Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 122 in total

  1. Di KN, Pham DT, Tee TS, Binh QA, Nguyen TC
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2021 Jun 05;53(3):340.
    PMID: 34089130 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-021-02780-6
    Inappropriate use of antibiotics in animal production system is one of the major factors leading to the antibiotic resistance (ABR) development. In Vietnam, the ABR situation is crucial as antibiotics have been used indiscriminately for disease prevention and as growth promoters in animals. Thus, a thorough understanding on the ABR in veterinary settings would be beneficial to the Vietnam public health authority in formulating timely interventions. This review aimed to provide information on the current status of antibiotic usage in animal husbandry in Vietnam, identified gaps in research, and suggested possible solutions to tackle ABR. To this end, data on ABR in animals were extracted from 3 major electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect) in the period of January 2013-December 2020. The review findings were reported according to PRISMA, which highlighted the emergence and persistence of ABR in bacterial isolates, including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., and Salmonella species, obtained from pigs and poultry. The lack of awareness of Vietnamese farmers on the antibiotic utilization guidelines was one of the main causes driving the animal ABR. Hence, this paper calls for interventions to restrict antibiotics use in food-producing animals by national action plan and antibiotics control programs. Additionally, studies to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of the community are required to promote rational use of antibiotics in all sectors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers*
  2. Shaffril HAM, Idris K, Sahharon H, Samah AA, Samah BA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jul;27(20):25209-25219.
    PMID: 32347501 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-08987-8
    This study aims to gain more understanding on highland farmers' adaptation towards the impacts of climate change in Malaysia. Via a multi-stage cluster sampling, this quantitative study has surveyed a total of 400 highland farmers as respondents. The results indicated that the highest climate change-resilient farmers were from Kundasang, specifically among the females, Dusun ethnic group, and those who work side jobs to cover household expenses. Furthermore, recorded factors such as age and years of experience yielded significant negative relationship with adaptation whereas income yielded significant positive relationship with adaptation. The paper concludes with recommendations related to occupational diversification, consistent information disseminations, access to financial assistance, and the need to empower extension officers and local leaders in the hope that a comprehensive approach can help implement any community climate change-adaptation plan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers*
  3. Shaffril HAM, Krauss SE, Samsuddin SF
    Sci Total Environ, 2018 Dec 10;644:683-695.
    PMID: 29990916 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.349
    Climate change in Asia is affecting farmers' daily routines. Much of the focus surrounding climate change has targeted the economic and environmental repercussions on farming. Few systematic reviews have been carried out on the social impacts of climate change among farmers in Asia. The present article set out to analyse the existing literature on Asian farmers' adaptation practices towards the impacts of climate change. Guided by the PRISMA Statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) review method, a systematic review of the Scopus and Web of Science databases identified 38 related studies. Further review of these articles resulted in six main themes - crop management, irrigation and water management, farm management, financial management, physical infrastructure management and social activities. These six themes further produced a total of 35 sub-themes. Several recommendations are highlighted related to conducting more qualitative studies, to have specific and a standard systematic review method for guide research synthesis in context of climate change adaptation and to practice complimentary searching techniques such as citation tracking, reference searching, snowballing and contacting experts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers/psychology*
  4. Tanweer FA, Rafii MY, Sijam K, Rahim HA, Ahmed F, Ashkani S, et al.
    Front Plant Sci, 2015;6:1002.
