Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. de Castro-Carletti EM, Müggenborg F, Dennett L, Sobral de Oliveira-Souza AI, Mohamad N, Pertille A, et al.
    Clin Rehabil, 2023 Jul;37(7):891-926.
    PMID: 36594219 DOI: 10.1177/02692155221149350
    OBJECTIVE: Summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials and controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of electrotherapy in the treatment of patients with orofacial pain.

    DATA SOURCE: Medline, Embase, CINAHL PLUS with Full text, Cochrane Library Trials, Web of Science, and Scopus.

    REVIEW METHODS: A data search (last update, July 1, 2022) and a manual search were performed (October 5, 2022). Trials involving adults with orofacial pain receiving electrotherapy compared with any other type of treatment were included. The main outcome was pain intensity; secondary outcomes were mouth opening and tenderness. The reporting was based on the new PRISMA Guidelines.

    RESULTS: From the electronics databases and manual search 43 studies were included. Although this study was open to including any type of orofacial pain, only studies that investigated temporomandibular disorders were found. The overall quality of the evidence for pain intensity was very low. Although the results should be carefully used, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation therapy showed to be clinically superior to placebo for reducing pain after treatment (2.63 [-0.48; 5.74]) and at follow-up (0.96 [-0.02; 1.95]) and reduce tenderness after treatment (1.99 [-0.33; 4.32]) and at follow-up (2.43 [-0.24; 5.10]) in subjects with mixed temporomandibular disorders.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this systematic review support the use of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation therapy for patients with mixed temporomandibular disorders to improve pain intensity, and tenderness demonstrating that transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation is superior to placebo. There is inconsistent evidence supporting the superiority of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation against other therapies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain/diagnosis; Facial Pain/etiology; Facial Pain/therapy
  2. Subramaniam S, Abd Majid MD
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Mar;58(1):139-41.
    PMID: 14556342
    Eagle's syndrome is an uncommon condition resulting from an elongated styloid process, which causes cervico facial pain, tinnitus and otalgia. A 48-year-old female presented to the clinic with bilateral upper neck pain radiating to the ears with tinnitus for almost one-year duration. Examination of the oral cavity revealed atrophic tonsils and palpable bony projection deep in the tonsillar fossa. Plain lateral neck X-ray and CT scan confirmed the presence of bilateral elongated styloid processes, which were subsequently resected surgically through an oropharyngeal approach. The patient was asymptomatic at follow up at 2 years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain/complications*; Facial Pain/diagnosis*; Facial Pain/therapy
  3. Jaafar N, Razak IA, Zain RB
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1989 Sep;18(5):553-5.
    PMID: 2619246
    The aim of this study is to determine the social impact of oral and facial pain in a sample involving an industrial population. Out of a total of 355 subjects interviewed, nearly one-half claimed to have oral and facial pain in the previous one month prior to the survey. The most common type of pain was that related to hot or cold fluids or sweet things followed by toothache. On the average, the pain lasted for 4.2 days (SD = 4.9) per person in the past one-month. About one in five persons with pain reported that it was severe enough to disrupt sleep. About one in ten persons reporting pain had to take sick leave because of the pain. However, only one in four persons with pain consulted a doctor or dentist. More than one-third tried to cope with the pain and did nothing while the rest tried various means of self-cure. It is therefore postulated that in this population, pain per se is a poor predictor of utilisation of dental services. Further research into pain coping behaviour and how this affects of pattern of utilisation of dental services is indicated in order to formulate a strategy to encourage the habit of seeking prompt dental care by the target population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain/physiopathology; Facial Pain/psychology*
  4. Lim CC, Misron K, Liew YT, Wong EHC
    BMJ Case Rep, 2019 Nov 04;12(11).
    PMID: 31690691 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2019-232275
