Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 54 in total

  1. Balakrishnan DD, Kumar SG
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:219.
    PMID: 24886677 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-219
    Biochemical evidence of a caspase-like execution pathway has been demonstrated in a variety of protozoan parasites, including Blastocystis spp. The distinct differences in the phenotypic characterization reported previously have prompted us to compare the rate of apoptosis in Blastocystis spp. isolated from individuals who were symptomatic and asymptomatic. In the current study, we analysed the caspase activation involved in PCD mediated by a cytotoxic drug, (metronidazole) in both symptomatic & asymptomatic isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/physiology
  2. Thevarajoo S, Selvaratnam C, Chan KG, Goh KM, Chong CS
    Mar Genomics, 2015 Oct;23:49-50.
    PMID: 25957696 DOI: 10.1016/j.margen.2015.04.009
    Type strain Vitellibacter vladivostokensis KMM 3516(T) (=NBRC 16718(T)) belongs to the phylum Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides. To date, no genomes of the Vitellibacter spp. have been reported, and their metabolic pathways are unknown. This study reports the draft genome sequence of V. vladivostokensis. Moreover, mining of genes associated with proteolytic enzymes was performed to provide insights for further enzyme characterization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/physiology
  3. Al-Nema MY, Gaurav A
    Curr Top Med Chem, 2019;19(7):555-564.
    PMID: 30931862 DOI: 10.2174/1568026619666190401113803
    BACKGROUND: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that play a key role in terminating cyclic nucleotides signalling by catalysing the hydrolysis of 3', 5'- cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and/or 3', 5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), the second messengers within the cell that transport the signals produced by extracellular signalling molecules which are unable to get into the cells. However, PDEs are proteins which do not operate alone but in complexes that made up of a many proteins.

    OBJECTIVE: This review highlights some of the general characteristics of PDEs and focuses mainly on the Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) of selected PDE enzymes. The objective is to review the role of PPIs in the specific mechanism for activation and thereby regulation of certain biological functions of PDEs.

    METHODS: The article discusses some of the PPIs of selected PDEs as reported in recent scientific literature. These interactions are critical for understanding the biological role of the target PDE.

    RESULTS: The PPIs have shown that each PDE has a specific mechanism for activation and thereby regulation a certain biological function.

    CONCLUSION: Targeting of PDEs to specific regions of the cell is based on the interaction with other proteins where each PDE enzyme binds with specific protein(s) via PPIs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/physiology*
  4. Raftari M, Ghafourian S, Bakar FA
    J Dairy Res, 2013 Nov;80(4):490-5.
    PMID: 24063299 DOI: 10.1017/S0022029913000435
    The dairy industry uses lipase extensively for hydrolysis of milk fat. Lipase is used in the modification of the fatty acid chain length, to enhance the flavours of various chesses. Therefore finding the unlimited source of lipase is a concern of dairy industry. Due to the importance of lipase, this study was an attempt to express the lipase from Burkholderia cepacia in Lactococcus lactis. To achieve this, a gene associated with lipase transport was amplified and subcloned in inducible pNZ8148 vector, and subsequently transformed into Lc. lactis NZ9000. The enzyme assay as well as SDS-PAGE and western blotting were carried out to analysis the recombinant lipase expression. Nucleotide sequencing of the DNA insert from the clone revealed that the lipase activity corresponded to an open reading frame consisting of 1092 bp coding for a 37·5-kDa size protein. Blue colour colonies on nile blue sulphate agar and sharp band on 37·5-kD size on SDS-PAGE and western blotting results confirm the successful expression of lipase by Lc. lactis. The protein assay also showed high expression, approximately 152·2 μg/ml.h, of lipase by recombinant Lc. lactis. The results indicate that Lc. lactis has high potential to overproduce the recombinant lipase which can be used commercially for industrially purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/physiology*
  5. Ahmad TA, Jubri Z, Rajab NF, Rahim KA, Yusof YA, Makpol S
    Molecules, 2013 Feb 11;18(2):2200-11.
