Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Hussain Z, Arooj M, Malik A, Hussain F, Safdar H, Khan S, et al.
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2018;46(sup2):1015-1024.
    PMID: 29873531 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2018.1478420
    Development and formulation of an efficient and safe therapeutic regimen for cancer theranostics are dynamically challenging. The use of mono-therapeutic cancer regimen is generally restricted to optimal clinical applications, on account of drug resistance and cancer heterogeneity. Combinatorial treatments can employ multi-therapeutics for synergistic anticancer efficacy whilst reducing the potency of individual moieties and diminishing the incidence of associated adverse effects. The combo-delivery of nanotherapeutics can optimize anti-tumor efficacy while reversing the incidence of drug resistance, aiming to homogenize pharmacological profile of drugs, enhance circulatory time, permit targeted drug accumulation, achieve multi-target dynamic approach, optimize target-specific drug binding and ensure sustained drug release at the target site. Numerous nanomedicines/nanotherapeutics have been developed by having dynamic physicochemical, pharmaceutical and pharmacological implications. These innovative delivery approaches have displayed specialized treatment effects, alone or in combination with conventional anticancer approaches (photodynamic therapy, radiotherapy and gene therapy), while reversing drug resistance and potential off-target effects. The current review presents a comprehensive overview of nanocarrier aided multi-drug therapies alongside recent advancements, future prospects, and the pivotal requirements for interdisciplinary research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects*
  2. Ngai SC
    Curr Drug Targets, 2020;21(9):849-854.
    PMID: 32116190 DOI: 10.2174/1389450121666200302124426
    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a natural protein expressed in a wide range of tissues in our body. It is a promising anti-cancer agent due to its selective killing of cancer cells, rendering normal cells unharmed. However, resistance occurs either intrinsically or develops over the course of TRAIL treatment. In view of its specificity to cancer cells, there is a pushing need to overcome TRAIL resistance. Curcumin (Cur), a natural active constituent of turmeric, has been evidenced to have anti-cancer properties. However, it is limited by its sparing solubility and low bioavailability. Combinational therapy is one of the most frequently used strategies to overcome these limitations, which has been proved to be more effective than monotherapy by achieving synergistic effects and reducing toxicity. This review aims to discuss TRAIL and its underlying apoptotic mechanisms, the combinational treatment of Cur and TRAIL in view of their respective limitations, and the underlying apoptotic mechanisms activated by the sensitization of cancers by Cur towards TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Finally, this review discusses the research gap and the author's insight into this research area in bridging the research gap from bench to bedside.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  3. Tan SJ, Low YY, Choo YM, Abdullah Z, Etoh T, Hayashi M, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2010 Nov 29;73(11):1891-7.
    PMID: 21043460 DOI: 10.1021/np100552b
    A total of 25 alkaloids were isolated from the leaf and stem-bark extracts of Alstonia spatulata, of which five are new alkaloids of the strychnan type (alstolucines A-E, 1-5) and the other, a new alkaloid of the secoangustilobine A type (alstolobine A, 6). The structures of these alkaloids were established using NMR and MS analysis and, in the case of alstolucine B (2), also confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. A reinvestigation of the stereochemical assignment of scholaricine (13) by NMR and X-ray analyses indicated that the configuration at C-20 required revision. Alkaloids 1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 13 reversed multidrug resistance in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  4. Lim SH, Sim KM, Abdullah Z, Hiraku O, Hayashi M, Komiyama K, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2007 Aug;70(8):1380-3.
    PMID: 17608533
    Four new indole alkaloids were obtained from two Kopsia species, 6-oxoleuconoxine (1) from the leaf extract of K. griffithii and kopsinitarine E (2), kopsijasminine (3), and kopsonoline (4) from the stem-bark extract of K. teoi. The structures of these alkaloids were determined using NMR and MS analysis. Kopsijasminine (3) showed moderate activity in reversing multidrug resistance in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  5. Yeap JS, Saad HM, Tan CH, Sim KS, Lim SH, Low YY, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2019 11 22;82(11):3121-3132.
    PMID: 31642315 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.9b00712
    A methanol extract of the stem bark of the Malayan Alstonia penangiana provided seven new bisindole alkaloids, comprising six macroline-sarpagine alkaloids (angustilongines E-K, 1-6) and one macroline-pleiocarpamine bisindole alkaloid (angustilongine L, 7). Analysis of the spectroscopic data (NMR and MS) of these compounds led to the proposed structures of these alkaloids. The macroline-sarpagine alkaloids (1-6) showed in vitro growth inhibitory activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines, inclusive of KB, vincristine-resistant KB, PC-3, LNCaP, MCF7, MDA-MB-231, HT-29, HCT 116, and A549 cells (IC50 values: 0.02-9.0 μM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  6. Ahmad R, Kaus NHM, Hamid S
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2020;1292:65-82.