    PMID: 26734013 DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2015.01002
    Blast is the most common biotic stress leading to the reduction of rice yield in many rice-growing areas of the world, including Malaysia. Improvement of blast resistance of rice varieties cultivated in blast endemic areas is one of the most important objectives of rice breeding programs. In this study, the marker-assisted backcrossing strategy was applied to improve the blast resistance of the most popular Malaysian rice variety MR219 by introgressing blast resistance genes from the Pongsu Seribu 2 variety. Two blast resistance genes, Pi-b and Pi-kh, were pyramided into MR219. Foreground selection coupled with stringent phenotypic selection identified 15 plants homozygous for the Pi-b and Pi-kh genes, and background selection revealed more than 95% genome recovery of MR219 in advanced blast resistant lines. Phenotypic screening against blast disease indicated that advanced homozygous blast resistant lines were strongly resistant against pathotype P7.2 in the blast disease endemic areas. The morphological, yield, grain quality, and yield-contributing characteristics were significantly similar to those of MR219. The newly developed blast resistant improved lines will retain the high adoptability of MR219 by farmers. The present results will also play an important role in sustaining the rice production of Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers
    The prediction of rainfall on monthly and seasonal time scales is not only scientifically challenging but is also important for planning and devising agricultural strategies. In this paper, the study is conducted to examine the pattern of monthly rainfall in Alor Setar, Kedah within ten years which is from 2008 to 2018. This paper considered a model based on real data that obtained from Department of Meteorology Malaysia. This study indicates that the monthly rainfall in Alor Setar has a seasonal and trend pattern based on yt vs t plotting, autocorrelation function and Kruskal Wallis Test for seasonality. The examined rainfall time-series modelling approaches include Naïve Model, Decomposition Method, Holt-Winter’s and Box-Jenkins ARIMA. Multiplicative Decomposition Method was identified as the best model to forecast rainfall for the year of 2019 by analysing the previous ten-year’s data (2008-2018).As a result from the forecast of 2019, October is the wettest month with highest forecasted rainfall of 276.15mm while the driest month is in February with lowest forecasted rainfall of 50.55mm. The model is therefore adequate and appropriate to forecast future monthly rainfall values in the catchment which can help farmers to plan their farming activities ahead of time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers
  6. Norela Sulaiman, Toh LF, Hazzila Abdul Samat, Ismail Sahid, Maimon Abdullah, Mohd. Rozali Othman
    Sains Malaysiana, 2007;36(2):91-95.
    This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of cypermethrin in total suspended particulate in air in several farming areas of Cameron Highlands. Samples of total suspended particulate were collected using a high volume air sampler (Model Graseby) from six different sampling sites around Cameron Highlands. Laboratory analysis of total suspended particulate was conducted by the standard method. High dosages of cypermethrin were used by farmers in the dry season. Results of the study showed that the concentrations of cypermethrin in total suspended particulate in the air samples were higher during the dry season (May-July 2004) compared to the rainy season (September-October 2004). There was a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of cypermethrin and total suspended particulate (p<0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers
  7. Boedeker W, Watts M, Clausing P, Marquez E
    BMC Public Health, 2020 Dec 07;20(1):1875.
    PMID: 33287770 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-09939-0
    BACKGROUND: Human poisoning by pesticides has long been seen as a severe public health problem. As early as 1990, a task force of the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that about one million unintentional pesticide poisonings occur annually, leading to approximately 20,000 deaths. Thirty years on there is no up-to-date picture of global pesticide poisoning despite an increase in global pesticide use. Our aim was to systematically review the prevalence of unintentional, acute pesticide poisoning (UAPP), and to estimate the annual global number of UAPP.

    METHODS: We carried out a systematic review of the scientific literature published between 2006 and 2018, supplemented by mortality data from WHO. We extracted data from 157 publications and the WHO cause-of-death database, then performed country-wise synopses, and arrived at annual numbers of national UAPP. World-wide UAPP was estimated based on national figures and population data for regions defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

    RESULTS: In total 141 countries were covered, including 58 by the 157 articles and an additional 83 by data from the WHO Mortality Database. Approximately 740,000 annual cases of UAPP were reported by the extracted publications resulting from 7446 fatalities and 733,921 non-fatal cases. On this basis, we estimate that about 385 million cases of UAPP occur annually world-wide including around 11,000 fatalities. Based on a worldwide farming population of approximately 860 million this means that about 44% of farmers are poisoned by pesticides every year. The greatest estimated number of UAPP cases is in southern Asia, followed by south-eastern Asia and east Africa with regards to non-fatal UAPP.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study updates outdated figures on world-wide UAPP. Along with other estimates, robust evidence is presented that acute pesticide poisoning is an ongoing major global public health challenge. There is a need to recognize the high burden of non-fatal UAPP, particularly on farmers and farmworkers, and that the current focus solely on fatalities hampers international efforts in risk assessment and prevention of poisoning. Implementation of the international recommendations to phase out highly hazardous pesticides by the FAO Council could significantly reduce the burden of UAPP.

