In this study, the particle size distribution and concentration of metallic elements of solvent- and water-based paint dust from bulk dust collected from dust-collecting hoppers were determined. The mean particle size diameter over a 12-week sampling period was determined using a particle size analyzer. The metals composition and concentration of the dust were determined via acid digestion technique followed by concentration analysis using inductively coupled plasma. The volume weighted mean particle diameters were found to be 0.941+/-0.016 and 8.185+/-0.201 microm for solvent- and water-based paint dust, respectively. The mean concentrations of metals in solvent-based paint dust were found to be 100+/-20.00 microg/g (arsenic), 1550+/-550.00 microg/g (copper), 15,680+/-11,780.00 microg/g (lead) and 30,460+/-10,580.00 microg/g (zinc) while the mean concentrations of metals in water-based paint dust were found to be 20.65+/-6.11 microg/g (arsenic), 9.14+/-14.65 microg/g (copper), 57.46+/-22.42 microg/g (lead) and 1660+/-1260 microg/g (zinc). Both paint dust types could be considered as hazardous since almost all of the dust particles were smaller than 10 microm. Particular emphasis on containment of solvent-based paint dust particles should be given since it was shown that they were very fine in size (<1 microm) and had high lead and zinc concentrations.
Urban road dust contains anthropogenic components at toxic concentrations which can be hazardous to human health. A total of 36 road dust samples from five different urban areas, a commercial (CM), a high traffic (HT), a park (GR), a rail station (LRT), and a residential area (RD), were collected in Kuala Lumpur City followed by investigation into compositions, sources, and human health risks. The concentrations of trace metals in road dust and the bioaccessible fraction were determined using inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) while ion concentrations were determined using ion chromatography (IC). The trace metal concentrations were dominated by Fe and Al with contributions of 53% and 21% to the total trace metal and ion concentrations in road dust. Another dominant metal was Zn while the dominant ion was Ca2+ with average concentrations of 314 ± 190 μg g-1 and 3470 ± 1693 μg g-1, respectively. The most bioaccessible fraction was Zn followed by the sequence Sr > Cd > Cr > Cu > Ni > Co > Mn > As > V > Pb > Fe > Al > U. The results revealed that the highest trace metal and ion concentrations in road dust and in the bioaccessible fraction were found at the LRT area. Based on the source apportionment analysis, the major source of road dust was vehicle emissions/traffic activity (47%), and for the bioaccessible fraction, the major source was soil dust (50%). For the health risk assessments, hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk (CR) values for each element were
Indoor microbial diversity and composition are suggested to affect the prevalence and severity of asthma by previous home microbiome studies, but no microbiome-health association study has been conducted in a school environment, especially in tropical countries. In this study, we collected floor dust and environmental characteristics from 21 classrooms, and health data related to asthma symptoms from 309 students, in junior high schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The bacterial and fungal composition was characterized by sequencing 16s rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and the absolute microbial concentration was quantified by qPCR. In total, 326 bacterial and 255 fungal genera were characterized. Five bacterial (Sphingobium, Rhodomicrobium, Shimwellia, Solirubrobacter, Pleurocapsa) and two fungal (Torulaspora and Leptosphaeriaceae) taxa were protective for asthma severity. Two bacterial taxa, Izhakiella and Robinsoniella, were positively associated with asthma severity. Several protective bacterial taxa including Rhodomicrobium, Shimwellia and Sphingobium have been reported as protective microbes in previous studies, whereas other taxa were first time reported. Environmental characteristics, such as age of building, size of textile curtain per room volume, occurrence of cockroaches, concentration of house dust mite allergens transferred from homes by the occupants, were involved in shaping the overall microbial community but not asthma-associated taxa; whereas visible dampness and mold, which did not change the overall microbial community for floor dust, was negatively associated with the concentration of protective bacteria Rhodomicrobium (β = -2.86, p = 0.021) of asthma. The result indicates complex interactions between microbes, environmental characteristics and asthma symptoms. Overall, this is the first indoor microbiome study to characterize the asthma-associated microbes and their environmental determinant in the tropical area, promoting the understanding of microbial exposure and respiratory health in this region.
