118 cases of cervical dysplasia were followed up by cytological smears for over 9 years to determine their biologic outcome. All grades of dysplasia showed evidence of regression and progression to more severe lesions, including carcinoma. Severe dysplasia however did not regress to normalcy and had the maximum conversion rates to malignancy. The period taken for transition to malignancy was found to be shorter than that generally described. Since even mild dysplasia carries with it a malignant potential, all patients with cervical dysplasia, irrespective of the grade, have to be followed up by repeated clinical and cytological examinations.
Isolated internal iliac aneurysms are rare. We report a case of an uncommon presentation of perineal pain and tenesmus in a man caused by the pressure effects of the aneurysm. He had a successful endovascular exclusion and thrombosis of his aneurysm. On follow up of more than 3 years he remains free of all symptoms and no recurrence of the aneurysm.
This is a case of a posterior mediastinal mass in an asymptomatic gentleman, which was resected successfully and he has been disease free for more than a year of follow up. The histopathology findings happen to be a rare occurrence.
Forty children treated non-operatively for fractures of the femoral shaft were reviewed with regard to differences in limb length after treatment. Follow up duration ranged from two to seven years. The average femoral overgrowth was 0.85cm (range 0 - 2.5cm) and was influenced by age at the time of fracture. We were not able to find any association between the quantity of overgrowth and race, gender, level or configuration of the fracture.
Artikel ini bertujuan mengkaji keberkesanan program SHIELDS daripada perspektif pelajar dan urusetia yang telah turut terlibat. Program SHIELDS adalah satu bentuk program campbased yang diperkenalkan hasil kerjasama antara Kementerian Pendidikan dan Pihak Agensi Anti Dadah Kebangsaan (AADK). Nama SHEILDS ini adalah akronim yang bermaksud Sayangi Hidup, Elak Derita Selamanya. Sehubungan itu, program ini bertujuan meningkatkan kesedaran dan mengupayakan ketahanan diri murid (lingkungan umur 13 hingga 18 tahun) yang dikenalpasti berisiko dalam penyalahgunaan dadah. Kajian kuantitatif ini melibatkan dua fasa iaitu fasa pertama adalah mengedarkan soal selidik sebelum dan selepas program SHIELDS dijalankan. Manakala, fasa kedua pula adalah sesi follow up selepas 3 bulan terhadap 50 pelajar yang telah terlibat dengan program SHIELDS terlebih dahulu. Hasil kajian menunjukkan secara keseluruhan perspektif pelajar seramai 559 orang yang terlibat dengan program SHIELDS ini adalah baik dengan min=4.48. Kesimpulannya, dapatan ini menunjukkan bahawa program SHIELDS ini sewajarnya diteruskan dengan beberapa penambahbaikan untuk kelangsungan program dan kebaikan semua pihak yang terlibat.
This note reports the experience of an attempt to find and re-interview in late 1988 and early 1989, as part of the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS-2), the female respondents to the 1976-77 Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS-1) and a sample of their adult children aged 18 or older.... We discuss the field methods used to track the panel members and their adult children, report follow-up rates and analyze the selectivity of attrition from the panel, using data from the MFLS-1 on characteristics of both the missing and the re-interviewed respondents and their families. We then discuss the degree to which these results might be generalized to other such attempts at re-contacting survey respondents.
Study name: Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS-2)
The displacement of a dental implant into the maxillary sinus may lead to implant failure due to exposure of the apical third or the tip of the implant beyond the bone, resulting in soft tissue growth. This case report discusses dental implant placement in the upper first molar area with maxillary sinus involvement of approximately 2 mm. A new technique for progressive implant loading was used, involving immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus perforation and low primary stability. Follow-up was performed with resonance frequency analysis and compared with an implant placed adjacent in the upper second premolar area using a conventional delayed loading protocol. Implants with maxillary sinus involvement showed increasing stability during the healing period. We found that progressive implant loading may be a safe technique for the placement of immediately loaded implants with maxillary sinus involvement.
Primary lymphomas of the heart are extremely rare, accounting for 2% of all primary cardiac tumors. Due to the rare presentation, there is no proper consensus available on treatment strategy. Preoperative confirmation of the pathology is fundamental in guiding an early treatment plan, which allows for improved prognosis. Unfortunately, in most cases, primary cardiac lymphoma is only identified on postoperative histopathological analyses, which affect the treatment plan and outcome. Here, we report a unique case of primary cardiac lymphoma presented with dyspnea and reduced effort tolerance. Young age, rapid onset of symptom, and absence of cardiac risk factors prompted us towards further imaging and emergency resection. The patient received a course of postoperative chemotherapy and was disease-free on six months of follow-up.
Tuberculous pleural effusion (TBE) is a common encounter in our region. Up to 50% of patients with TBE will develop residual pleural thickening (RPT) which can lead to functional impairment. However, the need of drainage remains controversial. We report a case of end-stage renal failure patient who presented with right multiloculated tuberculous pleural effusion which was drained via a medical thoracoscope. Patient reports immediate relief of breathlessness post procedure and one month follow up shown significant improvement of RPT. We also discussed the current perspective on the rationale of TBE drainage and the role of medical thoracoscope in TBE management.
Calcinosis cutis is a rare presentation and not many cases have been reported especially of idiopathic type. We are reporting a case of idiopathic calcinosis cutis of lower limbs in a 33-year old female who presented to our clinic for multiple painless swellings over her lower limbs for the past six months, without any history of trauma or infection. We have decided to observe her condition on regular follow-up and conservative management.
