Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

  1. Man CN, Noor NM, Harn GL, Lajis R, Mohamad S
    J Chromatogr A, 2010 Nov 19;1217(47):7455-9.
    PMID: 20950812 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2010.09.064
    Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a toxic compound found in some puffers can cause death to humans through consumption. We have developed a simplified method for the screening of TTX in puffers using GC-MS. A puffer tissue of 0.5g was treated with 5mL of 0.1% acetic acid, followed by alkaline hydrolysis, LLE or liquid-liquid extraction and N-methyl-N-TMS-trifluoroacetamide derivatization. The developed method used only a small sample and solvent, simplified LLE and derivatization procedures and short chromatographic analysis (8.2min). All of these contribute to cost-saving, enhanced sample throughput and high sensitivity of the screening assay. The developed method was validated and proved to be within the acceptable range.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  2. Tay BY, Yung SC, Teoh TY
    Int J Cosmet Sci, 2016 Dec;38(6):627-633.
    PMID: 27169828 DOI: 10.1111/ics.12342
    OBJECTIVE: Isopropyl p-toluenesulfonate (IPTS) is a potentially genotoxic by-product formed during the esterification of palm oil-based palmitic and palm kernel oil-based myristic acid with isopropanol to produce isopropyl palmitate or isopropyl myristate. There are no methods described for the analysis of IPTS in cosmetic products. In this work, we have established a simple, precise and accurate method to determine the presence and level of IPTS in various finished cosmetic products which contain palm-based esters in their formulations.

    METHODS: An Agilent 1200 series high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) unit using a diode-array detector (DAD) has been employed and optimized to detect IPTS in cosmetic products. For the separation, a reverse-phase Hypersil Gold C8 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm i.d. 250 mm) 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate buffer 50 : 50, (v/v) solution in acetonitrile as mobile phase, in isocratic mode and a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) were used. A second method using a gas chromatography/mass selective detector GC-MSD was also developed to confirm the IPTS identity in the cosmetic products.

    RESULTS: Recoveries of IPTS from cosmetic matrices such as a lotion, cleansing milk and a cream ranged from 94.0% to 101.1% with <5% relative standard deviation (%RSD) showing good accuracy and repeatability of the method. The six-point calibration curves (determined over the range 0.5-50 μg mL(-1) ) have a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 (based on HPLC peak area) and 0.9998 (based on HPLC peak height). The intra- and interday precisions (measured by the %RSD) of the method were <2% and <5%, respectively, indicating that the developed method is reliable, precise and reproducible. The detection and quantification limit of the method were found to be 0.5 μg mL(-1) and 1.6 μg mL(-1) , respectively. Analyses of 83 commercial cosmetics showed no presence of IPTS.

    CONCLUSIONS: The validation data indicated that this method was suitable for the quantitative analysis of IPTS in commercial cosmetics. This method is applicable for analyses of trace levels of IPTS in cosmetics and has the advantage of using only simple sample preparation steps.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  3. Manickavasagam G, Saaid M, Lim V
    J Food Sci, 2024 Feb;89(2):1058-1072.
    PMID: 38221804 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.16903
    Volatile organic compounds in honey are known for their considerable impact on the organoleptic properties of honey, such as aroma, flavor, taste, and texture. The type and composition of volatile organic compounds are influenced by entomological, geographical, and botanical origins; thus, these compounds have the potential to be chemical markers. Sixty-two volatile compounds were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from 30 Heterotrigona itama (H. itama) honey samples from 3 different geographical origins. Hydrocarbons and benzene derivatives were the dominant classes of volatile organic compounds in the samples. Both clustering and discriminant analyses demonstrated a clear separation between samples from distant origins (Kedah and Perak), and the volcano plot supported it. The reliability and predictability of the partial least squares-discriminant analysis model from the discriminant analysis were validated using cross-validation (R2 : 0.93; Q2 : 0.83; accuracy: 0.97) and the permutation test (p  1.0) and the Kruskal-Wallis test (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
  4. Abdulra'uf LB, Tan GH
    Food Chem, 2015 Jun 15;177:267-73.