    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers
  8. Campbell I, Mateo J, Rusekwa SB, Kambey CSB, Hurtado A, Msuya FE, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2022 Feb 15;304:114112.
    PMID: 34923419 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.114112
    Seaweeds form the second largest global aquaculture product in volume, and despite rapid growth of the sector over the last 25 years, production and quality in top producing regions is becoming increasingly limited due to disease and pest outbreaks, the spread of non-native cultivars and the degradation of genetic health due to inbreeding. Most notably, the lack of biosecurity measures leading to disease and pest outbreaks are reported to cause the most significant production losses in the seaweed industry. This study uses the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey tool to quantify and compare biosecurity cross-culturally, in two major red seaweed producing countries, the Philippines and Tanzania. Both countries have significantly different political contexts and the seaweed sector sits within two very different value chains. Seaweed-based commodities from these countries, however, enters the same international market for carrageenan, a thickening agent used for a variety of products globally. This study uses the KAP survey tool to assess currently-adopted biosecurity control measures and understand how potential policy strategies could be developed on an international scale. Farmers from both producing countries have good biosecurity knowledge. In Tanzania 64% farmers scored Fair or Good, and in the Philippines this was 95%. Corresponding scores in practices were lower, 85% Poor for Tanzania, and 88% Fair for the Philippines, indicating there is a lack of resources for farmers to implement additional practices. The information gathered using the KAP tool in the context of the global seaweed industry can be used to facilitate compromise between science, policy and practice whilst taking into consideration smaller-scale regional challenges. Given the results from the seaweed industry were similar to that of smallholder agricultural sectors, it is suggested that governmental programs to incentivise biosecurity in smallholder rural agriculture could be adapted for the seaweed industry. This study also demonstrates the potential use of the KAP survey, as a tool to accurately compare biosecurity challenges faced by farmers in different aquaculture sectors globally, and to encourage alignment in international approaches to aquaculture biosecurity policies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers
  9. Sadiq MB, Hamid NA, Yusri UK, Ramanoon SZ, Mansor R, Affandi SA, et al.
    Prev Vet Med, 2021 Nov;196:105489.
    PMID: 34536805 DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105489
    This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practices about zoonotic diseases and associated factors among ruminant farmers in Selangor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between January 2018 and December 2020. The survey was developed in English and Malay, validated, administered to ruminant farmers in Selangor. A total of 84 farmers completed the structured questionnaire. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, principal component factor analysis and binary logistic regression models. Only 42 % (35/84) had heard of the term "zoonotic diseases" before this study but the majority of farmers (52/84; 61.9 %) were aware that certain diseases could be transmitted between humans and animals. A higher proportion was aware of rabies (20.8 %), followed by tuberculosis (17.8 %) and brucellosis (15.7 %), and most respondents identified the diseases as zoonotic. The majority of farmers stated (60 %) that zoonosis could be prevented and they preferred to learn more about such diseases through veterinary personnel. Higher proportions (>80 %) agreed to practices such as hand washing, proper cooking of meat, and keeping animal health records. However, the need to pasteurise milk before drinking and selling were the least items that farmers agreed to, which was reflected in their practices. Sixty-four per cent of the farmers had stray animals on their farm with dogs (45.5 %) being predominant. Overall, 34.5 % (29/84), 51.1 % (43/84), and 60.7 % (51/84) were considered to have satisfactory knowledge, attitude and practices regarding zoonotic diseases, respectively. Farmers with higher education (odds ratio; OR = 16.6; 95 % CI 3.7-71.4) and rearing exotic breeds of animals (OR = 6.0; 95 % CI 1.3-27.7) were more likely to have satisfactory knowledge about zoonoses, but less likely for those with small herd size (51-100 animals) (OR = 0.19; 95 % CI 0.04-0.95). The odds of having satisfactory attitude towards preventive measures against zoonoses were higher in farmers with higher education (OR = 3.2; 95 % CI 1.1-8.9). Farms with herd health programs were more likely to engage in satisfactory practices towards zoonoses (OR = 3.2; 95 % CI 1.2-10.0) relative to farms lacking programs. These areas might need to be considered by public health authorities to improve the current knowledge and attitude of ruminant farmers about zoonotic diseases in the Malaysian context.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers*
  10. Wong HL, Garthwaite DG, Ramwell CT, Brown CD
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Jan;26(2):1642-1653.
