A canal wall down mastoidectomy (CWDM) is an effective technique for eradication of advanced chronic otitis media or cholesteatomas. A retrospective study was conducted at a Malaysian Tertiary Medical Center between June 1996 to December 2003 to evaluate the outcome of Modified Radical Mastoidectomy(MRM), a form of CWDM for patients with chronic active otitis media (OM) with cholesteatoma, chronic mastoiditis or chronic active OM with cholesteatoma and mastoiditis. All new cases of MRM which fulfilled the selection criteria were reviewed. The main outcome measures were the hearing outcome and status of dry ear postoperatively. A total of 84 patients had undergone CWDM. However only 63 patients (26 male, 37 female) were included for analysis. The age of the patients ranged between 5 months to 72 years (mean, 31years). The majority of the patients (86%) were adults and 9 (14%) were children. The ossicular chain was eroded in 91% (57 cases). There were 33 patients (53%) who showed no improvement of Air Bone Gap (ABG) closure while 16 patients (25%) had a post-operative improvement. The presence or absence of stapes suprastructure was found to be the major factor in determining the amount of ABG (Chi squared test, P = 0.025 preoperatively and P = 0.031 postoperatively). A dry ear was achieved in 78% of patients with 3% recurrence rate. In conclusion, the study showed that a proper MRM gave high percentage of dry ear and this procedure did not worsen the hearing.
This study determined the outcome of combining home based and clinic based amblyopia therapy among preschool children. A total of 479 preschool children were randomly selected for vision screening. Amblyopic therapy was prescribed to children whose visual acuity (VA) could not be improved to <0.1 LogMAR after a 6 week adaptation period with glasses. Intensive near work activities were conducted daily at home for 12 weeks, monitored by parents while weekly therapy was conducted at the optometry clinic by an optometrist. Six preschool children were diagnosed with refractive amblyopia, spherical equivalent (SE) was -11.25D to +0.75D. Significant improvement was found in the VA of right eye, t(6) = 3.07, left eye t(6) = 3.07 and both eyes t(6) = 3.42) p<0.05, at the end of the 12 week therapy. Combining home based and clinic based amblyopia therapy among preschool children showed a positive improvement in VA after 12 weeks of therapy.
Study site: kindergarten, optometry clinic, Perak (site unclear)
Endovascular coiling has been used increasingly as an alternative to neurosurgical clipping for treating subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to aneurysm rupture. In a retrospective cohort review on the treatment methods of aneurysm rupture in Hospital Kuala Lumpur over the period of five years (2005-2009) a total of 268 patients were treated. These patients were broadly categorized into two groups based on their treatment mode for ruptured aneurysms. Statistical analysis was determined using Chi- Square tests to study these associations. In our study, 67.5% of patients presented with Good World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade (WFNS1-2) while 32.5% patients presented with Poor WFNS prior to intervention. In our outcome, it was noted that 60.4% had good functional outcome (mRS grade 0-2) as compared to 39.6% patients who had poor mRS(modified rankin scale) outcome (mRS 3-6). In the good WFNS group, 76% of patients in clipping group had a good mRS outcome while, 86.5% patients in coiling group had good mRS outcome (p=0.114). In poor WFNS presentation, it was noted that in 77.3% patients in clipping group, had poor mRS outcome. Similarly with poor WFNS presentation, 83.3% of patient in coiling group had poor outcome. (p=1.00). Hence when we control the WFNS group, there was no significant association between treatment group (clipping and coiling) and mRS outcome at 6 months. The outcome of patient is determined by initial clinical presentation (WFNS grade) and influenced by requirement of Extraventricular drain (EVD) in presence of hydrocephalus, CSF infection and pneumonia. Therefore the decision regarding treatment option needs to be individualized based on the presentation of the patient.
Transcatheter closure of small and moderate sizes of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) is a standard and well accepted form of treatment. The aim of this study is to describe the experience of transcatheter closure of PDA in Penang Hospital. All patients who underwent transcatheter closure of PDA at our institution between 20th January 2006 and 27th June 2008 were retrospectively identified and studied. There were a total of 66 patients who had undergone transcatheter closure of PDA during this period which comprised of 24 male and 42 female. The PDA was closed by Amplatzer Duct Occluder (ADO) in 31 patients, Gianturco coil in 29 patients and other types of devices in 6 patients. There were 4 patients (6%) who had developed acute complication during the procedure (3 of them developed coil embolization and 1 had bleeding from puncture site). The PDA was successfully close in 95.5% of the study population without any residual PDA shunting. All the patients were alive but 5 of them (4.5%) have some abnormalities (2 has mild left pulmonary stenosis, 3 has small residual). Comparison between ADO and Gianturco coil revealed no significant difference in the outcome. Transcatheter closure of PDA has proven to be safe and effective with good midterm outcome. There was no significant difference between Amplatzer Ductal Occluder and Gianturco coil in term of the outcome.