    PMID: 25660885 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.031
    An HS-SPME method was developed using multivariate experimental designs, which was conducted in two stages. The significance of each factor was estimated using the Plackett-Burman (P-B) design, for the identification of significant factors, followed by the optimization of the significant factors using central composite design (CCD). The multivariate experiment involved the use of Minitab® statistical software for the generation of a 2(7-4) P-B design and CCD matrices. The method performance evaluated with internal standard calibration method produced good analytical figures of merit with linearity ranging from 1 to 500 μg/kg with correlation coefficient greater than 0.99, LOD and LOQ were found between 0.35 and 8.33 μg/kg and 1.15 and 27.76 μg/kg respectively. The average recovery was between 73% and 118% with relative standard deviation (RSD=1.5-14%) for all the investigated pesticides. The multivariate method helps to reduce optimization time and improve analytical throughput.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  5. Moniruzzaman M, Rodríguez I, Rodríguez-Cabo T, Cela R, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    J Chromatogr A, 2014 Nov 14;1368:26-36.
    PMID: 25441341 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2014.09.057
    The suitability of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique for gas chromatography (GC) characterization of minor organic compounds in honey samples is evaluated. Under optimized conditions, samples were pre-treated by liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile followed by DLLME using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 0.075 mL) as extractant. The yielded settled phase was analyzed by GC using high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The whole sample preparation process is completed in approximately 10 min, with a total consumption of organic solvents below 4 mL, relative standard deviations lower than 12% and with more than 70 organic compounds, displaying linear retention index in the range from 990 to 2900, identified in the obtained extracts. In comparison with HS SPME extraction, higher peak intensities were attained for most volatile and semi-volatile compounds amenable to both extraction techniques. Furthermore, other species such as highly polar and water soluble benzene acids, long chain fatty acids, esters and flavonoids, which are difficult to concentrate by HS SPME, could be identified in DLLME extracts. Some of the compounds identified in DLLME extracts have been proposed as useful for samples classification and/or they are recognized as markers of honeys from certain geographic areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  6. Rahman MM, Ahmad SH, Mohamed MT, Ab Rahman MZ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:635240.
    PMID: 25250382 DOI: 10.1155/2014/635240
    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
  7. Omar MM, Wan Ibrahim WA, Elbashir AA
    Food Chem, 2014 Sep 1;158:302-9.
    PMID: 24731346 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.02.045
    A sol-gel hybrid sorbent, methyltrimethoxysilane-tetraethoxysilane (MTMOS-TEOS) was successfully used as new dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) sorbent material in the determination of acrylamide in several Sudanese foods and analysis using GC-MS. Several important dSPE parameters were optimised. Under the optimised conditions, excellent linearity (r(2)>0.9998) was achieved using matrix matched standard calibration in the concentration range 50-1000 μg kg(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification ranged from 9.1 to 12.8 μg/kg and 27.8-38.9 μg/kg, respectively. The precision (RSD%) of the method was ⩽6.6% and recoveries of acrylamide obtained were in the range of 88-103%, (n=3). The LOD obtained is comparable with the LODs of primary secondary amine dSPE. The proposed MTMOS-TEOS dSPE method is direct and safe for acrylamide analysis, showed reliable method validation performances and good cleanup effects. It was successfully applied to the analysis of acrylamide in real food samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  8. Ahmad Nizar NN, Nazrim Marikkar JM, Hashim DM
    J Oleo Sci, 2013;62(7):459-64.