    PMID: 30560443 DOI: 10.1007/5584_2018_302
    INTRODUCTION: Drug resistance has been a continuous challenge in cancer treatment. The use of nanotechnology in the development of new cancer drugs has potential. One of the extensively studied compounds is thymoquinone (TQ), and this work aims to compare two types of TQ-nanoformulation and its cytotoxicity toward resistant breast cancer cells.

    METHOD: TQ-nanoparticles were prepared and optimized by using two different formulations with different drugs to PLGA-PEG ratio (1:20 and 1:7) and different PLGA-PEG to Pluronic F68 ratio (10:1 and 2:1). The morphology and size were determined using TEM and DLS. Characterization of particles was done using UV-VIS, ATR-IR, entrapment efficiency, and drug release. The effects of drug, polymer, and surfactants were compared between the two formulations. Cytotoxicity assay was performed using MTS assay.

    RESULTS: TEM finding showed 96% of particles produced with 1:7 drug to PLGA-PEG were less than 90 nm in size and spherical in shape. This was confirmed with DLS which showed smaller particle size than those formed with 1:20 drug to PLGA-PEG ratio. Further analysis showed zeta potential was negatively charged which could facilitate cellular uptake as reported previously. In addition, PDI value was less than 0.1 in both formulations indicating monodispersed and less broad in size distribution. The absorption peak of PLGA-PEG-TQ-Nps was at 255 nm. The 1:7 drug to polymer formulation was selected for further analysis where the entrapment efficiency was 79.9% and in vitro drug release showed a maximum release of TQ of 50%. Cytotoxicity result showed IC50 of TQ-nanoparticle at 20.05 μM and free TQ was 8.25 μM.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that nanoparticle synthesized with 1:7 drug to PLGA-PEG ratio and 2:1 PLGA-PEG to Pluronic F68 formed nanoparticles with less than 100 nm and had spherical shape as confirmed with DLS. This could facilitate its transportation and absorption to reach its target. There was conserved TQ stability as exhibited slow release of this volatile oil. The TQ-nanoparticles showed selective cytotoxic effect toward UACC 732 cells compared to MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects*
  7. Abubakar IB, Loh HS
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2016 Apr;68(4):423-32.
    PMID: 26887962 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.12523
    OBJECTIVES: Tabernaemontana is a genus from the plant family, Apocynaceae with vast medicinal application and widespread distribution in the tropics and subtropics of Africa, Americas and Asia. The objective of this study is to critically evaluate the ethnobotany, medicinal uses, pharmacology and phytochemistry of the species, Tabernaemontana corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) and provide information on the potential future application of alkaloids isolated from different parts of the plant.

    KEY FINDINGS: T. corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) parts are used as poultice, boiled juice, decoctions and infusions for treatment against ulceration, fracture, post-natal recovery, syphilis, fever, tumours and orchitis in Malaysia, China, Thailand and Bangladesh. Studies recorded alkaloids as the predominant phytochemicals in addition to phenols, saponins and sterols with vast bioactivities such as antimicrobial, analgesic, anthelmintic, vasorelaxation, antiviral and cytotoxicity.

    SUMMARY: An evaluation of scientific data and traditional medicine revealed the medicinal uses of different parts of T. corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) across Asia. Future studies exploring the structure-bioactivity relationship of alkaloids such as jerantinine and vincamajicine among others could potentially improve the future application towards reversing anticancer drug resistance.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  8. Nalairndran G, Chung I, Abdul Razack AH, Chung FF, Hii LW, Lim WM, et al.
    J Cell Mol Med, 2021 09;25(17):8187-8200.
