDR isolates of S. typhi had a single, homogenous PFGE profile, which was distinctly different from that of 50 antibiotic-sensitive isolates obtained in the same time frame from the same area. This latter group of isolates showed much greater diversity of PFGE profiles, as has been observed in other endemic regions.
CONCLUSIONS: Multidrug-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible strains of S. typhi can coexist in endemic areas as epidemiologically independent pathogens and are not in competition for continued persistence and transmission.