    PMID: 23434870 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18022200
    The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v) for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy) of gamma rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Gamma-irradiation was shown to down-regulate SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPx1 gene expressions (p < 0.05). Conversely, HDFs treated with Gelam honey alone showed up-regulation of all genes studied. Similarly, SOD, CAT and GPx enzyme activities in HDFs decreased with gamma-irradiation and increased when cells were treated with Gelam honey (p < 0.05). Furthermore, of the three different stages of study treatment, pre-treatment with Gelam honey caused up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT genes expression and increased the activity of SOD and CAT. As a conclusion, Gelam honey modulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes at gene and protein levels in irradiated HDFs indicating its potential as a radioprotectant agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/radiation effects
  6. Poli A, Abdul-Hamid S, Zaurito AE, Campagnoli F, Bevilacqua V, Sheth B, et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2021 08 03;118(31).
    PMID: 34312224 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2010053118
    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play fundamental roles in maintaining peripheral tolerance to prevent autoimmunity and limit legitimate immune responses, a feature hijacked in tumor microenvironments in which the recruitment of Tregs often extinguishes immune surveillance through suppression of T-effector cell signaling and tumor cell killing. The pharmacological tuning of Treg activity without impacting on T conventional (Tconv) cell activity would likely be beneficial in the treatment of various human pathologies. PIP4K2A, 2B, and 2C constitute a family of lipid kinases that phosphorylate PtdIns5P to PtdIns(4,5)P 2 They are involved in stress signaling, act as synthetic lethal targets in p53-null tumors, and in mice, the loss of PIP4K2C leads to late onset hyperinflammation. Accordingly, a human single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the PIP4K2C gene is linked with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. How PIP4Ks impact on human T cell signaling is not known. Using ex vivo human primary T cells, we found that PIP4K activity is required for Treg cell signaling and immunosuppressive activity. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of PIP4K in Tregs reduces signaling through the PI3K, mTORC1/S6, and MAPK pathways, impairs cell proliferation, and increases activation-induced cell death while sparing Tconv. PIP4K and PI3K signaling regulate the expression of the Treg master transcriptional activator FOXP3 and the epigenetic signaling protein Ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1). Our studies suggest that the pharmacological inhibition of PIP4K can reprogram human Treg identity while leaving Tconv cell signaling and T-helper differentiation to largely intact potentially enhancing overall immunological activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/immunology; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/physiology
  7. Tiong KH, Yiap BC, Tan EL, Ismail R, Ong CE
    Xenobiotica, 2010 Jul;40(7):458-66.
    PMID: 20402563 DOI: 10.3109/00498251003786749
    1. The effect of flavonoids on coumarin 7-hydroxylation, an activity marker of an important human liver cytochrome P450 isoform, cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6), was investigated in this study. 2. Coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity was measured fluorometrically in reaction mixtures containing cDNA-expressed CYP2A6, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate generating system and 10 uM coumarin, at various concentrations of flavonoids. 3. Among the 23 compounds tested, most of the active members were from flavonol group of hydroxylated flavonoids, with myricetin being the most potent inhibitor followed by quercetin, galangin, and kaempferol. 4. Further exploration of the inhibition mechanism of these compounds revealed that myricetin, galangin, and kaempferol exhibited mixed-type of inhibition pattern while quercetin was observed to exhibit competitive mode of inhibition. 5. Structure-function analyses revealed that degree of inhibition was closely related to the number and location of hydroxyl groups, glycosylation of the free hydroxyl groups, degree of saturation of the flavane nucleus as well as the presence of the alkoxylated function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects*
  8. Tan SH, Chung HH, Shu-Chien AC
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2010 Mar 12;393(3):397-403.
    PMID: 20138842 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.01.130
    Despite the known importance of long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) during development, very little is known about their utilization and biosynthesis during embryogenesis. Combining the advantages of the existence of a complete range of enzymes required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis and the well established developmental biology tools in zebrafish, we examined the expression patterns of three LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes, Elovl2-like elongase (elovl2), Elovl5-like elongase (elovl5) and fatty acyl desaturase (fad) in different zebrafish developmental stages. The presence of all three genes in the brain as early as 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) implies LC-PUFA synthesis activity in the embryonic brain. This expression eventually subsides from 72 hpf onwards, coinciding with the initiation of elovl2 and fad expression in the liver and intestine, 2 organs known to be involved in adult fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, these patterns strongly suggest the necessity for localized production of LC-PUFA in the brain during in early stage embryos prior to the maturation of the liver and intestine. Interestingly, we also showed a specific expression of elovl5 in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the zebrafish pronephros, suggesting a possible new role for LC-PUFA in kidney development and function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*
  9. Ahmad A, Sattar MA, Rathore HA, Abdulla MH, Khan SA, Azam M, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0150137.