    Acoustic neuroma (AN) usually manifests with asymmetric hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness and sense of disequilibrium. About 10% of patients complain of atypical symptoms, which include facial numbness or pain and sudden onset of hearing loss. Patients with atypical symptoms also tend to have larger tumours due to the delay in investigation. We report a particularly interesting case of a patient presented to us with numbness over her right hemifacial region after a dental procedure without significant acoustic and vestibular symptoms. Physical examination and pure tone audiometry revealed no significant findings but further imaging revealed a cerebellopontine angle mass. The changing trends with easier access to further imaging indicate that the presentation of patients with AN are also changing. Atypical symptoms which are persistent should raise clinical suspicion of this pathology among clinicians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain/etiology; Facial Pain/physiopathology*
  5. Nadia Yaacob, Adil Hussein
    Sino-nasal osteoma is a common benign tumour of paranasal
    sinuses and usually asymptomatic. Here, we presented a case of a huge sinonasal osteoma. Despite the large size of the tumour, the only presentation
    was epiphora. There were no headache, facial pain or diplopia. Nasal
    obstruction only occurred after involvement of the nasal cavity. In diagnosing
    aetiology of the epiphora, sino-nasal pathology needed to be ruled out after
    excluding ocular causes. Multidisciplinary approach between otolaryngology
    (ORL) team and ophthalmology team was essential in managing the case.
    The tumour was successfully removed surgically via endoscopic approach;
    and dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) was performed to alleviate the epiphora.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain
  6. Jaafar, N., Saub, R., Razak, I.A.
    Ann Dent, 1997;4(1):9-12.
    A pilot study was conducted on 135 sixteen-year-old students from three rural schools in Kelantan to establish the prevalence of orofacial pain and discomfort. About 44% reported to have experienced some oro-facial pain in the preceding four weeks. About 27% of those with pain, still experienced the pain at the time of clinical examination but only 8% have consulted professional help. Most of the pain encountered were only mild or moderate in nature. Only 7% and 10% respectively, reported that the pain affected their sleep and concentration to study. The main cause was toothache and sensitivity. The prevalence of discomfort was 22%, the most common causes being recurrent oral ulcers and bleeding gums. The impacts of orofacial pain was mainly manifested at the personal level, and very few affecting social functioning. However, untreated decay and missing teeth were very low (mean DT 0.47, mean MT 0.27), while filled teeth (mean Ff 2.9) was the main component of the DMFf (mean 3.66, sd ± 2.6). Severe periodontal disease and the prevalence of traumatised teeth was not a major public health problem. The high prevalence of pain merit further research. Therefore a larger study involving other age-groups in other states is planned.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain
  7. Nazli Zainuddin, Irfan Mohamad, Khan, Shamim Ahmed
    Fungal ball is an extramucosal mycosis. The patient may present with facial pain, nasal blockage, purulent nasal discharge and cacosmia, the fungal ball being present unnoticed for years. Some patients do present as having other nasal problems and later on are found out to have a fungal ball incidentally. We present a case of 38 yearold man who was clinically diagnosed as having left antrochoanal polyp. Intraoperatively, a fungal ball was discovered in the left maxillary antrum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain
  8. Khoo SP, Yap AU, Chan YH, Bulgiba AM
    J Orofac Pain, 2008;22(2):131-8.
    PMID: 18548842
    To develop a Malay-language version of the Axis II Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) through a formal translation/back-translation process and to summarize available data about the psychometric properties of the translated scales.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain/diagnosis
  9. Pang KP, Siow JK, Tan HM
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Oct;60(4):523-5.
    PMID: 16570724
    We present a case of a foreign body which migrated to the maxillary ostia by mucociliary action from its initial location on the floor of the maxillary sinus where it was traumatically introduced. This report illustrates that a powerful mechanism of mucociliary action can cause relatively heavy objects within the maxillary sinus to migrate naturally to the sinus ostia against gravitational force.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain/etiology
  10. Farook TH, Jamayet NB, Abdullah JY, Alam MK
    Pain Res Manag, 2021;2021:6659133.
    PMID: 33986900 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6659133
    Purpose: The study explored the clinical influence, effectiveness, limitations, and human comparison outcomes of machine learning in diagnosing (1) dental diseases, (2) periodontal diseases, (3) trauma and neuralgias, (4) cysts and tumors, (5) glandular disorders, and (6) bone and temporomandibular joint as possible causes of dental and orofacial pain.