    PMID: 34322995 DOI: 10.1111/jcmm.16684
    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common malignancy and is the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality among men globally. Docetaxel-based therapy remains the first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, dose-limiting toxicity including neutropenia, myelosuppression and neurotoxicity is the major reason for docetaxel dose reductions and fewer cycles administered, despite a recent study showing a clear survival benefit with increased total number of docetaxel cycles in PCa patients. Although previous studies have attempted to improve the efficacy and reduce docetaxel toxicity through drug combination, no drug has yet demonstrated improved overall survival in clinical trial, highlighting the challenges of improving the activity of docetaxel monotherapy in PCa. Herein, we identified 15 lethality hits for which inhibition could enhance docetaxel sensitivity in PCa cells via a high-throughput kinome-wide loss-of-function screen. Further drug-gene interactions analyses identified Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) as a viable druggable target with existing experimental inhibitors and FDA-approved drugs. We demonstrated that depletion of endogenous JAK1 enhanced docetaxel-induced apoptosis in PCa cells. Furthermore, inhibition of JAK1/2 by baricitinib and ruxolitinib synergizes docetaxel sensitivity in both androgen receptor (AR)-negative DU145 and PC3 cells, but not in the AR-positive LNCaP cells. In contrast, no synergistic effects were observed in cells treated with JAK2-specific inhibitor, fedratinib, suggesting that the synergistic effects are mainly mediated through JAK1 inhibition. In conclusion, the combination therapy with JAK1 inhibitors and docetaxel could be a useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of prostate cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  9. Yap WS, Gan CY, Sim KS, Lim SH, Low YY, Kam TS
    J Nat Prod, 2016 Jan 22;79(1):230-9.
    PMID: 26717050 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00992
    Eleven new indole alkaloids (1-11) comprising seven aspidofractinine and four eburnane alkaloids, were isolated from the stem-bark extract of Kopsia pauciflora occurring in Malaysian Borneo. The aspidofractinine alkaloids include a ring-contracted, an additional ring-fused, a paucidactine regioisomer, two paucidactine, and one kopsine alkaloid. The structures of several of these alkaloids were also confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses. The bisindole alkaloids isolated, norpleiomutine and kopsoffinol, showed in vitro growth inhibitory activity against human PC-3, HCT-116, MCF-7, and A549 cells and moderate effects in reversing multidrug-resistance in vincristine-resistant human KB cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  10. Gan CY, Yoganathan K, Sim KS, Low YY, Lim SH, Kam TS
    Phytochemistry, 2014 Dec;108:234-42.
    PMID: 25442910 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.09.014
    Eleven indole alkaloids, comprising four corynanthean, two eburnane, one aspidofractinine, one secoleuconoxine, one andranginine, and two pauciflorine type alkaloids were isolated from the stem-bark and leaf extracts of Kopsia pauciflora. Their structures were determined using NMR and MS analyses. The catharinensine type alkaloid kopsirensine B and the secoleuconoxine alkaloid arboloscine A showed moderate to weak activity in reversing MDR in vincristine-resistant KB cells. The alkaloid content was markedly different compared to that of a sample from Malaysian Borneo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  11. Lim SH, Low YY, Sinniah SK, Yong KT, Sim KS, Kam TS
    Phytochemistry, 2014 Feb;98:204-15.
    PMID: 24342109 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.11.014
    A total of seventeen alkaloids, comprising six macroline (including alstofolinine A, a macroline indole incorporating a butyrolactone ring-E), two ajmaline, one sarpagine, and eight akuammiline alkaloids, were isolated from the stem-bark and leaf extracts of the Malayan Alstonia macrophylla. The structure and relative configurations of these alkaloids were established using NMR, MS and in several instances, confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Six of these alkaloids were effective in reversing multidrug-resistance (MDR) in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects*
  12. Gan CY, Robinson WT, Etoh T, Hayashi M, Komiyama K, Kam TS
    Org. Lett., 2009 Sep 3;11(17):3962-5.
    PMID: 19708704 DOI: 10.1021/ol9016172
    A cytotoxic bisindole alkaloid possessing an unprecedented structure constituted from the union of an eburnan half and a novel vinylquinoline alkaloid has been isolated from Leuconotis griffithii. The structure was established by analysis of the spectroscopic data and confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway to the novel quinolinic coupling partner is presented from an Aspidosperma precursor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  13. Lim SH, Mahmood K, Komiyama K, Kam TS
    J Nat Prod, 2008 Jun;71(6):1104-6.
    PMID: 18462006 DOI: 10.1021/np800123g
    A new cycloartane, monocarpinine (1), incorporating a fused tetrahydrofuranyl ring, and a cytotoxic tetracyclic lactam, monomarginine (2), were isolated from a stem bark extract of the Malayan species Monocarpia marginalis. The structures of these compounds were determined using NMR and MS analysis. Monomarginine (2) showed appreciable cytotoxicity toward human KB (both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant) and Jurkat cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  14. Subramaniam G, Hiraku O, Hayashi M, Koyano T, Komiyama K, Kam TS
    J Nat Prod, 2008 Jan;71(1):53-7.