    PMID: 26963622 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150137
    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an emerging molecule in many cardiovascular complications but its role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is unknown. The present study explored the effect of exogenous H2S administration in the regression of LVH by modulating oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and expression of cystathione γ lyase (CSE) in the myocardium. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, LVH, Control-H2S and LVH-H2S. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5mg/kg, every 72 hours, S/C) and caffeine in drinking water (62mg/L) for 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal NaHS, 56μM/kg/day for 5 weeks, was given as an H2S donor. Myocardial expression of Cystathione γ lyase (CSE) mRNA was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).There was a 3 fold reduction in the expression of myocardial CSE mRNA in LVH but it was up regulated by 7 and 4 fold in the Control-H2S and LVH-H2S myocardium, respectively. Systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity were reduced (all P<0.05) in LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Heart, LV weight, myocardial thickness were reduced while LV internal diameter was increased (all P<0.05) in the LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S in LVH increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity but significantly reduced (all P<0.05) plasma malanodialdehyde in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group. The renal cortical blood perfusion increased by 40% in LVH-H2S as compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S suppressed the progression of LVH which was associated with an up regulation of myocardial CSE mRNA/ H2S and a reduction in pulse wave velocity with a blunting of systemic hemodynamic. This CSE/H2S pathway exhibits an antihypertrophic role by antagonizing the hypertrophic actions of angiotensin II(Ang II) and noradrenaline (NA) but attenuates oxidative stress and improves pulse wave velocity which helps to suppress LVH. Exogenous administration of H2S augmented the reduced renal cortical blood perfusion in the LVH state.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects*
  10. Ariffin NM, Islahudin F, Kumolosasi E, Makmor-Bakry M
    Parasitol Res, 2019 Mar;118(3):1011-1018.
    PMID: 30706164 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-019-06210-3
    Eliminating the Plasmodium vivax malaria parasite infection remains challenging. One of the main problems is its capacity to form hypnozoites that potentially lead to recurrent infections. At present, primaquine is the only drug used for the management of hypnozoites. However, the effects of primaquine may differ from one individual to another. The aim of this work is to determine new measures to reduce P. vivax recurrence, through primaquine metabolism and host genetics. A genetic study of MAO-A, CYP2D6, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 and their roles in primaquine metabolism was undertaken of healthy volunteers (n = 53). The elimination rate constant (Ke) and the metabolite-to-parent drug concentration ratio (Cm/Cp) were obtained to assess primaquine metabolism. Allelic and genotypic analysis showed that polymorphisms MAO-A (rs6323, 891G>T), CYP2D6 (rs1065852, 100C>T) and CYP2C19 (rs4244285, 19154G>A) significantly influenced primaquine metabolism. CYP1A2 (rs762551, -163C>A) did not influence primaquine metabolism. In haplotypic analysis, significant differences in Ke (p = 0.00) and Cm/Cp (p = 0.05) were observed between individuals with polymorphisms, GG-MAO-A (891G>T), CT-CYP2D6 (100C>T) and GG-CYP2C19 (19154G>A), and individuals with polymorphisms, TT-MAO-A (891G>T), TT-CYP2D6 (100C>T) and AA-CYP2C19 (19154G>A), as well as polymorphisms, GG-MAO-A (891G>T), TT-CYP2D6 (100C>T) and GA-CYP2C19 (19154G>A). Thus, individuals with CYP2D6 polymorphisms had slower primaquine metabolism activity. The potential significance of genetic roles in primaquine metabolism and exploration of these might help to further optimise the management of P. vivax infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects
  11. Gill HK, Kumar HC, Cheng CK, Ming CC, Nallusamy R, Yusoff NM, et al.
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2013 Jun;31(2):167-72.