    PMID: 30448946 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3676-5
    Occupational exposure to pesticide mixtures comprising active substance(s) and/or co-formulant(s) with known/possible endocrine-disrupting activity was assessed using long-term activity records for 50 professional operators representing arable and orchard cropping systems in Greece, Lithuania, and the UK. Exposure was estimated using the harmonised Agricultural Operator Exposure Model, and risk was quantified as a point of departure index (PODI) using the lowest no observed (adverse) effect level. Use of substances with known/possible endocrine activity was common, with 43 of the 50 operators applying at least one such active substance on more than 50% of spray days; at maximum, one UK operator sprayed five such active substances and 10 such co-formulants in a single day. At 95th percentile, total exposure was largest in the UK orchard system (0.041 × 10-2 mg kg bw-1 day-1) whereas risk was largest in the Greek cropping systems (PODI 0.053 × 10-1). All five cropping systems had instances indicating potential for risk when expressed at a daily resolution (maximum PODI 1.2-10.7). Toxicological data are sparse for co-formulants, so combined risk from complex mixtures of active substances and co-formulants may be larger in reality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers*
  11. Adnan N, Nordin SM, Rasli AM
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Sep;26(26):27198-27224.
    PMID: 31321721 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05650-9
    One of the innovations introduced toward tackling the heightening of environmental impact is green technology. In the agricultural industry, the implementation of green fertilizer technology (GFT) for the modern development of environmentally friendly technology is a necessity. Within the Malaysian agriculture sector, the GFT application is needed to increase production levels among all crops. One of the essential commodities of all crops has always been paddy, given its status as the staple food among the country's population. Paddy production with the adoption of GFT potentially opens the path toward sustainable development in the industry as well as it also provides the food safety aspect. Moreover, this helps farmers to improve their productivity on paddy production in Malaysia. This paper attempts to evaluate the contributing socio-psychological factors, innovation attributes of environmental factors, and channels of communication to decision-making among farmers in Malaysia on GFT. Furthermore, this research also aims to assess the moderating role of cost between the farmer's behavioral intention and the adoption of GFT. The sampling process followed the stratified sampling technique-overall, 600 survey questionnaires were dispersed and 437 effective responses were received. The structural analysis results obtained have revealed significant positive effect for perceived awareness, attitude, group norm, perceived behavioral control, environmental concern, agro-environmental regulations, relative advantage, compatibility, trialability, and observability, and on farmer's behavioral intention, a significant effect for paddy farmer's behavioral intention in order to adopt of GFT. Further, the interaction effects of cost on the link between farmer's behavioral intention and adoption of GFT are statistically significant. Though, the finding could not back an outcome for the subjective norm, complexity, and mass media on farmer's behavioral intention. Finally, critical outcomes obtained in this research contribute to deepening the thoughtfulness of paddy farmers' adoption of GFT. This study concludes with policy recommendations and future directions of the research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers/psychology*
  12. How V, Singh S, Dang T, Fang Lee L, Guo HR
    Int J Environ Health Res, 2023 Apr;33(4):413-429.
    PMID: 35157533 DOI: 10.1080/09603123.2022.2033706
    Farmers in tropical countries have been impacted by slow-onset heat stress. By comparing the nature of farming activities performed by conventional farmworkers and agroecological farmers, this study examined the changes in physiological health in responses to heat exposure through a six-month longitudinal study. Throughout the six-month follow-up period, the heat stress index (HSI), physiological strain indices (PSI), and physiological health parameters (BMI, blood glucose level, blood cholesterol level, uric acid level) were measured and repeated every two-month. Physiological parameters were recorded twice daily, before and during their first lunch break. This study found that slow-onset heat stress affects farmers differently. The health of agroecological farmers is more resistant to slow-onset extreme temperatures. Pre-existing metabolic health effects from pesticide exposure make conventional farmers more susceptible to extreme temperatures, delaying their bodies' adaptation to rising temperatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers/statistics & numerical data
  13. Borkenhagen LK, Mallinson KA, Tsao RW, Ha SJ, Lim WH, Toh TH, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(7):e0201295.