Primary gastrointestinal (GIT) lymphoma constitutes only 5 - 10% of all gastrointestinal tumours. The optimal therapy for these lymphomas is poorly defined and still controversial. We present our experience in the treatment and outcome of primary GIT lymphomas in UKM Medical Center, Malaysia. A retrospective review of all patients with primary GIT lymphoma from the year 2002 until 2007 was done. Our series has shown that primary GIT lymphoma is a rare disease as it comprises only 6.5% of all lymphomas treated in this institution. We had a female predominance of this disease with a large majority at an advanced stage of the disease. There was equal distribution involving stomach, small and large intestines. The incidence of primary GIT lymphomas was 6.5% with a female predominance. The majority had advanced diseases (stage III and IV) with equal distribution involving the stomach, small and large intestines. The most common histological variant was diffuse large B cell lymphoma (66%). Most (83%) patients with intestinal lymphoma had surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy. All patients with gastric lymphomas had chemotherapy alone. The mortality rate was 22% predominantly in younger patients with aggressive histology subtypes and advanced disease.
Mortality and morbidity associated with intracerebral hemorrhage is still high. Up to now, there are no evidence-based effective treatments for acute ICH. This study is to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on hematoma growth of patients with spontaneous ICH compared to a placebo.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcome using fixed and removable appliances, in the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya (U.M.). The study models of 25 fixed and 30 upper removable appliance cases, with complete written records were examined before and after orthodontic treatment using the PAR (Peer Assessment Rating) Index. All the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows. Eighty five percent of the cases selected as sample were either 'improved' or 'greatly improved'. Among the 10 cases which were 'greatly improved', all had high pre-treatment PAR points (> 35 PAR points). Conversely, all the eight cases classified as 'worse or no different' were with low pretreatment PAR scores « 20 PAR points). The mean treatment duration in this study was 23. I months, ranging from 2 months to 78 months. The results of this study showed that the standard of treatment in this Faculty were fairly acceptable.
Psychotherapies were offered to alleviate psychological and physical symptoms; however, most psychological interventions were only delivered after cancer treatment. Newly diagnosed cancer patients experienced psychological distress while waiting for treatments. This review paper focused on randomized control trial studies, aimed to investigate the effectiveness of psychological intervention among newly diagnosed cancer patients. Eight randomized control trial papers were found in recent 10 year period through electronic database. A moderate to large effect size was detected on the outcomes, ranging from 0.43 to 0.89. This indicated that psychological-based prehabilitation with standard care yielded better outcomes than standard care alone. Psychological-based prehabilitation provides evidence in its effectiveness to reduce psychological distress, functional impairment, recurrence of cancer, numbers of immune reactivity and sleeping quality; however, inconsistent with longer survival result among cancer patients. In conclusion, psychological-based prehabilitation before cancer treatment is necessary for better treatment outcome, and future research is needed to investigate more directly the outcome.
In patients with an elbow fracture dislocation the incidence of radial head fracture is 36%, where as coronoid process fractures occur in 13%, and olecranon fractures in 4% of patients. Combination of all these fractures with a 'terrible triad' is rarely reported in the literature. We describe a 40 year old lady involved in a polytrauma who had head injury, pnuemothorax and an open fracture dislocation of the left elbow. The Injury Severity Score initially on admission was 44. She presented with chronic elbow instability with pain 1 year later. A semi constrained total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) with a Coonrad-Morrey prosthesis was performed in this complex injury involving fractures of the coronoid, olecranon, proximal third of the ulna and radial head malunion with heterotrophic ossification around the elbow joint. Although the survivorship of total elbow replacements has improved, it is still a procedure reserved to older patients with low functional demand. At 1-year follow-up, the patient had full range in flexion and extension. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) was 100. TEA is a procedure which gains function and stability in a terrible triad elbow.
This is our initial report on the first 4 cases of infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysms undergoing Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) with local anaesthesia, controlled sedation and monitoring by an anaesthetist. All 4 patients were males with a mean age of 66.7 years. Only one (1) required ICU stay of 2 days for cardiac monitoring due to bradycardia and transient hypotension post procedure. No mortality or major post operative morbidity was recorded and the mean hospital stay post procedure was 3.5 days (range 2-5 days).
This is our initial report on the first 4 cases of infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm undergoing Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) with local anaesthesia, controlled sedation and monitoring by an anaesthetist. All four patients were males with a mean age of 66.7 years. Only one required ICU stay of two days for cardiac monitoring due to bradycardia and transient hypotension post procedure. No mortality or major post operative morbidity was recorded and the mean hospital stay post procedure was 3.5 days (range 2-5 days).
The use of buccal fat pad in the management of osteoradionecrosis has not been described previously. A series of 10 consecutive cases of osteoradionecrosis treated with a combination of sequestrectomy and buccal fat pad is presented. The data were obtained by reviewing operative and medical records. The combination of sequestrectomy and buccal fat pad flap was successful in 86% of cases of stage II osteoradionecrosis and in 0% of cases of stage III. The overall success rate was 60%. Based on the result of this series, this treatment regime appeared to be beneficial in stage II osteoradionecrosis.