    Method: Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science (all databases) were searched by 2 reviewers until 29th October 2020. Articles were screened and narratively synthesized according to PRISMA-DTA guidelines based on predefined eligibility criteria. Articles that made direct reference test comparisons to human clinicians were evaluated using the MI-CLAIM checklist. The risk of bias was assessed by JBI-DTA critical appraisal, and certainty of the evidence was evaluated using the GRADE approach. Information regarding the quantification method of dental pain and disease, the conditional characteristics of both training and test data cohort in the machine learning, diagnostic outcomes, and diagnostic test comparisons with clinicians, where applicable, were extracted.

    Results: 34 eligible articles were found for data synthesis, of which 8 articles made direct reference comparisons to human clinicians. 7 papers scored over 13 (out of the evaluated 15 points) in the MI-CLAIM approach with all papers scoring 5+ (out of 7) in JBI-DTA appraisals. GRADE approach revealed serious risks of bias and inconsistencies with most studies containing more positive cases than their true prevalence in order to facilitate machine learning. Patient-perceived symptoms and clinical history were generally found to be less reliable than radiographs or histology for training accurate machine learning models. A low agreement level between clinicians training the models was suggested to have a negative impact on the prediction accuracy. Reference comparisons found nonspecialized clinicians with less than 3 years of experience to be disadvantaged against trained models.

    Conclusion: Machine learning in dental and orofacial healthcare has shown respectable results in diagnosing diseases with symptomatic pain and with improved future iterations and can be used as a diagnostic aid in the clinics. The current review did not internally analyze the machine learning models and their respective algorithms, nor consider the confounding variables and factors responsible for shaping the orofacial disorders responsible for eliciting pain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain/therapy*
  11. Eachempati P, Kiran Kumar KS, Sumanth KN
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2016 Oct;48(Suppl 1):S25-S28.
    PMID: 28031603 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.193315
    OBJECTIVES: Blended learning has become the method of choice in educational institutions because of its systematic integration of traditional classroom teaching and online components. This study aims to analyze student's reflection regarding blended learning in dental pharmacology.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College among 3(rd) and 4(th) year BDS students. A total of 145 dental students, who consented, participate in the study. Students were divided into 14 groups. Nine online sessions followed by nine face-to-face discussions were held. Each session addressed topics related to oral lesions and orofacial pain with pharmacological applications. After each week, students were asked to reflect on blended learning. On completion of 9 weeks, reflections were collected and analyzed.

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Qualitative analysis was done using thematic analysis model suggested by Braun and Clarke.

    RESULTS: The four main themes were identified, namely, merits of blended learning, skill in writing prescription for oral diseases, dosages of drugs, and identification of strengths and weakness. In general, the participants had a positive feedback regarding blended learning. Students felt more confident in drug selection and prescription writing. They could recollect the doses better after the online and face-to-face sessions. Most interestingly, the students reflected that they are able to identify their strength and weakness after the blended learning sessions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Blended learning module was successfully implemented for reinforcing dental pharmacology. The results obtained in this study enable us to plan future comparative studies to know the effectiveness of blended learning in dental pharmacology.

