MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1 November 2009 and 30 April 2010, 198 patients were admitted to the coronary care unit and 7 (3.5%) presented with VT storm. A retrospective review of their records was conducted. The mean follow-up period was 268 (196 to 345) days.
RESULTS: The mean age was 67 years and 4 patients were male. One patient had a previous myocardial infarction. All had abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction, median of 30%. Acute myocardial infarction (4 patients) was the most common trigger, followed by decompensated heart failure (1), systemic inflammatory response syndrome on a background of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (1) and bradycardia-induced polymorphic VT (1). Three patients had polymorphic VT and the rest had monomorphic VT. Intravenous amiodarone, lignocaine, overdrive pacing and intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation were useful in arrhythmia control. Three patients underwent coronary revascularization, 3 patients received implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, 1 had a permanent cardiac pacemaker, 1 died during the acute episode. Five out of the 6 survivors were prescribed oral beta-blockers upon discharge. On follow-up, none of the patients had a recurrence of the tachyarrhythmia.
CONCLUSION: Acute myocardial infarction was the main trigger of VT storm in our patients. Intravenous amiodarone, lignocaine, overdrive pacing and intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation were useful at suppressing VT storm.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over a period of eight years, from January 1997 to December 2004, 126 hypospadias patients were treated, 90 of these patients received two-stage repairs and 36 patients received single-stage repairs. HOSE questionnaire and uroflowmetry data were obtained to evaluate the long-term outcome of the two-stage hypospadias repairs.
RESULTS: The age at the time of assessment ranged from 8 to 23 years-old, with a mean follow-up time of 39.78 months. Thirty-five patients had proximal hypospadias, and 20 had distal hypospadias. Of the 55 patients who received complete two-stage hypospadias repair and agreed to participate in the study, nineteen patients had acceptable HOSE scores and 36 patients had non-acceptable scores. The uroflow rates of 43 of the subjects were below the fifth percentile in three patients, equivocal (between the 5(th) and 25(th) percentile) in four patients and above the 25(th) percentile in 36 patients.
CONCLUSION: Two-stage repair is a suitable technique for all types of hypospadias with varying outcomes. HOSE and uroflowmetry are simple, easy, non-invasive and non-expensive tools for objectively assessing the long-term outcomes of hypospadias repair.