Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Bhattacharya K, Sengupta P, Dutta S, Syamal AK
    Mol Cell Biochem, 2023 Feb;478(2):285-289.
    PMID: 35788949 DOI: 10.1007/s11010-022-04505-1
    Estrogens and progesterone, in unison and/or separately, synchronize the distinct events of blastocyst development, uterine priming and receptivity induction for implantation. In contrast to high implantation failure rates, the mechanistic concepts regarding the uterine receptivity for implantation still remain elusive. The present study aims to define the minimum estradiol (E2) dose to induce uterine receptivity for successful implantation in post-coitus bilaterally ovariectomized (BLO) progesterone-primed uterus of mice. Post-coital sperm-positive adult female mice were divided into two groups. In both the groups, delayed implantation was induced by BLO on post-coitus Day 4 (D4). Group 1 received 2 mg of progesterone (P4) from D5 until sacrifice, and E2 injection of 3.0, 10.0, 25.0 and 50.0 ng on D7. On D8, all mice of this group were sacrificed except the mice that received second dose of 25.0 ng of E2 on D8 and were sacrificed on D9. Group 2 followed the same doses, but were given simultaneously on D4, and sacrificed on D5. The mice that received second doses of 25.0 ng E2 were sacrificed on D6. The minimum dose of E2 required to induce uterine receptivity for implantation is a single dose of 50.0 ng E2. The uterus remained refractory following short receptive period at E2 doses lower than 50.0 ng, which is just sufficient to establish desired uterine receptivity. However, repeated administration of sub-threshold doses of 25.0 ng of E2 could also not effectively sustain uterine receptivity towards successful implantation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology
  2. Bin Karim K, Giribabu N, Bin Salleh N
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2024 Feb;196(2):821-840.
    PMID: 37219787 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-023-04515-9
    Evidence pointed towards the benefits of Marantodes pumilum in treating osteoporosis after menopause; however, the detailed mechanisms still have not been explored. Therefore, this study aims to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying M. pumilum's bone-protective effect via the involvement of RANK/RANKL/OPG and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Ovariectomized adult female rats were given M. pumilum leaf aqueous extract (MPLA) (50 and 100 mg/kg/day) and estrogen (positive control) orally for twenty-eight consecutive days. Following the treatment, rats were sacrificed, and femur bones were harvested. Blood was withdrawn for analysis of serum Ca2+, PO43-, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) levels. The bone microarchitectural changes were observed by H&E and PAS staining and distribution and expression of RANK/RANKL/OPG and Wnt3a/β-catenin and its downstream proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and real-time PCR. MPLA treatment increased serum Ca2+ and PO43- levels and reduced serum BALP levels (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology
  3. Karim K, Giribabu N, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    Syst Biol Reprod Med, 2016;62(1):57-68.
    PMID: 26709452 DOI: 10.3109/19396368.2015.1112699
    Changes in the uterus expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, III, IX, XII, and XIII were investigated under the influence of sex-steroids in order to elucidate mechanisms underlying differential effects of these hormones on uterine pH. Uteri of ovariectomised rats receiving over three days either vehicle, estrogen, or progesterone or three days estrogen followed by three days either vehicle or progesterone were harvested. Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The distribution of CA isoenzymes proteins were examined by immunohistochemistry. The levels of CAII, III, XII, and XIII mRNAs and proteins were elevated while levels of CAIX mRNA and protein were reduced following progesterone-only and estrogen plus progesterone treatment, compared to the control and estrogen plus vehicle, respectively. Following estrogen treatment, expression of CAII, IX, XII, and CAXIII mRNAs and proteins were reduced, but remained at a level higher than control, except for CAIX, where its level was higher than the control and following progesterone treatment. Under progesterone-only and estrogen plus progesterone influences, high levels of CAII, III, XII, and XIII were observed in uterine lumenal and glandular epithelia and myometrium. However, a high level of CAIX was observed only under the influence of estrogen at the similar locations. In conclusion, high expression of CAII, III, XII, and XIII under the influence of progesterone and estrogen plus progesterone could result in the reduction of uterine tissue and fluid pH; however, the significance of high levels of CAIX expression under the influence of estrogen remains unclear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology*
  4. Mohd Mokhtar H, Giribabu N, Kassim N, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 2014 Oct;144 Pt B:361-72.
    PMID: 25125390 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.08.007
    Estrogen is known to stimulate uterine fluid and Cl(-) secretion via CFTR. This study investigated testosterone effect on these changes in a rat model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology
  5. Nesaretnam K, Ambra R, Selvaduray KR, Radhakrishnan A, Canali R, Virgili F
    Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2004 Dec;1031:143-57.