    PMID: 23859418 DOI: 10.12932/AP0274.31.2.2013
    BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency (PID) caused by a dysfunctional respiratory burst enzyme NADPH-oxidase. The concurrence of Klinefelter’s Syndrome (KS) and CGD would be extremely rare.
    OBJECTIVE: We describe the study of a family where the youngest male child had X-linked CGD (X-CGD) while his older brother was both an X-CGD carrier and a Klinefelter.
    METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to study respiratory burst and gp91-phox expression, while genetic investigation was done by RT-PCR, PCR and X-chromosome short tandem repeat (X-STR) analysis.
    RESULTS: The Dihydrorhodamine (DHR) assay showed the patient’s neutrophils failed to produce a respiratory burst, while both the mother and an older brother showed a bimodal response. gp91-phox expression was absent in the patient’s neutrophils, and bimodal in the mother’s and brother’s neutrophils. The patient’s cDNA showed a C>T change at nucleotide 676 of the CYBB gene. The same change was seen in the patient’s gDNA, while the brother and mother were heterozygous, with C and T, in this position. The c.676C>T is a nonsense mutation that leads to premature termination of the gp91-phox protein. The brother karyotyped as 47, XXY and X chromosome analysis showed that he had inherited both his mother’s X chromosomes.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the patient had gp91-phox deficient CGD while his older brother was a CGD carrier and a Klinefelter, who had inherited both his mother’s X chromosomes. This is the first report of such a concurrence in an individual, and argues for family members to be included in PID studies.
    Key words: Chronic granulomatous disease, CYBB, gp91-phox, Klinefelter’s syndrome NADPHoxidase
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/genetics
  12. Arockiaraj J, Easwvaran S, Vanaraja P, Singh A, Othman RY, Bhassu S
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2012 Jan;32(1):161-9.
    PMID: 22119573 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2011.11.006
    Caspase 3c (MrCasp3c) was sequenced from the freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrCasp3c consisted of 2080 bp nucleotide encoded 521 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 59 kDa. MrCasp3c sequence contains caspase family p20 domain profile and caspase family p10 domain profile at 236-367 and 378-468 respectively. The quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed a broad expression of MrCasp3c with the highest expression in haemocyte and the lowest in stomach. The expression of MrCasp3c after challenge with the infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was tested in haemocyte. In addition, MrCasp3c was expressed in Escherichia coli by prokaryotic expression plasmid pMAL-c2x. The enzyme activity of MrCasp3c was also found to be up-regulated by IHHNV in haemocyte and hepatopancreas tissues. This study suggested that MrCasp3c may be an effector caspase associated with the induction of apoptosis which is potentially involved in the immune defence of M. rosenbergii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*
  13. Chia YY, Liong SY, Ton SH, Kadir KB
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2012 Feb 29;677(1-3):197-202.
    PMID: 22227336 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.12.037
    The activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) are influenced by active glucocorticoids which are activated by 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) while hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) influences the activities of 11-βHSD1 in a cofactor manner. Dysregulation of PEPCK and H6PDH has been associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Sixteen male Sprague Dawley rats, fed ad libitum, were assigned to two groups, control and treated, with the treated group being given GA at 100mg/kg for one week. Blood and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, abdominal and quadriceps femoris muscle, liver and kidney were examined. GA treatment led to an overall significant decrease in blood glucose while HOMA-IR. PEPCK activities decreased in the liver but increased in the visceral adipose tissue. H6PDH activities also decreased significantly in the liver while 11β-HSD1 activities decreased significantly in all studied tissues except for subcutaneous adipose tissue. Adipocytes in the subcutaneous and visceral depots showed a reduction in size. Though increased glycogen storage was seen in the liver, no changes were observed in the kidneys and muscles. Results from this study may imply that GA could counteract the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by improving insulin sensitivity and probably by reduction of H6PDH, 11β-HSD1 and a selective decrease in PEPCK activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects
  14. Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS, Salam SK, Salleh MS, Gurtu S
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(5):2056-66.