Size-segregated airborne fine (PM2.1) and coarse (PM>2.1) particulates were measured in an urban environment over central Indo-Gangetic plain in between 2015 and 2018 to get insights into its nature, chemistry and sources. Mean (±1σ) concentration of PM2.1 was 98 (±76) μgm-3 with a seasonal high during winter (DJF, 162 ± 71 μgm-3) compared to pre-monsoon specific high in PM>2.1 (MAMJ, 177 ± 84 μgm-3) with an annual mean of 170 (±69) μgm-3. PM2.1 was secondary in nature with abundant secondary inorganic aerosols (20% of particulate mass) and water-soluble organic carbon (19%) against metal enriched (25%) PM>2.1, having robust signature of resuspensions from Earth's crust and road dust. Ammonium-based neutralization of particulate acidity was essentially in PM2.1 with an indication of predominant H2SO4 neutralization in bisulfate form compared to Ca2+ and Mg2+-based neutralization in PM>2.1. Molecular distribution of n-alkanes homologues (C17-C35) showed Cmax at C23 (PM2.1) and C18 (PM>2.1) with weak dominance of odd-numbered n-alkanes. Carbon preference index of n-alkanes was close to unity (PM2.1: 1.4 ± 0.3; PM>2.1: 1.3 ± 0.4). Fatty acids (C12-C26) were characterized with predominance of even carbon with Cmax at n-hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Low to high molecular weight fatty acid ratio ranged from 2.0 (PM>2.1) to 5.6 (PM2.1) with vital signature of anthropogenic emissions. Levoglucosan was abundant in PM2.1 (758 ± 481 ngm-3) with a high ratio (11.6) against galactosan, emphasizing robust contribution from burning of hardwood and agricultural residues. Receptor model resolves secondary aerosols and biomass burning emissions (45%) as the most influential sources of PM2.1 whereas, crustal (29%) and secondary aerosols (29%) were found responsible for PM>2.1; with significant variations among the seasons.
The trends of safety incident process have been put in the statistical research and development in order to prevent
and mitigate the phenomenon. One of the incidents is known as dust explosion. It represents a constant hazard to
industries which includes any manufacturing using and handling combustible dust materials. Lack of sharing and
know-how on best practices in managing the workplace must be avoided throughout the industries. The severity and
the consequences of not taking the safety precautions at workplace have not been foreseen by the process team. This
present paper discusses the best practices in managing the hazards from the catastrophes to happen again. In addition,
the mitigation response has also been explored thoroughly through database of best practices.
This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of cypermethrin in total suspended particulate in air in several farming areas of Cameron Highlands. Samples of total suspended particulate were collected using a high volume air sampler (Model Graseby) from six different sampling sites around Cameron Highlands. Laboratory analysis of total suspended particulate was conducted by the standard method. High dosages of cypermethrin were used by farmers in the dry season. Results of the study showed that the concentrations of cypermethrin in total suspended particulate in the air samples were higher during the dry season (May-July 2004) compared to the rainy season (September-October 2004). There was a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of cypermethrin and total suspended particulate (p<0.05).
The heat and mass transfer of steady magnetohydrodynamics of dusty Jeffrey fluid past an exponentially stretching sheet in the presence of thermal radiation have been investigated. The main purpose of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of flow behaviour of suspended dust particles in non-Newtonian fluid. The governing equations hav been converted into dimensionless form, and then solved numerically via the Keller-box method. The expression of Sherwood number, Nusselt number and skin friction have been evaluated, and then displayed in tabular forms. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented graphically. It is observed that large value of dust particles mass concentration parameter has reduced the flow velocity significantly. Increase in radiation parameter enhances the temperature, whereas the increment in Schmidt number parameter reduces the concentration.