    PMID: 18078327
    Ten new indole alkaloids of the aspidofractinine type, in addition to several recently reported indole alkaloids and 20 other known alkaloids, were obtained from the leaf and stem-bark extract of the Malayan Kopsia singapurensis, viz., kopsimalines A-E (1-5), kopsinicine (6), kopsofinone (7), and kopsiloscines H-J (8-10). The structures of these alkaloids were determined using NMR and MS analysis. Kopsimalines A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), and E (5) and kopsiloscine J (10) were found to reverse multidrug-resistance in vincristine-resistant KB cells, with 1 showing the highest potency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  15. Subramaniam G, Hiraku O, Hayashi M, Koyano T, Komiyama K, Kam TS
    J Nat Prod, 2007 Nov;70(11):1783-9.
    PMID: 17939738
    Eleven new indole alkaloids, in addition to the previously reported rhazinal (1), and 14 other known alkaloids, were obtained from the Malayan Kopsia singapurensis, viz., kopsiloscines A-F (2-7), 16-epikopsinine (8), kopsilongine- N-oxide (9), 16-epiakuammiline (10), aspidophylline A (11), and vincophylline (12). The structures of these alkaloids were determined using NMR and MS analyses. Rhazinal (1), rhazinilam (17), and rhazinicine (18) showed appreciable cytotoxicity toward drug-sensitive as well as vincristine-resistant KB cells, while kopsiloscines A (2), B (3), and D (5) and aspidophylline A (11) were found to reverse drug-resistance in drug-resistant KB cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  16. Elias MH, Baba AA, Husin A, Sulong S, Hassan R, Sim GA, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:129715.
    PMID: 23484077 DOI: 10.1155/2013/129715
    Development of resistance to imatinib mesylate (IM) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients has emerged as a significant clinical problem. The observation that increased epigenetic silencing of potential tumor suppressor genes correlates with disease progression in some CML patients treated with IM suggests a relationship between epigenetic silencing and resistance development. We hypothesize that promoter hypermethylation of HOXA4 could be an epigenetic mechanism mediating IM resistance in CML patients. Thus a study was undertaken to investigate the promoter hypermethylation status of HOXA4 in CML patients on IM treatment and to determine its role in mediating resistance to IM. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of 95 CML patients (38 good responders and 57 resistant) and 12 normal controls. All samples were bisulfite treated and analysed by methylation-specific high-resolution melt analysis. Compared to the good responders, the HOXA4 hypermethylation level was significantly higher (P = 0.002) in IM-resistant CML patients. On comparing the risk, HOXA4 hypermethylation was associated with a higher risk for IM resistance (OR 4.658; 95% CI, 1.673-12.971; P = 0.003). Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that promoter hypermethylation of HOXA4 gene could be an epigenetic mechanism mediating IM resistance in CML patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects*
  17. Phuah NH, Azmi MN, Awang K, Nagoor NH
    Mol. Cells, 2017 Apr;40(4):291-298.
    PMID: 28401751 DOI: 10.14348/molcells.2017.2285
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate genes posttranscriptionally. Past studies have reported that miR-210 is up-regulated in many cancers including cervical cancer, and plays a pleiotropic role in carcinogenesis. However, its role in regulating response towards anti-cancer agents has not been fully elucidated. We have previously reported that the natural compound 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) is able to induce cytotoxicity in various cancer cells including cervical cancer cells. Hence, this study aims to investigate the mechanistic role of miR-210 in regulating response towards ACA in cervical cancer cells. In the present study, we found that ACA down-regulated miR-210 expression in cervical cancer cells, and suppression of miR-210 expression enhanced sensitivity towards ACA by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed increased expression of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4), which was predicted as a target of miR-210 by target prediction programs, following treatment with ACA. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-210 binds to sequences in 3'UTR of SMAD4. Furthermore, decreased in SMAD4 protein expression was observed when miR-210 was overexpressed. Conversely, SMAD4 protein expression increased when miR-210 expression was suppressed. Lastly, we demonstrated that overexpression of SMAD4 augmented the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of ACA. Taken together, our results demonstrated that down-regulation of miR-210 conferred sensitivity towards ACA in cervical cancer cells by targeting SMAD4. These findings suggest that combination of miRNAs and natural compounds could provide new strategies in treating cervical cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects*
  18. Lee JW, Sicre de Fontbrune F, Wong Lee Lee L, Pessoa V, Gualandro S, Füreder W, et al.
    Blood, 2019 02 07;133(6):530-539.