    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain/drug therapy
  12. Ngeow WC, Nair R
    PMID: 20219585 DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2009.03.021
    This article illustrates a case of persistent trigeminal neuralgia in a medically compromised 65-year-old female who did not respond to pharmacotherapy. She had undergone several peripheral neurectomies as well as a failed right posterior fossa exploration that resulted in a cerebrospinal fluid leak. Persistent pain over the right external nasal area and right mental region was relieved for several hours after daily injections of bupivacaine. A trial of a single dose of 100 units of botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) diluted in 2.5 mL saline was injected into the external nasal trigger zone (60 units) and to the mental nerve region (40 units). She achieved complete pain relief in the external nasal region for 5 months. Pain recurred and the site was again injected with 100 units of botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX). Pain relief at the mental region was partial. This was finally controlled with peripheral neurectomy. The patient was pain free with a maintenance dose of 200 mg carbamazepine daily for about 1 year, after which she elected to undergo stereotactic gamma knife radiosurgery when pain recurred at the external nasal region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain/drug therapy; Facial Pain/etiology
  13. Yusof ZYM, Mohamed NH, Radzi Z, Yahya NA, Ramli AS, Abdul Kadir R
    Ann Dent, 2007;14(1):31-38.
    Background: The high prevalence and impacts of orofacial pain (OFP) have caused major sufferings to individuals and society. The purpose of the study was to investigate the problems and impacts of OFP among a group of Malaysian aborigines. The objectives were to determine (i) the prevalence, aetiology, duration, severity, types and persistence of OFP during the past 3 months preceding the study; (ii) its associated impact on daily performance; and (iii) the measures taken for pain relief.
    Methods: This is a cross sectional study carried out in Kuala Lipis, Pahang involving 6 villages of Orang Asli Bateq and Semai. Study sample was chosen using convenient sampling including adults aged 16 years and above. Participants were invited for an interview using structured questionnaire followed by clinical examination. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS ver12.
    Results: Response rate was low at 20% (n = 140). Over one-quarter (26.4%) of the sample experienced OFP in the previous 3 months. Toothache was found to be the main aetiology (83.3%) followed by gingival pain (18.9%), temporomandibular joint (10.8%) and facial pain (8.1%). Mean duration of pain was 9.8 days for toothache, 162.4 days for gingival pain, 7.3 days for TMJ and 5.7 days for facial pain. Of those who had OFP, over half rated the pain as moderate (37.8%) and severe (29.7%) and most of the pain was ‘intermittent’ in nature (81.1%). Over half (62.2%) admitted the pain had disappeared during the interview. In terms of pain relief, 56.8% of the sample used traditional medicine. The pain had impacted on the chewing ability (70.3%, p=0.01), ability to sleep at night (73.0%, p<0.001), levels of anxiety (70.3%), ability to perform daily chores (33.3%) and social life (35.1%) of the Orang Asli sample.
    Conclusion: This study suggests the prevalence of OFP was high among the Orang Asli sample, which imposed considerable physical and psychological impacts on daily life.
    Key words: orofacial pain; impacts; quality of life; Malaysian aborigines
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain
  14. Abdul Rahman, Z.A.
    Ann Dent, 1998;5(1):-.
    Chronic idiopathic facial pain is the diagnosis given to a group of orofacial pain of psychogenic origin which includes atypical facial pain, facial-arthromyalgia, atypical odontalgia and oral dysaesthesia. Despite various biochemical findings, the condition remains poorly understood, but we have begun to understand the nature of these patients. This review discusses the possible aetiology of the disease through various biochemical and clinical findings. The contribution of behavioural and psychological factors to the clinical course of the disease are described. The type of adverse life events that predispose people to the disease and their potency are briefly mentioned. The current diagnostic approach for the disease is also mentioned. Treatment includes antidepressant medication, physiotherapy, bite-guards and analgesics. The problems encountered in the long-term management and outcome studies of these patients include drop-outs, non-compliance and denial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain
  15. B, Elamathi, R, Vijaya, V, Valliappan, A, Ramanathan
    Ann Dent, 2014;21(1):33-37.
    According to the 3rd edition of the international
    classification of headache disorders (ICHD3 2013),
    Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) is classified into two types:
    1. Classical TN, purely paroxysmal 2. Classical TN
    with concomitant persistent facial pain. In this article,
    the authors describe a 47 year-old, male with unilateral,
    severe, recurring, electric shock-like pain involving left
    lower jaw, teeth and gingiva. Diagnosis of classical TN
    of the left 3rd division of the trigeminal nerve was made.
    The patient was treated with pharmacotherapeutic agents
    but without relief. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    of the brain showed medial vascular compression of left
    trigeminal pontine root entry zone caused by superior
    cerebellar artery. A microvascular decompression (MVD)
    surgery was done at the left trigeminal pontine root entry
    zone resulting in good relief of pain. This article highlights
    the differential diagnoses to be considered with TN and
    also emphasize the difference between the two types of
    the TN according to ICDH3 (2013). It also highlights the
    difference between classical TN purely paroxysmal with
    and without vascular compression by imaging techniques
    and their differing treatment modalities, which therefore
    should be reflected in future ICDH classification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain
  16. Nor Azman, A.R., Saub, R., Raja Latifah, R.J.
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2015;37(1):24-29.
    This study was conducted on Royal Malaysian Navy submariners who were having training in France. It was designed to compare the oral health experiences and practices while under water and on land. Methods Eightysix Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) submariners, who had undergone at least one cycle (288 hours) of under water training, were selected to participate in a self-administered questionnaire survey. Results Seven percent of the respondents reported oro-facial pain and discomfort; 9.3% reported bleeding gums and 12.8% experienced halitosis while under water. Of those experience oral problems, 82% reported disruption of their daily activities while under water. The study showed that 82.5% of them brush their teeth at least twice a day and 94.2% rinse after meals when there were under water. Meanwhile studies on land showed that 90.7% of them brush their teeth at least twice a day and 96.5% rinse after meals. Flossing was not practiced by most of the respondents. Conclusion It is concluded that brushing and rinsing are practiced regularly by submariners regardless whether they are on land or under water but flossing is not a common practice both on land and under water. Dental emergencies, such as toothache, TMJ pain and discomfort do occur during submarine operations and disrupt their daily activities. This might poses a threat to submarine operations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain
  17. Ma MS
    Ann Dent, 2012;19(2):66-69.
    Diagnosis and management of orofacial pain of non-odontogenic origin has always been a challenge to dentists. Inaccurate diagnosis would result in delay of treatment and in cases of orofacial pain, affects patient’s quality of life. Temporomandibular pain dysfunction syndrome is the most common temporomandibular disorder that presents to dental clinics. Trigeminal neuralgia, also known as ticdouloureux is a relatively rare condition that causes electric shock-like pain when the trigger zone is stimulated by triggering factor. Case report: A case of temporomandibular pain dysfunction syndrome in a 52 years old Indian lady that was managed as trigeminal neuralgia for 7 years is presented. Conclusion: The aim of this case report is to make dentists aware of the signs and symptoms of different orofacial pain, so that early and accurate diagnosis can be made and appropriate treatment instituted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain
  18. Chaudhary FA, Ahmad B, Javed MQ, Yakub SS, Arjumand B, Khan AM, et al.
    Pain Res Manag, 2021;2021:5512755.
    PMID: 34055118 DOI: 10.1155/2021/5512755
    This study aims to examine the association of orofacial pain and oral health status and oral health behaviours in facial burn patients. The participants in this cross-sectional study were randomly recruited from the Burn Care Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan. An intraoral evaluation was carried out to record the DMFT and OHI-S. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic status, brushing frequency, and dental visits. Orofacial pain during mandibular movement was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Psychological status was assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and Impact of Events Scale. ANOVA and simple and multiple linear regression tests were used to analyse the data. From the 90 facial burn patients included, the majority were below 34 years of age, female, single or divorced, and unemployed. The mean DMFT was 10.7, and 71% had poor oral hygiene. 56% of the participants had moderate-to-severe anxiety, and 68% had posttraumatic stress disorder. 53% of the participants had moderate-to-severe pain during mouth opening or moving the mandible with a mean score of 41.5. Analyses showed that orofacial pain was associated with less frequent brushing, irregular dental visits, greater DMFT score, and more plaque accumulation (OHI-S). It was also associated with employment status, the severity of a burn, anxiety, and stress. The treatment and management of dental and oral conditions in burn patients need judicious balance in controlling and accurate assessment of the pain and improving psychological problems in burn patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain/etiology*
  19. Siar, C.H., Ibrahim, N., Omar, A.N., Abdul Rahman, Z.A.
    Ann Dent, 2010;17(1):21-24.
    Differential diagnosis of orofacial pain is crucial, as the course of each process and its clinical management varies markedly. A case is illustrated here of trigeminal neuralgia in a 49-year-old Indian female whose complaint was initially diagnosed as dental pain leading to sequential extractions of her right mandibular and maxillary molars but with no pain abatement. Subsequent neurological assessment diagnosed her complaint as trigeminal neuralgia but pain remained poorly controlled even with high doses of carbamazepine and gabapentin. A dental referral and orthopantomographic examination revealed multifocal sclerotic masses in her jaws, suggestive of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD). Right mandibular incisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. A decision was made to curette the right mandibular masses and lateralised the right inferior dental nerve. Follow-up disclosed considerable pain reduction. This case raises the issue as to whether the sclerotic bone masses in FCOD may have caused nerve compression which
    aggravated her neuralgic pain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain
  20. Jaafar, N, Razak, I.A.
    Ann Dent, 2002;9(1):-.
    The objective of the study was to attempt to verify the cause of self-reported oro-facial pain among 12-yearold children, objectively via a clinical examination. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional survey using a combination of self-reported questionnaire, face-to-face interview and clinical oral examination. The children were first asked to answer a self-filled questionnaire about their oro-facial pain experience in the past 4- weeks. In order to verify its cause, a clinical examination and an interview followed. Normative oral health status data was also collected. The sample was 1492 Malay schoolchildren with diverse socioeconomic background from the states of Johore, Kelantan and Sabah. The sample size for each state was calculated to give a sampling error of not more than 5 %. In each state, quota sampling was done to achieve a balanced distribution between gender and location. The data collected were normative status for caries, periodontal disease and traumatized teeth. Orofacial pain experience represented the subjective status for oral well-being. The cause of pain was confirmed through a clinical examination. The normative oral health status data implies a very low untreated disease and good oral health among the schoolchildren. However the subjective health status, as reflected by the prevalence of pain suggested that oro-facial pain and suffering was high (27.3%) with about 49% "of moderate and severe" intensity. The two main causes were caries and mouth ulcers. However in about onequarter of pain cases, diagnosis cannot be confirmed in the field survey setting. More than one-half of those with pain experienced disturbed sleep and study. It was concluded that overall oral health status and well-being can be better described if normative data is complemented with subjective data such as pain prevalence. The study shows that the majority (more than 75 %) of cases of subjective pain can be objectively verified in a field epidemiology survey setting. The reliability of the subjective data can be improved by a clinical examination as compared to unverified self-report. The study also confirms that the major source of oro-facial pain among the 12 year-olds were caries and mouth ulcers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Facial Pain
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