    PMID: 23823911
    A study was conducted to differentiate lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The comparison of overall fatty acid data showed that lard and chicken fat share common characteristics by having palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid as major fatty acids while beef and mutton fats shared common characteristics by possessing palmitic, stearic and oleic acid as major fatty acids. The direct comparisons among the fatty acid data, therefore, may not be suitable for discrimination of different animal fats. When the fatty acid distributional data was subjected to Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was demonstrated that stearic, oleic and linoleic acids as the most discriminating parameters in the clustering of animal fats into four subclasses. The bulk carbon analysis of animal fats using EA-IRMS showed that determination of the carbon isotope ratios (δ¹³C) would be a good indicator for discriminating lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. This would lead to a faster and more efficient method to ascertain the source of origin of fats used in food products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
  9. Abdulra'uf LB, Tan GH
    Food Chem, 2013 Dec 15;141(4):4344-8.
    PMID: 23993624 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.022
    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a solvent-less sample preparation method which combines sample preparation, isolation, concentration and enrichment into one step. In this study, multivariate strategy was used to determine the significance of the factors affecting the solid phase microextraction of pesticide residues (fenobucarb, diazinon, chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos) using a randomised factorial design. The interactions and effects of temperature, time and salt addition on the efficiency of the extraction of the pesticide residues were evaluated using 2(3) factorial designs. The analytes were extracted with 100 μm PDMS fibres according to the factorial design matrix and desorbed into a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detector. The developed method was applied for the analysis of apple samples and the limits of detection were between 0.01 and 0.2 μg kg(-)(1), which were lower than the MRLs for apples. The relative standard deviations (RSD) were between 0.1% and 13.37% with average recovery of 80-105%. The linearity ranges from 0.5-50 μg kg(-)(1) with correlation coefficient greater than 0.99.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  10. Sanagi MM, Loh SH, Wan Ibrahim WA, Hasan MN, Aboul Enein HY
    J Chromatogr Sci, 2013 Feb;51(2):112-6.
    PMID: 22776739 DOI: 10.1093/chromsci/bms113
    In this work, a two-phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is developed to provide a rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fresh milk. The standard addition method is used to construct calibration curves and to determine the residue levels for the target analytes, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, thus eliminating sample pre-treatment steps such as pH adjustment. The HF-LPME method shows dynamic linearity from 5 to 500 µg/L for all target analytes with R(2) ranging from 0.9978 to 0.9999. Under optimized conditions, the established detection limits range from 0.07 to 1.4 µg/L based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. Average relative recoveries for the determination of PAHs studied at 100 µg/L spiking levels are in the range of 85 to 110%. The relative recoveries are slightly higher than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction, which requires saponification steps for fluorene and phenanthrene, which are more volatile and heat sensitive. The HF-LPME method proves to be simple and rapid, and requires minimal amounts of organic solvent that supports green analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  11. Siddiquee S, Cheong BE, Taslima K, Kausar H, Hasan MM
    J Chromatogr Sci, 2012 Apr;50(4):358-67.
    PMID: 22407347 DOI: 10.1093/chromsci/bms012
    A simple, fast, repeatable and less laborious sample preparation protocol was developed and applied for the analysis of biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum strain FA1132 by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The match factors for sample spectra with respect to the mass spectra library of fungal volatile compounds were determined and used to study the complex hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds, which were separated by using different capillary columns with nonpolar, medium polar and high polar stationary phases. To date, more than 278 volatile compounds (with spectral match factor at least 90%) such as normal saturated hydrocarbons (C7-C30), cyclohexane, cyclopentane, fatty acids, alcohols, esters, sulfur-containing compounds, simple pyrane and benzene derivatives have been identified. Most of these compounds have not previously been reported. The method described in this paper is a more convenient research tool for the detection of volatile compounds from the cultures of T. harzianum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  12. Teoh YP, Don MM, Ujang S
    Biotechnol Prog, 2012 Jan-Feb;28(1):232-41.