    PMID: 15753141
    Vitamin E is important not only for its cellular antioxidant and lipid-lowering properties, but also as an antiproliferating agent. It has also been shown to contribute to immunoregulation, antibody production, and resistance to implanted tumors. It has recently been shown that tocotrienols are the components of vitamin E responsible for growth inhibition in human breast cancer cells in vitro as well as in vivo through estrogen-independent mechanisms. Although tocotrienols act on cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and can induce programmed cell death, no specific gene regulation has yet been identified. In order to investigate the molecular basis of the effect of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil, we performed a cDNA array analysis of cancer-related gene expression in estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) and estrogen-independent (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cells. The human breast cancer cells were incubated with or without 8 mug/mL of tocotrienols for 72 h. RNA was subsequently extracted and subjected to reverse transcription before being hybridized onto cancer arrays. Tocotrienol supplementation modulated significantly 46 out of 1200 genes in MDA-MB-231 cells. In MCF-7 cells, tocotrienol administration was associated with a lower number of affected genes. Interestingly, only three were affected in a similar fashion in both cell lines: c-myc binding protein MM-1, 23-kDa highly basic protein, and interferon-inducible protein 9-27 (IFITM-1). These proteins are most likely involved in the cell cycle and can exert inhibitory effects on cell growth and differentiation of the tumor cell lines. These data suggest that tocotrienols are able to affect cell homeostasis, possibly independent of their antioxidant activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology
  6. Ismail N, Giribabu N, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    Mol. Reprod. Dev., 2015 Jun;82(6):463-74.
    PMID: 26018621 DOI: 10.1002/mrd.22496
    The consistency of the cervical mucus changes with the reproductive cycle, which we hypothesized involved changing levels of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), adenylate cyclase (AC), and cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate (cAMP). We therefore measured the abundance of each in the rat cervix under estrogen and progesterone influence to determine if the activity of these components could explain the changes in the consistency of cervical mucus. Ovariectomised adult female rats were treated with three days of either estrogen (1 μg/kg/day) or progesterone (20 mg/kg/day), or three days of estrogen followed by two days of either vehicle or progesterone or estrogen plus progesterone. In some groups, mifepristone (7 mg/kg/day) was concurrently given with progesterone. Animals were then sacrificed, and the cervix was harvested for protein and mRNA expression analyses by Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. The distribution of proteins was investigated by immunohistochemistry, and levels of cAMP were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cftr mRNA, AC protein, and cAMP levels in cervical homogenates as well as the tissue distribution of CFTR and AC in endocervical epithelia were highest under estrogen influence; the opposite pattern was seen under progesterone influence. Cervical lumen circumference was highest under estrogen and lowest under progesterone. The effects of progesterone were antagonized by mifepristone. Therefore, increased abundance of CFTR, AC, and cAMP under estrogen influence could account for the increased fluid accumulation within the cervical lumen, which would contribute to lower cervical mucus consistency, whereas progesterone reverses this effect at the molecular and organ level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology*
  7. Muhamad M, Choo CY, Hasuda T, Hitotsuyanagi Y
    Fitoterapia, 2019 Sep;137:104256.
    PMID: 31295513 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104256
    Labisia pumila var. alata (Myrsinaceae) or "Kacip fatimah" is a famous Malay traditional herb used for the maintenance of women's health. The extracts of L.pumila displayed estrogenic activity in rats. Nonetheless, the estrogenic bioactives were not identified. The aim of the study is to identify estrogenic compounds contributing to the established estrogenic activity. Bioactivity-guided-isolation method guided the isolation of pure bioactives. The hexane extract was subjected to a series of silica gel flash and open column chromatography with increasing amount of ethyl acetate in hexane or methanol in chloroform. Each fraction or pure compounds were evaluated on it's estrogen receptor (ER) binding activity with the fluorescence polarization competitive ERα and ERβ binding assay kit. Cytotoxic assay using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method was used to establish the cytotoxic activity of the compounds. Four alkyl resorcinols and a dimeric 1,4-benzoquinone, namely belamcandol B (1), 5-pentadec-10'-(Z)-enyl resorcinol (2), 1,3-dihydroxy-5-pentadecylbenzene (3), 5-(heptadec-12'-(Z)-enyl) resorcinol (4) and demethylbelamcandaquinone B (5) were identified with selective binding affinities towards either ERα or ERβ exhibiting selectivity ratio from 0.15-11.9. Alkyl resorcinols (2)-(4) exhibited cytotoxic activity towards HL60 cells with IC50 values from 19.5-22.0 μM. Structural differences between compounds influence the binding affinities to ER subtypes. Further study is needed to establish the agonist or antagonist effect of these compounds on various tissues and to identify if these compounds exert cytotoxic activity through the ERs. When consuming L.pumila as a complementary medicine, careful consideration regarding it's estrogenic compound content should be given due consideration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology*
  8. Ab-Rahim S, Selvaratnam L, Kamarul T
    Cell Biol Int, 2008 Jul;32(7):841-7.
