Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Ahmed R, Sinnathambi CM, Eldmerdash U, Subbarao D
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:758137.
    PMID: 24672368 DOI: 10.1155/2014/758137
    Limited information is available about the thermodynamic evaluation for biomass gasification process using updraft gasifier. Therefore, to minimize errors, the gasification of dry refinery sludge (DRS) is carried out in adiabatic system at atmospheric pressure under ambient air conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the physical and chemical energy and exergy of product gas at different equivalent ratios (ER). It will also be used to determine whether the cold gas, exergy, and energy efficiencies of gases may be maximized by using secondary air injected to gasification zone under various ratios (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5) at optimum ER of 0.195. From the results obtained, it is indicated that the chemical energy and exergy of producer gas are magnified by 5 and 10 times higher than their corresponding physical values, respectively. The cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies of DRS gasification are in the ranges of 22.9-55.5%, 43.7-72.4%, and 42.5-50.4%, respectively. Initially, all 3 efficiencies increase until they reach a maximum at the optimum ER of 0.195; thereafter, they decline with further increase in ER values. The injection of secondary air to gasification zone is also found to increase the cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies. A ratio of secondary air to primary air of 0.5 is found to be the optimum ratio for all 3 efficiencies to reach the maximum values.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry*
  2. Atnaw SM, Kueh SC, Sulaiman SA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:497830.
    PMID: 24526899 DOI: 10.1155/2014/497830
    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry
  3. Gharehkhani S, Nouri-Borujerdi A, Kazi SN, Yarmand H
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:504601.
    PMID: 25143981 DOI: 10.1155/2014/504601
    In this study an expression for soot absorption coefficient is introduced to extend the weighted-sum-of-gray gases data to the furnace medium containing gas-soot mixture in a utility boiler 150 MWe. Heat transfer and temperature distribution of walls and within the furnace space are predicted by zone method technique. Analyses have been done considering both cases of presence and absence of soot particles at 100% load. To validate the proposed soot absorption coefficient, the expression is coupled with the Taylor and Foster's data as well as Truelove's data for CO2-H2O mixture and the total emissivities are calculated and compared with the Truelove's parameters for 3-term and 4-term gray gases plus two soot absorption coefficients. In addition, some experiments were conducted at 100% and 75% loads to measure furnace exit gas temperature as well as the rate of steam production. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured data at the power plant site.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry*
  4. Mohammed MA, Salmiaton A, Wan Azlina WA, Mohamad Amran MS
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Apr;110:628-36.
    PMID: 22326334 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.056
    Empty fruit bunches (EFBs), a waste material from the palm oil industry, were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification. A high content of volatiles (>82%) increased the reactivity of EFBs, and more than 90% decomposed at 700°C; however, a high content of moisture (>50%) and oxygen (>45%) resulted in a low calorific value. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the higher the heating rate and the smaller the particle size, the higher the peak and final reaction temperatures. The least squares estimation for a first-order reaction model was used to study the degradation kinetics. The values of activation energy increased from 61.14 to 73.76 and from 40.06 to 47.99kJ/mol when the EFB particle size increased from 0.3 to 1.0mm for holocellulose and lignin degradation stages, respectively. The fuel characteristics of EFB are comparable to those of other biomasses and EFB can be considered a good candidate for gasification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry*
  5. Lahijani P, Zainal ZA, Mohamed AR, Mohammadi M
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Apr;158:193-200.
    PMID: 24607454 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.02.015
    CO2 gasification of oil palm shell (OPS) char to produce CO through the Boudouard reaction (C + CO2 ↔ 2CO) was investigated under microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to carry out the CO2 gasification in a packed bed of OPS char. The influence of char particle size, temperature and gas flow rate on CO2 conversion and CO evolution was considered. It was attempted to improve the reactivity of OPS char in gasification reaction through incorporation of Fe catalyst into the char skeleton. Very promising results were achieved in our experiments, where a CO2 conversion of 99% could be maintained during 60 min microwave-induced gasification of iron-catalyzed char. When similar gasification experiments were performed in conventional electric furnace, the superior performance of microwave over thermal driven reaction was elucidated. The activation energies of 36.0, 74.2 and 247.2 kJ/mol were obtained for catalytic and non-catalytic microwave and thermal heating, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry*
  6. Rodrigues A, Olivato PR, Zukerman-Schpector J, Maganhi SH, Reis AK, Tiekink ER
    J Phys Chem A, 2015 Aug 13;119(32):8714-23.