    PMID: 21990033 DOI: 10.1002/btpr.714
    Two statistical tools, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) were used to optimize the mycelia growth of Schizophyllum commune with different nutrient components. Results showed that 32.92 g/L of biomass were produced using a medium consisting of 18.74 g/L yeast extract, 38.65 g/L glucose, and 0.59 g/L MgSO(4).7H(2)O. The experimental data fitted well with the model predicted values within 0.09 to 0.77% error. The biomass was also tested for antifungal activity against wood degrading fungi of rubberwood. Results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for antifungal activity range from 0.16 to 5.00 μg/μL. The GC-MS analysis indicated that this fungus produced several compounds, such as glycerin, 2(3H)-furanone, 5-heptyldihydro-, 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, and triacetin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
  13. Aasim WR, Gan SH, Tan SC
    Biomed Chromatogr, 2008 Sep;22(9):1035-42.
    PMID: 18655218 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.1073
    A stereospecific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis method for amphetamine-type stimulants in human urine was recently developed. For maximum efficiency, liquid-liquid extraction and chiral derivatization of the analytes using (R)-(-)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride were performed simultaneously. The effects of (1) use of saturated sodium chloride in 2.0 M sodium hydroxide, (2) extraction solvent volume, (3) percentage of triethylamine, (4) derivatization reagent volume, (5) sample mixing time, (6) incubation temperature and (7) incubation time on method sensitivity and variability were assessed using a two-level, eight-run Plackett-Burman design followed by a fold-over design. The use of saturated sodium chloride solution and the derivatization reagent volume were significant factors (ANOVA, p<0.01). The saturated sodium chloride solution decreased sensitivity whereas an increased volume of derivatization reagent increased sensitivity. Calibration curves for all analytes were linear between 5 and 500 microg/L, with correlation coefficients of >0.99. Detection limits were
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  14. Ying S, Lasekan O, Naidu KR, Lasekan S
    Molecules, 2012 Nov 22;17(12):13795-812.
    PMID: 23174897 DOI: 10.3390/molecules171213795
    Sensorial analysis of pineapple breads (conventionally baked, Cpb; fully baked frozen, Fpb and partially baked, Ppb) showed no significant differences in terms of aroma and taste. On the contrary, the scores for the overall quality between the partially baked and conventionally baked breads showed significant (p < 0.05) differences. At the same time, headspace analysis using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method identified 59 volatile compounds. The results of the aroma extracts dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 19 most odour-active compounds with FD factors in the range of 32-128 as the key odourants of the pineapple breads. Further analysis of the similarities and differences between the pineapple breads in terms of the key odourants were carried out by the application of PLS-DA and PLS-regression coefficients. Results showed that Ppb exhibited strong positive correlations with most of the volatile- and non-volatile compounds, while the Cpb showed significant positive correlations with hexanal and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and the Fpb had strong positive correlations with lactic acid, benzoic acid, benzaldehyde and ethyl propanoate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  15. Chan KB, Pakiam C, Rahim RA
    Bull Narc, 2005;57(1-2):249-56.
    PMID: 21338025
    Recently, the abuse of ketum, an indigenous psychoactive plant, has received a lot of attention in Malaysia. To help national law enforcement agencies control its abuse, the laboratory of the Forensic Division has developed a procedure for its positive identification. Botanical identification may not be practical or conclusive, owing to the wide range of ketum materials available on the market, including dry macerated leaves, powdered leaves and drinks. In order to confirm that a substance is, in fact, ketum or that a preparation is derived from ketum, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is used to definitively identify the presence of the psychoactive principle mnitragynine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
  16. Mokhtar SU, Chin ST, Kee CL, Low MY, Drummer OH, Marriott PJ
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2016 Mar 20;121:188-196.