    PMID: 18479947 DOI: 10.1016/j.cellbi.2008.03.016
    Articular cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in regulating chondrocyte functions via cell-matrix interaction, cytoskeletal organization and integrin-mediated signaling. Factors such as interleukins, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) have been shown to modulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix in vitro. However, the effects of TGF-beta1 and beta-estradiol in ECM regulation require further investigation, although there have been suggestions that these factors do play a positive role. To establish the role of these factors on chondrocytes derived from articular joints, a study was conducted to investigate the effects of TGF-beta1 and beta-estradiol on glycosaminoglycan secretion and type II collagen distribution (two major component of cartilage ECM in vivo). Thus, chondrocyte cultures initiated from rabbit articular cartilage were treated with 10ng/ml of TGF-beta1, 10nM of beta-estradiol or with a combination of both factors. Sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and type II collagen levels were then measured in both these culture systems. The results revealed that the synthesis of GAG and type II collagen was shown to be enhanced in the TGF-beta1 treated cultures. This increase was also noted when TGF-beta1 and beta-estradiol were both used as culture supplements. However, beta-estradiol alone did not appear to affect GAG or type II collagen deposition. There was also no difference between the amount of collagen type II and GAG being expressed when chondrocyte cultures were treated with TGF-beta1 when compared with cultures treated with combined factors. From this, we conclude that although TGF-beta1 appears to stimulate chondrocyte ECM synthesis, beta-estradiol fails to produce similar effects. The findings of this study confirm that contrary to previous claims, beta-estradiol has little or no effect on chondrocyte ECM synthesis. Furthermore, the use of TGF-beta1 may be useful in future studies looking into biological mechanisms by which ECM synthesis in chondrocyte cultures can be augmented, particularly for clinical application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology
  9. Effendy NM, Shuid AN
    Nutrients, 2014 Aug;6(8):3288-302.
    PMID: 25195641 DOI: 10.3390/nu6083288
    Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), a herb used traditionally for women's health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL), sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomised control (OVXC), ovariectomised (OVX) and given 64.5 μg/kg of Premarin (ERT), ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20) and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100). The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology
  10. Al-Rahbi B, Zakaria R, Othman Z, Hassan A, Ahmad AH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:310821.
    PMID: 24550703 DOI: 10.1155/2014/310821
    A possible interaction between glucocorticoids and estrogen-induced increases in brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in enhancing depressive-like behaviour has been documented. Here we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey, a phytoestrogen, and 17 β -estradiol (E2) on the depressive-like behaviour, stress hormones, and BDNF concentration in stressed ovariectomised (OVX) rats. The animals were divided into six groups: (i) nonstressed sham-operated control, (ii) stressed sham-operated control, (iii) nonstressed OVX, (iv) stressed OVX, (v) stressed OVX treated with E2 (20  μg daily, sc), and (vi) stressed OVX treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight daily, orally). Two months after surgery, the animals were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by forced swimming test. Struggling time, immobility time, and swimming time were scored. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, and the BDNF concentration were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Stressed OVX rats displayed increased depressive-like behaviour with significantly increased serum ACTH and corticosterone levels, while the BDNF concentration was significantly decreased compared to other experimental groups. These changes were notably reversed by both E2 and Tualang honey. In conclusion, both Tualang honey and E2 mediate antidepressive-like effects in stressed OVX rats, possibly acting via restoration of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and enhancement of the BDNF concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology*
  11. Yaacob NS, Nasir R, Norazmi MN
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6761-7.
    PMID: 24377602
    The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), is expressed in various cancer cells including breast, prostate, colorectal and cervical examples. An endogenous ligand of PPARγ, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14 prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), is emerging as a potent anticancer agent but the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated, especially in breast cancer. The present study compared the anticancer effects of PGJ2 on estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive (MCF-7) and ERα-negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cells. Based on the reported signalling cross-talk between PPARγ and ERα, the effect of the ERα ligand, 17β-estradiol (E2) on the anticancer activities of PGJ2 in both types of cells was also explored. Here we report that PGJ2 inhibited proliferation of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells by inducing apoptotic cell death with active involvement of mitochondria. The presence of E2 potentiated PGJ2-induced apoptosis in MCF-7, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. The PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, failed to block PGJ2-induced activities but potentiated its effects in MCF-7 cells, instead. Interestingly, GW9662 also proved capable of inducing apoptotic cell death. It can be concluded that E2 enhances PPARγ-independent anticancer effects of PGJ2 in the presence of its receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology
  12. Muhammad SI, Maznah I, Mahmud RB, Saeed MI, Imam MU, Ishaka A
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2013;7:1409-20.