    PMID: 26213179 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b04019
    The X-ray single crystal analysis of isomeric ortho, meta, and para bromo-substituted α-methylsulfonyl-α-diethoxyphosphoryl acetophenones showed that this class of compound adopts synclinal (gauche) conformations for both [-P(O)(OEt)2] and [-S(O)2Me] groups, with respect to the carbonyl functional group. The phosphonate, sulfonyl, and carbonyl functional groups are joined through an intramolecular network of attractive interactions, as detected by molecular orbital calculations at the M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) level. These interactions are responsible for the more stable conformations in the gas phase, which also persist in the solid-state structures. The main structural distinction in the title compounds relates to the torsion angle of the aryl group (with respect to the carbonyl group), which gives rise to different interactions in the crystal packing, due to the different positions of the Br atom.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry
  7. Kundu SK, Chakraborty C, Yagihara S, Teoh SL, Das S
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2018;15(10):1381-1392.
    PMID: 30124152 DOI: 10.2174/1567201815666180820101255
    Surgical operations are impossible without administering proper analgesia. Advancement in the field of anesthesia has invariably resulted in the accomplishment of all surgical processes without any inconvenience. Admittedly, the use of noble gas is on the decline. The noble gases may not interact chemically with any other substance under normal temperature and pressure but they may interact with proteins and lipids. Different anesthetic molecules may stimulate either proteins or lipids in membrane. There is a connection between the anesthetic molecules and the hydrophobic region of the membrane. In the present review, we attempt to highlight the interaction between the anesthetic molecule with proteins and lipids and their effects. We sketched few noble gases and some other existing molecules such as halothane and alcohol which interacted with proteins and lipids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Noble Gases/chemistry*
  8. Sethupathi S, Bashir MJ, Akbar ZA, Mohamed AR
    Waste Manag Res, 2015 Apr;33(4):303-12.
    PMID: 25804669 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X15576026
    Lignocellulosic biomass has been widely recognised as a potential low-cost source for the production of high added value materials and proved to be a good precursor for the production of activated carbons. One of such valuable biomasses used for the production of activated carbons is palm shell. Palm shell (endocarp) is an abundant by-product produced from the palm oil industries throughout tropical countries. Palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve has been widely applied in various environmental pollution control technologies, mainly owing to its high adsorption performance, well-developed porosity and low cost, leading to potential applications in gas-phase separation using adsorption processes. This mini-review represents a comprehensive overview of the palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve preparation method, physicochemical properties and feasibility of palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve in gas separation processes. Some of the limitations are outlined and suggestions for future improvements are pointed out.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry*
  9. Azam MA, Alias FM, Tack LW, Seman RNAR, Taib MFM
    J Mol Graph Model, 2017 08;75:85-93.
    PMID: 28531817 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2017.05.003
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have received enormous attention due to their fascinating properties to be used in various applications including electronics, sensing, energy storage and conversion. The first principles calculations within density functional theory (DFT) have been carried out in order to investigate the structural, electronic and optical properties of un-doped and doped CNT nanostructures. O2, CO2, and CH3OH have been chosen as gas molecules to study the adsorption properties based on zigzag (8,0) SWCNTs. The results demonstrate that the adsorption of O2, CO2, and CH3OH gas molecules on pristine, Si-doped and B-doped SWCNTs are either physisorption or chemisorption. Moreover, the electronic properties indicating SWCNT shows significant improvement toward gas adsorption which provides the impact of selecting the best gas sensor materials towards detecting gas molecule. Therefore, these pristine, Si-, and B-doped SWCNTs can be considered to be very good potential candidates for sensing application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry*
  10. Chaharborj SS, Amin N
    PLoS One, 2020;15(2):e0228955.
    PMID: 32106248 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0228955
    This paper discusses the optimal control of pressure using the zero-gradient control (ZGC) approach. It is applied for the first time in the study to control the optimal pressure of hydrogen natural gas mixture in an inclined pipeline. The solution to the flow problem is first validated with existing results using the Taylor series approximation, regression analysis and the Runge-Kutta method combined. The optimal pressure is then determined using ZGC where the optimal set points are calculated without having to solve the non-linear system of equations associated with the standard optimization problem. It is shown that the mass ratio is the more effective parameter compared to the initial pressure in controlling the maximum variation of pressure in a gas pipeline.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry*
  11. Nuhu H, Hashim S, Aziz Saleh M, Syazwan Mohd Sanusi M, Hussein Alomari A, Jamal MH, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(7):e0254099.