The aim of this study was to determine the source apportionment of dust fall around Lake Chini, Malaysia. Samples were collected monthly between December 2012 and March 2013 at seven sampling stations located around Lake Chini. The samples were filtered to separate the dissolved and undissolved solids. The ionic compositions (NO3-, SO4(2-), Cl- and NH4+) were determined using ion chromatography (IC) while major elements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) and trace metals (Zn, Fe, Al, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb and Cd) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that the average concentration of total solids around Lake Chini was 93.49±16.16 mg/(m2·day). SO4(2-), Na and Zn dominated the dissolved portion of the dust fall. The enrichment factors (EF) revealed that the source of the trace metals and major elements in the rain water was anthropogenic, except for Fe. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified the seven monitoring stations and 16 variables into five groups and three groups respectively. A coupled receptor model, principal component analysis multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR), revealed that the sources of dust fall in Lake Chini were dominated by agricultural and biomass burning (42%), followed by the earth's crust (28%), sea spray (16%) and a mixture of soil dust and vehicle emissions (14%).
Exposure to Portland cement dust has long been associated with the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and varying degrees of airway obstruction in man. Apart from respiratory diseases, it was also found to be the cause of lung and laryngeal cancer, gastrointestinal tumours and also dermatitis. This study was done to investigate the effect of dust exposure on ventilatory lung function of Portland cement factory workers in Rawang, Selangor. Spirometry tests of 62 male workers (exposed to total dust concentration of 10,180 micrograms/m3 and PM10 of 8049 micrograms/m3) and 70 subjects from UPM (exposed to mean total dust of 192 micrograms/m3 and PM10 of 177 micrograms/m3--controls) revealed significant differences in spirometry values between the groups. The workers showed i) significantly lower FEV1% and FEF25-75%, and higher FMFT, ii) reduced FEV1% with increasing level of dust exposure and iii) higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Therefore, we suggest that exposure to dust in the cement factory leads to higher incidence of respiratory symptoms and impaired lung function.
In the present study on the life-cycle of Blomia tropicalis, freshly laid eggs were observed until they developed into adults; the development periods between stages were recorded. The eggs took an average of 22.9 +/- 6.4 days to develop to adults. For longevity experiments, newly emerged adults were kept at 25 degrees C and observed until they died. There was no significant difference in longevities of the different sexes (p = 0.053). Production of eggs by mated females were monitored until egg production stopped and the female died. Mated females and males survived an average of 32.2 +/- 15.4 and 30.9 +/- 17.7 days respectively. The difference in longevity of the mated females, and males was not significant (p = 0.747). Longevity of the mated females was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) shorter than unmated females.
Three groups of people with different clinical histories and manifestations to house dust were skin tested with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extracts. The results showed close correlation between positive skin tests and clinical sensitivity to dust. The correlation was not, however, perfect and, although D. pteronyssinus is a major factor in house dust allergy, it does not appear to be the sole antigen involved.
Radiocesium (RCs) is selectively adsorbed on interlayer sites of weathered micaceous minerals, which can reduce the mobility of RCs in soil. Therefore, soils developed from mica-deficient materials (e.g. serpentine soils) may have a higher risk of soil-to-plant transfer of RCs. Soils were collected from three serpentine soil profiles; Udepts in Oeyama, Japan, and Udepts and Udox in Kinabalu, Malaysia. Soil was sampled every 3 cm from 0 to 30 cm depth and sieved to isolate soil particles of ≤20 μm diameter for the assessment of radiocesium interception potential (RIP) after a series of pretreatments. One subset was treated with H2O2 to remove organic matter (OM). Another subset was further treated with hot sodium citrate to remove hydroxy-Al polymers (Al(OH)x). RIPuntreated was <0.4 mol kg-1 whereas mica-K content was <0.02% by weight for ≤20-μm soil particles from Udepts and Udox in Kinabalu, Malaysia, values as low as those of non-micaceous minerals (e.g. kaolinite and smectite). Neither OM nor Al(OH)x removal resulted in a large increase in RIP value for these soils. These results clearly indicated that serpentine soils in Malaysia have very few RCs selective adsorption sites due to the absence of micaceous minerals. In contrast, soil from Udepts in Oeyama, Japan showed average RIPuntreated of 5.6 mol kg-1 and mica-K content of 0.72% by weight for the ≤20-μm particles. Furthermore, the RIP value was significantly increased to an average of 22.5 mol kg-1 after removing both OM and Al(OH)x. These results strongly suggest that weathered micaceous minerals primarily control the ability to retain RCs. These micaceous minerals cannot originate from serpentine minerals, and are probably incorporated as an exotic material, such as Asian dust. This hypothesis is supported by the δ18O value of quartz isolated from the ≤20-μm soil particles from Oeyama, Japan (+16.13‰±0.11‰), very similar to that of Asian dust. In conclusion, serpentine soils in Japan may exhibit a reduced risk of soil-to-plant transfer of RCs due to the historical deposition of Asian dust.
The purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of the selected elemental composition in a multi-storey hostel. Dust samples were taken from three random rooms at each level of the student hostel by sweeping the floor. The concentrations of elements (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPOES) after digestion with nitric acid and sulfuric acid solutions. Dust samples analysis has shown the different levels of sampling point does not affect the concentration of the elements. The concentration of elements in investigated microenvironment was in the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The correlation analysis was applied to elements variable in order to identify the sources of an airborne contaminant. It was discovered the strong positive correlation between Cu-Zn which indicates the sources come from traffic emission and street dust. This result was supported by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) that revealed the presence of elements in the student hostel originated from the outdoor sources.
Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a disease to occur is a sign of failure in prevention. All responsible agencies should focus on a wider aspect of health determinants rather than merely on the occurrence of diseases to act and the need to emphasize on sustainable mining to ensure health of people is not compromised.
This study attempted to investigate the effect of kiln drying on the rate of formation of ball copra. Three samples containing fifty partially dried-coconuts were placed as a single layer in three compartmentalized blocks namely, Front: Blok-1, Middle: Block-2, and Rear: Block-3 in the copra bed of the modified-Ceylon copra kiln. From each of the three blocks, thirty coconuts were selected randomly for labeling and their fresh weights were recorded. The samples were subjected to intermittent drying in the kiln by thirty five firing cycles using charcoal dust as the fuel source. The temperature distribution pattern of the three blocks during the first six firing was monitored at three hourly intervals. The weight losses of individual coconuts in each block were measured after the completion of each firing. The results showed that, there was a significant (p
The growing concern over the workers safety and health has lead many factories and organizations do the air monitoring to ensure the airborne at their workplace is safe for the worker’s health and complying the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514). In this study, the monitoring covers an indoor air quality and chemical exposure to the workers in one of the power plant repair shop. A few workers from different sections namely blasting, welding, grinding, fitting and maintenance area were chosen to assist in the personal monitoring for 8 hours measurement. PM10 were measured at a few sampling points to collect dusts for 24 hours duration. The samples were brought back to the laboratory for gravimetric and SEM-EDAX analysis. The results were certainly exceed the limit for air quality, and many elements were detected such as Fe, Ni, Al, Si, Ca, K, Ba, S, Cr, Zn and Cl. The present of these elements shows that exposure to these particulate matters is quite risky and some measure needs to be taken for remedial action.
In the perspective of recent bauxite mining in Malaysia, this review aims to identify the potential
environmental and health impacts on miners and surrounding communities. The environmental issues of
bauxite mining include, air, water and soil pollution due to bauxite dust; leaching of bauxite into water
sources resulting in reduced soil fertility as well as affecting agricultural food products and aquatic life.
Bauxite occupational exposure affects the health of miners, and has negative consequences on the health of
surrounding communities, such as increased respiratory symptoms, contamination of drinking water, other
potential health risks from ingestion of bauxite and heavy metals, including noise-induced hearing loss and
mental stress. This review discusses the processes of bauxite mining, its constituents and residual trace
elements, and their impact on the environment and health of exposed workers and communities. It also
explores the Malaysian legal requirements and standards of occupational exposure to bauxite.