This article reviews the concept of Combination Syndrome and presents a clinical case of a patient with a modern variation to this clinical scenario': The clinical procedures involved in the provision of a maxillary complete denture against a mandibular implant-supported complete fixed prosthesis is described with some suggestions on how to optimise the treatment outcome for the patient.
Oligodontia, although rare, may have significant impact on the quality of life of those affected with it. Provision of restorative treatment for these patients can be very challenging and demanding for clinicians, especially during the active growth phase. Nevertheless, the dental needs of these patients are real and should be addressed appropriately. The present case report described a restorative rehabilitative plan and execution of different restorative treatment modalities in a 14-year-old patient with oligodontia. The challenges faced in the provision of dental care were highlighted. The treatment outcome showed a positive psychological impact on the well-being of the patient based on parental observations.
Introduction: The peer assessment rating (PAR) index was used to self-audit 4 years of completed pre-adjusted edgewise appliance cases treated by a single orthodontist in a government clinic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate orthodontic treatment standards and factors which may influence treatment outcomes and treatment time.
Methodology: Pre and post-treatment study models were scored using the PAR index by the author. 17 models were re-examined for intra-examiner reliability using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC was excellent for pretreatment (0.96), post-treatment (0.98) and reduction in PAR (0.96) scores.
Results: There were 173 cases (51 males; 122 females) with mean age 17.6 (SD 5.75) years. Mean treatment time was 18.6 (SD 6.47) months with range between 5-40 months. There was no statistically significant difference between one-arch and two-arch cases and between routine and compromised cases. Treatment time in extraction cases (mean 19.5, SD 6.17) was significantly different (p=0.000) compared with non-extraction cases (mean 11.6, SD 4.10) although this accounted for 15% of the variation only (r=0.388). 76.3% cases were ‘greatly improved’, 22.0% ‘improved’ and 1.7% ‘worst/ no different’. Mean pretreatment, post-treatment and reduction in PAR score was 34.1(SD 9.68), 6.4 (SD 6.84) and 27.9 (SD 9.69) respectively. Mean percentage PAR score reduction was 82.0% (SD 1.96). Pretreatment (p=0.000), post-treatment (p=0.000) and reduction (p=0.489) in PAR scores was significantly different between routine and compromised cases. There was significant difference (p=0.000) between category of improvement and pretreatment scores but not with treatment time.
Conclusion: Severe malocclusions had larger reduction in PAR scores and required longer treatment time. Extraction cases took longer to complete and routine cases had better outcomes than compromised cases with severe skeletal discrepancy.
Currently, paliperidone palmitate is not approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents. It is only indicated for treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in adults. This case report highlights the successful treatment outcome with paliperidone palmitate in an adolescent with schizophrenia. Methods: We report a case of an adolescent who presented with psychotic symptoms and marked deterioration in functioning over a period of one year. Results: She showed significant improvement in functioning, and her psychotic symptoms gradually subsided with paliperidone palmitate. Conclusions: Paliperidone palmitate could be considered as an effective treatment modality in adolescents with schizophrenia.
Discrepancies between tooth sizes can cause orthodontic problems such as crowding and improper occlusion. By identifying these problems, better orthodontic treatment outcome can be achieved. The aim of this study is to identify anterior tooth size discrepancies among 4 different types of malocclusion i.e. Class I; Class II division 1 (II/1); Class II division 2 (II/2); and Class III. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out using 200 orthodontic study models where 50 study models were taken for each of the 4 malocclusion groups. The samples were selected using random sampling technique based on the orthodontic waiting list in the Orthodontic Department, Dental Faculty, UKM. All anterior teeth were measured by the same examiner at the largest mesio-distal dimension, using a digital caliper recorded up to 0.01 mm. Comparison between the 4 groups of malocclusion were made intra-arch using individual tooth size measurement and inter-arch using Anterior Bolton Index (ABI). Results: For the intra-arch assessment, Class II/1 had significantly the largest upper and lower anterior tooth size except for its upper canine and lower central incisor. Class III group had insignificantly the smallest mandibular anterior teeth compared to other malocclusion groups. For inter-arch assessment, Anterior Bolton Index (ABI) of all samples was 79.2 ± 3.94%. The highest ABI was noted in Class II / 2 of 80.3 ± 4.71%. However, no significant differences were found among the 4 malocclusion groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Most of the anterior teeth in Class II division 1 were the largest of all. No significant difference in the inter-arch tooth size discrepancies were detected among all malocclusion
Treating patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains is more complicated, complex, toxic, expensive, than treating patients with susceptible TB strains. This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes and potential factors associated between patients with MDR-TB and non MDR TB infections in peninsular Malaysia.