    PMID: 34320010 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0254099
    In this study geogenic radon potential (GRP) mapping was carried out on the bases of field radon in soil gas concentration and soil gas permeability measurements by considering the corresponding geological formations. The spatial pattern of soil gas radon concentration, soil permeability, and GRP and the relationship between geological formations and these parameters was studied by performing detailed spatial analysis. The radon activity concentration in soil gas ranged from 0.11 to 434.5 kBq m-3 with a mean of 18.96 kBq m-3, and a standard deviation was 55.38 kBq m-3. The soil gas permeability ranged from 5.2×10-14 to 5.2×10-12 m2, with a mean of 5.65×10-13 m2. The GRP values were computed from the 222Rn activity concentration and soil gas permeability data. The range of GRP values was from 0.04 to 154.08. Locations on igneous granite rock geology were characterized by higher soil radon gas activity and higher GRP, making them radon-prone areas according to international standards. The other study locations fall between the low to medium risk, except for areas with high soil permeability, which are not internationally classified as radon prone. A GRP map was created displaying radon-prone areas for the study location using Kriging/Cokriging, based on in situ and predicted measured values. The GRP map assists in human health risk assessment and risk reduction since it indicates the potential of the source of radon and can serve as a vital tool for radon combat planning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry
  12. Tharsika T, Haseeb AS, Akbar SA, Sabri MF, Hoong WY
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(8):14586-600.
    PMID: 25116903 DOI: 10.3390/s140814586
    An inexpensive single-step carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method for the growth of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures is described, and the ethanol sensing properties are presented. The structure and phases of the grown nanostructures are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD analysis indicates that the core-shell nanostructures have good crystallinity. At a lower growth duration of 15 min, only SnO2 nanowires with a rectangular cross-section are observed, while the ZnO shell is observed when the growth time is increased to 30 min. Core-shell hierarchical nanostructures are present for a growth time exceeding 60 min. The growth mechanism for SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanowires and hierarchical nanostructures are also discussed. The sensitivity of the synthesized SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards ethanol sensing is investigated. Results show that the SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures deposited at 90 min exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ethanol. The sensitivity of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards 20 ppm ethanol gas at 400 °C is about ~5-times that of SnO2 nanowires. This improvement in ethanol gas response is attributed to high active sensing sites and the synergistic effect of the encapsulation of SnO2 by ZnO nanostructures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry*
  13. Naz MY, Shukrullah S, Ghaffar A, Rehman NU
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:279868.
    PMID: 24683326 DOI: 10.1155/2014/279868
    Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasma Gases/chemistry*
  14. Anis S, Zainal ZA
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 Dec;150:328-37.
    PMID: 24185417 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.10.010
    This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200°C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry*
  15. Pakpahan EN, Isa MH, Kutty SR, Chantara S, Wiriya W
    Environ Technol, 2013 Jan-Feb;34(1-4):407-16.
    PMID: 23530354
    Petroleum sludge is a hazardous waste that contains various organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have carcinogenic-mutagenic and toxic characteristics. This study focuses on the thermal treatment (indirect heating) of petroleum sludge cake for PAH degradation at 250, 450, and 650 degrees C using Ca(OH)2 + NaHCO3 as an additive. The treatment was conducted in a rotary drum electric heater. All experiments were carried out in triplicate. Concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in gas (absorbed on Amberlite XAD-4 adsorbent), particulate (on quartz filter) and residue phases were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The samples were extracted with acetonitrile by ultra-sonication prior to GC-MS analysis. The use of additive was beneficial and a temperature of 450 degrees C was suitable for PAH degradation. Low levels of PAH emissions, particularly carcinogenic PAH and toxic equivalent concentration (sigma TEC), were observed in gas, particulate and residue phases after treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry
  16. Guangul FM, Sulaiman SA, Ramli A
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Dec;126:224-32.