The principle of ferrule effect is of prime importance when restoring an endodontically treated tooth. A severely broken down tooth due to subgingival caries almost always end up with extraction as inadequate ferrule effect would compromise the predictability of restorative treatment. This clinical case report describes a treatment approach that combines non-surgical endodontic treatment, orthodontic extrusion and prosthetic rehabilitation to restore the function and aesthetic aspect of an extensively carious premolar with compromised prognosis. One year follow-up indicated stable periodontal health with evidence of periapical healing radiographically.
Synovial sarcoma of the extremities is an uncommon type of soft tissue sarcoma occuring predominantly in young adults at the para-articular regions. We present a series of 10 patients with an average age of 44 years and include a follow-up of 39 months. Eight patients had a surgical procedure for a mistaken benign lesion. In contrast to other soft tissue sarcomas, the swellings were associated with pain and most were fixed to the underlying structures. Five patients had a local reccurence after many years, stressing the necessity for close and long-term follow-up in these patients.
An appraisal of the regional reconnaissance geophysical, geochemical and geological data obtained under the Central Belt Project in 1977 – 1978 appeared to constitute favourable uranium exploration targets. Follow-up surveys conducted until the year 1990 have proposed the exploration area to be divided into three transects. Transect 1 covers the western part of the state of Kelantan, northwest Pahang and the eastern half of Perak. Transect 2 covers southeastern tip of Perak, west Pahang, eastern half of Wilayah Persekutuan, eastern portion of Selangor, and the northwest portion of Negeri Sembilan. Transect 3 covers central Kelantan, northwestern of Terengganu and northern portion of Pahang. Results of the study indicate that the Main Range, Bujang Melaka, and Bukit Tinggi Plutons are most fertile with uranium spectrometric rock values range from 13 to 25 ppm. Further investigations to zero down the target areas for uranium mineralization are strongly recommended over these areas.
Epiphrenic oesophageal diverticulum is a rare disorder affecting the distal oesophagus. Surgical techniques for this condition evolve over time from open transthoracic and trans-abdominal approaches to minimally invasive surgery. We report a case of an 82-year-old male who presented with symptomatic epiphrenic oesophageal diverticulum over the last 1 year. He underwent laparoscopic transhiatal diverticulectomy, myotomy and anterior partial fundoplication and was discharged well. He remains asymptomatic after a follow-up of 6 months.
This is the first report of a long-term follow-up of an open bicondylar Hoffa with patella fracture. It is interesting to note the radiological changes of osteoarthritis 15 years after global intra-articular injury of the distal femur. The good clinical outcome is possibly due to the integrity of the knee ligaments and reconstruction of the extensor mechanism in addition to stable anatomical reduction and fixation.
Dislocation of multiple metatarsophalangeal joint is an uncommon injury. The mechanism of injury is a high energy force distal to proximal with foot in hyperextension at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. The acute hyperextension of the toe at the moment of injury causes avulsion of the plantar part of the capsule from the junction of head and neck of the metatarsal. If the collateral ligaments remain intact, they maintain the locked fibrocartilaginous plate over the dorsum of the head of the metatarsal, making closed reduction impossible. We report a case of simultaneous 1st and 2nd MTP joint open dislocation. In the present case, we chose the plantar approach utilizing the already present plantar wound. At 18 months post-operative follow-up, there was no instance of redislocations or signs of avascular necrosis of head of metatarsal.
A patient with Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease was mistaken to have pulmonary tuberculosis with airway colonization by the non-tuberculous mycobacterium. Appropriate antibiotics were only given when the patient's signs and symptoms worsened while on anti-tuberculosis therapy. Despite treatment with a combination of antibiotics showing in vitro susceptibility, the pathogen persisted in the respiratory secretions for longer than 6 months and the patient suffered a spontaneous pneumothorax 14 months into treatment. This case illustrates the chronic course of M. abscessus lung infection, the tendency for flare-ups, the inadequacy of current treatment regimens, and the necessity for prolonged patient follow-up.
INTRODUCTION: Ventricular tachycardia (VT) storm is an uncommon but life-threatening condition. We describe the incidence, causes and management of VT storm among patients admitted to the coronary care unit of a large tertiary hospital.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1 November 2009 and 30 April 2010, 198 patients were admitted to the coronary care unit and 7 (3.5%) presented with VT storm. A retrospective review of their records was conducted. The mean follow-up period was 268 (196 to 345) days.
RESULTS: The mean age was 67 years and 4 patients were male. One patient had a previous myocardial infarction. All had abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction, median of 30%. Acute myocardial infarction (4 patients) was the most common trigger, followed by decompensated heart failure (1), systemic inflammatory response syndrome on a background of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (1) and bradycardia-induced polymorphic VT (1). Three patients had polymorphic VT and the rest had monomorphic VT. Intravenous amiodarone, lignocaine, overdrive pacing and intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation were useful in arrhythmia control. Three patients underwent coronary revascularization, 3 patients received implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, 1 had a permanent cardiac pacemaker, 1 died during the acute episode. Five out of the 6 survivors were prescribed oral beta-blockers upon discharge. On follow-up, none of the patients had a recurrence of the tachyarrhythmia.
CONCLUSION: Acute myocardial infarction was the main trigger of VT storm in our patients. Intravenous amiodarone, lignocaine, overdrive pacing and intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation were useful at suppressing VT storm.