    PMID: 30510080 DOI: 10.1182/blood-2018-09-876136
    Ravulizumab (ALXN1210), a new complement C5 inhibitor, provides immediate, complete, and sustained C5 inhibition. This phase 3, open-label study assessed the noninferiority of ravulizumab to eculizumab in complement inhibitor-naive adults with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Patients with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ≥1.5 times the upper limit of normal and at least 1 PNH symptom were randomized 1:1 to receive ravulizumab or eculizumab for 183 days (N = 246). Coprimary efficacy end points were proportion of patients remaining transfusion-free and LDH normalization. Secondary end points were percent change from baseline in LDH, change from baseline in Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)-Fatigue score, proportion of patients with breakthrough hemolysis, stabilized hemoglobin, and change in serum free C5. Ravulizumab was noninferior to eculizumab for both coprimary and all key secondary end points (Pinf < .0001): transfusion avoidance (73.6% vs 66.1%; difference of 6.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), -4.66, 18.14]), LDH normalization (53.6% vs 49.4%; odds ratio, 1.19 [0.80, 1.77]), percent reduction in LDH (-76.8% vs -76.0%; difference [95% CI], -0.83% [-5.21, 3.56]), change in FACIT-Fatigue score (7.07 vs 6.40; difference [95% CI], 0.67 [-1.21, 2.55]), breakthrough hemolysis (4.0% vs 10.7%; difference [95% CI], -6.7% [-14.21, 0.18]), and stabilized hemoglobin (68.0% vs 64.5%; difference [95% CI], 2.9 [-8.80, 14.64]). The safety and tolerability of ravulizumab and eculizumab were similar; no meningococcal infections occurred. In conclusion, ravulizumab given every 8 weeks achieved noninferiority compared with eculizumab given every 2 weeks for all efficacy end points, with a similar safety profile. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02946463.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects*
  19. Almoustafa HA, Alshawsh MA, Chik Z
    Anticancer Drugs, 2021 08 01;32(7):745-754.
    PMID: 33675612 DOI: 10.1097/CAD.0000000000001065
    Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles are intensively studied nanocarriers in drug delivery because of their biodegradability and biochemical characteristics. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating for nanocarriers gives them long circulation time in blood and makes them invisible to the reticuloendothelial system. Breast cancer cells have greater uptake of hyaluronic acid compared to normal cells as it binds to their overexpressed CD44 receptors. Since hypoxia plays an important role in cancer metastasis; we formulated PEG-PLGA nanoparticles coated with hyaluronic acid as targeted delivery system for doxorubicin (DOX) using nanoprecipitation method, and characterized them for chemical composition, size, surface charge, shape, and encapsulation efficiency. Then we tested them in vitro on hypoxia-optimized metastatic breast cancer cells. The nanoparticles were spherical with an average size of about 106 ± 53 nm, a negative surface charge (-15 ± 3 mV), and high encapsulation efficiency (73.3 ± 4.1%). In vitro investigation with hypoxia-elevated CD44 MDA-MB-231 cells showed that hyaluronic acid-targeted nanoparticles maintained their efficacy despite hypoxia-induced drug resistance unlike free DOX and nontargeted nanoparticles. In conclusion, this study revealed a simple third generation nanoparticle formulation for targeted treatment of hypoxia-induced drug resistance in breast cancer metastatic cells. Further, optimization is needed including In vivo efficacy and nanoparticle-specific pharmacokinetic studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects*
  20. Abdullah NA, Inman M, Moody CJ, Storr SJ, Martin SG
    Invest New Drugs, 2021 10;39(5):1232-1241.
    PMID: 33768386 DOI: 10.1007/s10637-021-01106-5
    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment modality for breast cancer but, unfortunately, not all patients respond fully with a significant number experiencing local recurrences. Overexpression of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase has been reported to cause multidrug and radiation resistance - their inhibition may therefore improve therapeutic efficacy. Novel indolequinone compounds have been shown, in pancreatic cancer models, to inhibit thioredoxin reductase activity and exhibit potent anticancer activity. The present study evaluates, using in vitro breast cancer models, the efficacy of a novel indolequinone compound (IQ9) as a single agent and in combination with ionising radiation using a variety of endpoint assays including cell proliferation, clonogenic survival, enzyme activity, and western blotting. Three triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and MDA-MB-436) and two luminal (MCF-7 and T47D) breast cancer cell lines were used. Results show that treatment with IQ9 significantly inhibited thioredoxin reductase activity, and inhibited cell growth and colony formation of breast cancer cells with IC50 values in the low micromolar ranges. Enhanced radiosensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer cells was observed, with sensitiser enhancement ratios of 1.20-1.43, but with no evident radiosensitisation of luminal breast cancer cell lines. IQ9 upregulated protein expression of thioredoxin reductase in luminal but not in triple-negative breast cancer cells which may explain the observed differential radiosensitisation. This study provides important evidence of the roles of the thioredoxin system as an exploitable radiobiological target in breast cancer cells and highlights the potential therapeutic value of indolequinones as radiosensitisers.***This study was not part of a clinical trial. Clinical trial registration number: N/A.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects*
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