    PMID: 30052648 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201295
    BACKGROUND: The large livestock operations and dense human population of Southeast Asia are considered a hot-spot for emerging viruses.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine if the pathogens adenovirus (ADV), coronavirus (CoV), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), enterovirus (EV), influenza A-D (IAV, IBV, ICV, and IDV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), and porcine rotaviruses A and C (RVA and RVC), are aerosolized at the animal-interface, and if humans working in these environments are carrying these viruses in their nasal airways.

    STUDY: This cross-sectional study took place in Sarawak, Malaysia among 11 pig farms, 2 abattoirs, and 3 animal markets in June and July of 2017. Pig feces, pig oral secretions, bioaerosols, and worker nasal wash samples were collected and analyzed via rPCR and rRT-PCR for respiratory and diarrheal viruses.

    RESULTS: In all, 55 pig fecal, 49 pig oral or water, 45 bioaerosol, and 78 worker nasal wash samples were collected across 16 sites. PCV2 was detected in 21 pig fecal, 43 pig oral or water, 3 bioaerosol, and 4 worker nasal wash samples. In addition, one or more bioaerosol or pig samples were positive for EV, IAV, and RVC, and one or more worker samples were positive for ADV, CoV, IBV, and IDV.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that nucleic acids from a number of targeted viruses were present in pig oral secretions and pig fecal samples, and that several viruses were detected in bioaerosol samples or in the nasal passages of humans with occupational exposure to pigs. These results demonstrate the need for future research in strengthening viral surveillance at the human-animal interface, specifically through expanded bioaerosol sampling efforts and a seroepidemiological study of individuals with exposure to pigs in this region for PCV2 infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers*
  14. Kumarasingha R, Preston S, Yeo TC, Lim DS, Tu CL, Palombo EA, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016;9(1):187.
    PMID: 27036205 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1458-9
    Parasitic roundworms (nematodes) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in livestock animals globally, and considerable productivity losses to farmers. The control of these nematodes has relied largely on the use of a limited number of anthelmintics. However, resistance to many of these these anthelmintics is now widespread, and, therefore, there is a need to find new drugs to ensure sustained and effective treatment and control into the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers
  15. Hayatun Syamila Mamat, Nur Azwani Zaini, Suhaila Abd Halim
    ESTEEM Academic Journal, 2020;16(2):41-50.
    Paddy is a crucial agroculture sector since rice is the staple food for the majority of the world's population. However, the production of paddy is slower and less productive since many factors have affected the growth of the paddy. The existence of disease in paddy component affects the quality of rice produced. Hence, the recognition of the disease at the beginning stage is crucial as the initial approach for prevention purposes. In this study, a system is developed to detect the paddy leaf disease such as bacterial leaf blight, brown spot and leaf smut. All the processes involved are implemented and compiled using MATLAB R2020a. A set of 105 image data with disease is converted to binary image using thresholding. 6 features from all the data are extracted and divided to testing and training set before the classification process. A cubic support vector machine is used for the classification process. Lastly, accuracy, precision, and misclassification for each disease are calculated for performance evaluation. Results show that the average performance of the diseases on accuracy, precision, and misclassification are 88.57%, 82.97%, and 11.43% respectively. The use of the processes act as assistance to the paddy farmer to identify the existence of the paddy leaf disease. This could improve the quality of the paddy produced by reducing the process of manual disease checking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers
  16. Wei, Kang Chor, Victor Charlie Andin, Chitra Devi Gopalakrishnan, Amierah Amer, Shaheera Mohamed, Hiroyoshi Matsumoto, et al.