    PMID: 24324328 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S50861
    The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology*
  13. Othman Z, Shafin N, Zakaria R, Hussain NH, Mohammad WM
    Menopause, 2011 Nov;18(11):1219-24.
    PMID: 21926932 DOI: 10.1097/gme.0b013e31821e2044
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the verbal learning and memory performance of postmenopausal women who received tualang honey (Agro Mas) in comparison with women receiving estrogen plus progestin therapy and untreated controls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology
  14. Chinigarzadeh A, Karim K, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 2017 Apr;31(4).
    PMID: 27891704 DOI: 10.1002/jbt.21878
    We hypothesized that genistein could affect the chloride (Cl(-) ) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-) ) secretory mechanisms in uterus. Ovariectomized female rats were given estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day genistein. Following completion of the treatment, uterine fluid Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations were determined by in vivo uterine perfusion. Uteri were subjected for molecular biological analysis (Western blot, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry) to detect levels of expression of Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), Cl(-) /HCO3(-) exchanger (SLC26a6), Na(+) /HCO3(-) cotransporter (SLC4a4), and estrogen receptor (ER)-α and β. Coadministration of genistein resulted in decrease in Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations and expression of CFTR, SLC26a6, SLC4a4, and ER-α and ER-β in the uteri of estradiol-treated rats. In estradiol plus progesterone-treated rats, a significant increase in the above parameters were observed following high-dose genistein treatment except for the SLC24a4 level. In conclusion, genistein-induced changes in the uterus could affect the reproductive processes that might result in infertility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology*
  15. Gholami K, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    J Biomed Biotechnol, 2012;2012:596084.
    PMID: 23226939 DOI: 10.1155/2012/596084
    Under progesterone (P) dominance, fluid loss assists uterine closure which is associated with pH reduction. We hypothesize that P inhibits uterine fluid secretion and HCO3⁻ transport.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology*
  16. Ibrahim N', Mohamed N, Soelaiman IN, Shuid AN
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2015 Oct;12(10):12958-76.
    PMID: 26501302 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph121012958
    Osteoporotic drugs are used to prevent fragility fractures, but their role in fracture healing still remains unknown. Thus, alternative agents with suitable mode of delivery are needed to promote fracture healing. This study was performed to investigate the effects of direct deliveries of lovastatin and tocotrienol to fracture sites on ossification-related gene expression in fracture healing in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model. Forty-eight Sprague Dawley female rats were divided into six groups. Group I comprised the sham-operated rats, while Groups II-VI were ovariectomized rats. After 8 weeks, the right tibiae of all rats were fractured and stabilized. Group I and Group II were given two single injections of lovastatin and tocotrienol carriers. Group III was given an estrogen preparation at 64.5 µg/kg daily via oral gavages. Group IV was injected with lovastatin particles (750 µg/kg), while Group V was injected with tocotrienol particles (60 mg/kg). Group VI received two single injections of 750 µg/kg lovastatin particles and 60 mg/kg tocotrienol particles. After 4 weeks, the gene expressions were measured. Group VI showed significantly higher gene expressions of osteocalcin, BMP-2, VEGF-α, and RUNX-2 compared to Group II. In conclusion, combined treatment of lovastatin and tocotrienol upregulated the expression of genes related to fracture healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology
  17. Li G, Tang H, Chen Y, Yin Y, Ogawa S, Liu M, et al.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2018 02 05;461:1-11.
    PMID: 28801227 DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2017.08.003
    The LHb expression is up-regulated during puberty in female zebrafish. However, the molecular mechanism underlying how LHb expression is regulated during puberty remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the mRNA expression levels of lhb, fshb and cyp19a1b were up-regulated along with the puberty onset in zebrafish. Among the three nuclear estrogen receptors (nERs), the esr2b is the only type whose expression is significantly up-regulated during puberty onset in the pituitary. However, in situ hybridization results revealed that lhb mRNA was colocalized with esr1 and esr2a but not esr2b. Exposure to estradiol (E2) significantly stimulates LHb expression in both wild-type and kiss1-/-;kiss2-/-;gnrh3-/- triple knockout pubertal zebrafish. Moreover, exposure of cultured pituitary cells to E2 increased the LHb expression, indicating that the estrogenic effect on LHb expression could be acted at the pituitary level. Finally, we cloned and analyzed the promoter of lhb by luciferase assay. Our results indicated that the E2 responsive regions of lhb promoter for ERα and ERβ2 are identical, suggesting that ERα and ERβ2 could bind to the same half ERE region of the promoter of lhb, exhibiting a classical ERE-dependent pathway. In summary, we demonstrate that E2 could directly act on the pituitary level to stimulate LHb transcription during puberty in zebrafish.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/pharmacology*
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