    PMID: 26808068 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.01.034
    Application of gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for identification, confirmation and quantification of 6 phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors (sildenafil, dimethylsildenafil, homosildenafil, thiosildenafil, thiodimethylsildenafil and thiohomosildenafil) in dietary supplements was investigated. The MS was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode, for better sensitivity and selectivity. In this manner, the method is adequate to reduce background noise with less interference from co-eluting compounds in the samples. Two different ionisation techniques, electron ionisation (EI) and chemical ionisation (CI), were studied and compared. The chromatographic separation was performed on a short 10 m non-polar capillary column without any derivatisation step. This permitted fast analysis for all analogues with retention time less than 11 min, for both techniques. Use of backflushing can aid method retention time reduction and improves column maintenance. Evaluation of method validation included limit of detection (LOD), lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), linearity, precision and recovery were performed for both EI and CI techniques. The LOD obtained varied from 0.03 to 1.50 μg/g and the LLOQ ranged from 0.10 to 5.00 μg/g. Good calibration linearity was obtained for all analogues for both techniques, with correlation coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.99. Mean recoveries of all analogues using CI show higher values (83.4-108.8%) than that of EI (61.9-91.1%). The intra- and inter-assay precisions were evaluated for all analogues at spiked concentration of 10 μg/g and the relative standard deviation was less than 15% for both methods. These methods were then successfully applied to dietary supplement samples without prior derivatisation, confirming that the samples were adulterated with sildenafil and/or its analogues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  17. Chang ET, Lim BH
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Jun;44(2):160-6.
    PMID: 2626126
    The abuse of phenylbutazone among rheumatoid arthritis patients has recently become a subject of interest. Unscrupulous manufacturers take advantage of the miraculous analgesic property of phenylbutazone and deliberately add this toxic drug in their preparations without declaring its presence on the label. In a recent survey, many such illicit preparations were seized from Chinese medical halls in Johor and sent to the Department of Chemistry, Johor Bahru for analysis. Here a Gas Chromatograph Mass Selective Detector (GC-MSD) method was developed for the determination of phenylbutazone in illicit traditional preparations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  18. Nurjuliana M, Che Man YB, Mat Hashim D, Mohamed AK
    Meat Sci, 2011 Aug;88(4):638-44.
    PMID: 21420795 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.02.022
    The volatile compounds of pork, other meats and meat products were studied using an electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer (GCMS-HS) for halal verification. The zNose™ was successfully employed for identification and differentiation of pork and pork sausages from beef, mutton and chicken meats and sausages which were achieved using a visual odor pattern called VaporPrint™, derived from the frequency of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector of the electronic nose. GCMS-HS was employed to separate and analyze the headspace gasses from samples into peaks corresponding to individual compounds for the purpose of identification. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for data interpretation. Analysis by PCA was able to cluster and discriminate pork from other types of meats and sausages. It was shown that PCA could provide a good separation of the samples with 67% of the total variance accounted by PC1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  19. Ismail A, Toriman ME, Juahir H, Kassim AM, Zain SM, Ahmad WKW, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2016 Oct 15;111(1-2):339-346.
    PMID: 27397593 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.06.089
    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
  20. Lawal A, Wong RCS, Tan GH, Abdulra'uf LB, Alsharif AMA
    J Chromatogr Sci, 2018 Aug 01;56(7):656-669.
    PMID: 29688338 DOI: 10.1093/chromsci/bmy032
    Fruits and vegetables constitute a major type of food consumed daily apart from whole grains. Unfortunately, the residual deposits of pesticides in these products are becoming a major health concern for human consumption. Consequently, the outcome of the long-term accumulation of pesticide residues has posed many health issues to both humans and animals in the environment. However, the residues have previously been determined using conventionally known techniques, which include liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the recently used liquid-phase microextraction techniques. Despite the positive technological effects of these methods, their limitations include; time-consuming, operational difficulty, use of toxic organic solvents, low selective property and expensive extraction setups, with shorter lifespan of instrumental performances. Thus, the potential and maximum use of these methods for pesticides residue determination has resulted in the urgent need for better techniques that will overcome the highlighted drawbacks. Alternatively, attention has been drawn recently towards the use of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe technique (QuEChERS) coupled with dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) to overcome the setback challenges experienced by the previous technologies. Conclusively, the reviewed QuEChERS-dSPE techniques and the recent cleanup modifications justifiably prove to be reliable for routine determination and monitoring the concentration levels of pesticide residues using advanced instruments such as high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods*
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