    A 25-week feeding trial was conducted to assess the growth performance, organoleptic quality, and to estimate the viability of nourishing hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x Epinephelus lanceolatus) with low-cost fish (LCF) and commercially compound feed (CCF). A group of 3600 juvenile fish (182g) were released in four sea cages and fed with either LCF or CCF in duplicate. At the end of the trial, the hybrid grouper provided LCF attained a significantly higher (P0.05). Although technicalities of fish fed with LCF suggest that LCF is more efficient than CCF, feeding LCF to high-value fish is an unsustainable practice as LCF is usually obtained through trawling – a destructive fishing method for the marine ecosystem. Therefore, feeding with CCF without the use of LCF as the source of protein for its fishmeal will contribute to sustainable aquaculture. In order to convince the local farmers in Sabah to adopt the practice of feeding CCF, future research should focus on completing the species-specific diet formulation to promote optimum growth, and find ways to reduce the CCF local selling price.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers
  17. Muhamamad Yusof Fitri, Christanus, Annie
    Analyses of conventional morphometric, meristic and truss morphometric were performed on two
    species of Pangasiid catfish, Pangasius pangasius and P. nasutus. The purpose is to find characters that help in differentiating these two species to avoid confusion among fish farmers. Three morphometric approaches (conventional, meristic and truss morphometric) were employed to identify the morphological differences. Conventional morphometric suggested eye diameter, body width, body depth, dorsal fin base length and barbells as characters that have significant differences (P< 0.05) between the species, hence making them as potential diagnostic markers. Truss morphometric analyses approved that P. nasutus have larger dorsal fin base length as suggested by conventional morphometry data. Meristic analysis showed significant difference (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers
  18. Siti Norsuha Misman, Latiffah Zakaria
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2019;30(2):181-190.
    Seven pathotypes of Pyricularia oryzae were differentiated from blast disease samples collected from 2014–2016, using eight Malaysian differential rice varieties. Pathotype P7.0 is the dominant pathotype identified (33.9%) followed by P0.0, P1.0 and P9.0 which are currently become more abundant in the field with frequency of 20.0% for P0.0, and 15.4% for both P1.0 and P9. Pathotype P7.0 was mostly isolated from MR220CL2, MR263 and MR219 rice varieties which are popular variety planted by farmers in Peninsular Malaysia. Interestingly, new emergence of pathotype P0.2 has been identified, which was isolated from a new released variety, MR284 as well as blast isogenic line IRBL 20 carrying Pi5(t) blast resistance gene. Prolong planting of more than 20 planting seasons and large scale planting of MR219 and MR220 with current varietal coverage areas of more than 90% in Peninsular Malaysia are suspected as possible reason for P7.0 become dominant. Varietal coverage of MR220CL2 and MR263 has reached about 50% might be the cause of changes in blast pathogen pathotype dominancy to P0.0, P1.0 and P9.0.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers
  19. Rozita Hod, Azimatun Noor Aizuddin, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Nazarudin Safian, Mohd Hasni Jaafar
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):1-6.
    Accepted 21 July 2011.
    Introduction The extensive and intensive use of pesticides in agricultural practices has exposed farmers to various hazards resulting in varying degrees of health
    Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among paddy farmers in Sabak Bernam district, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to gather baseline information on chlorpyrifos blood level and its relationship with pesticides exposure symptoms.
    Results We detected chlorpyrifos in farmers’ blood in 7 percent of the respondents, with mean 7.29 nanogram per millilitre blood (sd 5.84 nanogram per millilitre). The percentage of farmers who experienced at least one pesticide exposure symptoms was 75 percent. However, we found no significant association between chlorpyrifos blood level and its exposure symptoms. The farmers had low scores on safe practice of pesticide use even though they have high marks on knowledge and attitude. We found no significant association between the scores on knowledge, attitude and practice on pesticide use and the chlorpyrifos blood level.
    Conclusions The presence of pesticide exposure symptoms proved that most of the farmers were exposed to hazardous effects of pesticides. Specific trainings on safe use and handling of pesticides should be given on regular basis to these farmers to ensure they are protected from hazardous effects of pesticides exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Farmers
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