METHOD: TQ-nanoparticles were prepared and optimized by using two different formulations with different drugs to PLGA-PEG ratio (1:20 and 1:7) and different PLGA-PEG to Pluronic F68 ratio (10:1 and 2:1). The morphology and size were determined using TEM and DLS. Characterization of particles was done using UV-VIS, ATR-IR, entrapment efficiency, and drug release. The effects of drug, polymer, and surfactants were compared between the two formulations. Cytotoxicity assay was performed using MTS assay.
RESULTS: TEM finding showed 96% of particles produced with 1:7 drug to PLGA-PEG were less than 90 nm in size and spherical in shape. This was confirmed with DLS which showed smaller particle size than those formed with 1:20 drug to PLGA-PEG ratio. Further analysis showed zeta potential was negatively charged which could facilitate cellular uptake as reported previously. In addition, PDI value was less than 0.1 in both formulations indicating monodispersed and less broad in size distribution. The absorption peak of PLGA-PEG-TQ-Nps was at 255 nm. The 1:7 drug to polymer formulation was selected for further analysis where the entrapment efficiency was 79.9% and in vitro drug release showed a maximum release of TQ of 50%. Cytotoxicity result showed IC50 of TQ-nanoparticle at 20.05 μM and free TQ was 8.25 μM.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that nanoparticle synthesized with 1:7 drug to PLGA-PEG ratio and 2:1 PLGA-PEG to Pluronic F68 formed nanoparticles with less than 100 nm and had spherical shape as confirmed with DLS. This could facilitate its transportation and absorption to reach its target. There was conserved TQ stability as exhibited slow release of this volatile oil. The TQ-nanoparticles showed selective cytotoxic effect toward UACC 732 cells compared to MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
KEY FINDINGS: T. corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) parts are used as poultice, boiled juice, decoctions and infusions for treatment against ulceration, fracture, post-natal recovery, syphilis, fever, tumours and orchitis in Malaysia, China, Thailand and Bangladesh. Studies recorded alkaloids as the predominant phytochemicals in addition to phenols, saponins and sterols with vast bioactivities such as antimicrobial, analgesic, anthelmintic, vasorelaxation, antiviral and cytotoxicity.
SUMMARY: An evaluation of scientific data and traditional medicine revealed the medicinal uses of different parts of T. corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) across Asia. Future studies exploring the structure-bioactivity relationship of alkaloids such as jerantinine and vincamajicine among others could potentially improve the future application towards reversing anticancer drug resistance.