    PMID: 23073112 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.09.018
    Oil palm frond biomass is abundantly available in Malaysia, but underutilized. In this study, gasifiers were evaluated based on the available literature data and downdraft gasifiers were found to be the best option for the study of oil palm fronds gasification. A downdraft gasifier was constructed with a novel height adjustment mechanism for changing the position of gasifying air and steam inlet. The oil palm fronds gasification results showed that preheating the gasifying air improved the volumetric percentage of H(2) from 8.47% to 10.53%, CO from 22.87% to 24.94%, CH(4) from 2.02% to 2.03%, and higher heating value from 4.66 to 5.31 MJ/Nm(3) of the syngas. In general, the results of the current study demonstrated that oil palm fronds can be used as an alternative energy source in the energy diversification plan of Malaysia through gasification, along with, the resulting syngas quality can be improved by preheating the gasifying air.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry*
  17. Dahlan I, Lee KT, Kamaruddin AH, Mohamed AR
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Jan 15;161(1):570-4.
    PMID: 18462871 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.03.097
    This paper examines the effectiveness of 10 additives toward improving SO2 sorption capacities (SSC) of rice husk ash (RHA)/lime (CaO) sorbent. The additives examined are NaOH, CaCl2, LiCl, NaHCO3, NaBr, BaCl2, KOH, K2HPO4, FeCl3 and MgCl2. Most of the additives tested increased the SSC of RHA/CaO sorbent, whereby NaOH gave highest SSC (30mg SO2/g sorbent) at optimum concentration (0.25mol/l) compared to other additives examined. The SSC of RHA/CaO sorbent prepared with NaOH addition was also increases from 17.2 to 39.5mg SO2/g sorbent as the water vapor increases from 0% RH to 80% RH. This is probably due to the fact that most of additives tested act as deliquescent material, and its existence increases the amount of water collected on the surface of the sorbent, which played an important role in the reaction between the dry-type sorbent and SO2. Although most of the additives were shown to have positive effect on the SSC of the RHA/CaO sorbent, some were found to have negative or insignificant effect. Thus, this study demonstrates that proper selection of additives can improve the SSC of RHA/CaO sorbent significantly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry*
  18. Lahijani P, Zainal ZA, Mohamed AR, Mohammadi M
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 Mar;132:351-5.
    PMID: 23195653 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.10.092
    Palm empty fruit bunch ash (EFB-ash) was used as a natural catalyst, rich in potassium to enhance the CO2 gasification reactivity of palm shell char (PS-char). Various EFB-ash loadings (ranging from 0 to 12.5wt.%) were implemented to improve the reactivity of PS-char during CO2 gasification studies using thermogravimetric analysis. The achieved results explored that the highest gasification reactivity was devoted to 10% EFB-ash loaded char. The SEM-EDS and XRD analyses further confirmed the successful loading of EFB-ash on PS-char which contributed to promoting the gasification reactivity of char. Random pore model was applied to determine the kinetic parameters in catalytic gasification of char at various temperatures of 800-900°C. The dependence of char reaction rate on gasification temperature resulted in a straight line in Arrhenius-type plot, from which the activation energy of 158.75kJ/mol was obtained for the catalytic char gasification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/chemistry*
  19. Rafieerad AR, Ashra MR, Mahmoodian R, Bushroa AR
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Dec 1;57:397-413.
    PMID: 26354281 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.07.058
    In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasma Gases/chemistry*
  20. Hashim SA, Samsudin FN, Wong CS, Abu Bakar K, Yap SL, Mohd Zin MF
    Arch Biochem Biophys, 2016 09 01;605:34-40.
    PMID: 27056469 DOI: 10.1016/j.abb.2016.03.032
    A modular typed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device is designed and tested for air and water remediation. The module is made of a number of DBD tubes that can be arranged in series or parallel. Each of the DBD tubes comprises inner electrode enclosed with dielectric barrier and arranged as such to provide a gap for the passage of gases. Non-thermal plasma generated in the gap effectively creates gaseous chemical reactions. Its efficacy in the remediation of gas stream containing high NOx, similar to diesel emission and wastewater containing latex, are presented. A six tubes DBD module has successfully removed more than 80% of nitric oxide from the gas stream. In another arrangement, oxygen was fed into a two tubes DBD to generate ozone for treatment of wastewater. Samples of wastewater were collected from a treatment pond of a rubber vulcanization pilot plant. The water pollution load was evaluated by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) values. Preliminary results showed some improvement (about 13%) on the COD after treatment and at the same time had increased the BOD5 by 42%. This results in higher BOD5/COD ratio after ozonation which indicate better biodegradability of the wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasma Gases/chemistry*
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