    PMID: 20559501 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11052056
    Hyperglycemia exerts toxic effects on the pancreatic beta-cells. This study investigated the hypothesis that the common antidiabetic drugs glibenclamide and metformin, in combination with tualang honey, offer additional protection for the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats against oxidative stress and damage. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg; ip). Diabetic rats had significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), up-regulated activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) while catalase (CAT) activity was significantly reduced. Glibenclamide and metformin produced no significant effects on TBARS and antioxidant enzymes except GPx in diabetic rats. In contrast, the combination of glibenclamide, metformin and honey significantly up-regulated CAT activity and down-regulated GPx activity while TBARS levels were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that tualang honey potentiates the effect of glibenclamide and metformin to protect diabetic rat pancreas against oxidative stress and damage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects
  15. Ooi JP, Kuroyanagi M, Sulaiman SF, Muhammad TS, Tan ML
    Life Sci, 2011 Feb 28;88(9-10):447-54.
    PMID: 21219911 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2010.12.019
    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have been implicated in a large number of preventable drug-herb interactions. Andrographis paniculata Nees, a tropical herb widely used for various health conditions contains two major diterpenoids, andrographolide and 14-Deoxy-11, 12-Didehydroandrographolide. These compounds were evaluated systematically for their effects on CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 expressions in HepG2 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects
  16. Zainal Z, Sajari R, Ismail I
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Biophys., 2002 Dec;6(6):415-9.
    PMID: 14972797
    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is an enzyme of one of the two pathways of putrescine biosynthesis in plants. The genes encoding ODC have previously been cloned from Datura stramonium and human. Using differential screening, we isolated ODC cDNA clone from a cDNA library of ripening Capsicum annuum fruit. The cDNA clone designated CUKM10 contains an insert of 1523 bp. The longest open reading frame potentially encodes a peptide of 345 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 47 kDa and exhibit striking similarity to other ODCs. Expression analysis showed that the capODC hybridised to a single transcript with a size of 1.7 kb. The capODC transcript was first observed in early ripening and increased steadily until it reached fully ripening stage. From the observation it is suggested that capODC is developmentally regulated especially during later stage of ripening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/genetics
  17. Kahar UM, Ng CL, Chan KG, Goh KM
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2016 Jul;100(14):6291-307.
    PMID: 27000839 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-7451-6
    Type I pullulanases are enzymes that specifically hydrolyse α-1,6 linkages in polysaccharides. This study reports the analyses of a novel type I pullulanase (PulASK) from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4. Purified PulASK (molecular mass of 80 kDa) was stable at pH 5.0-6.0 and was most active at pH 6.0. The optimum temperature for PulASK was 60 °C, and the enzyme was reasonably stable at this temperature. Pullulan was the preferred substrate for PulASK, with 89.90 % adsorbance efficiency (various other starches, 56.26-72.93 % efficiency). Similar to other type I pullulanases, maltotriose was formed on digestion of pullulan by PulASK. PulASK also reacted with β-limit dextrin, a sugar rich in short branches, and formed maltotriose, maltotetraose and maltopentaose. Nevertheless, PulASK was found to preferably debranch long branches at α-1,6 glycosidic bonds of starch, producing amylose, linear or branched oligosaccharides, but was nonreactive against short branches; thus, no reducing sugars were detected. This is surprising as all currently known type I pullulanases produce reducing sugars (predominantly maltotriose) on digesting starch. The closest homologue of PulASK (95 % identity) is a type I pullulanase from Anoxybacillus sp. LM14-2 (Pul-LM14-2), which is capable of forming reducing sugars from starch. With rational design, amino acids 362-370 of PulASK were replaced with the corresponding sequence of Pul-LM14-2. The mutant enzyme formed reducing sugars on digesting starch. Thus, we identified a novel motif involved in substrate specificity in type I pullulanases. Our characterization may pave the way for the industrial application of this unique enzyme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*
  18. Rostam MA, Shajimoon A, Kamato D, Mitra P, Piva TJ, Getachew R, et al.
    J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 2018 04;365(1):156-164.
    PMID: 29438988 DOI: 10.1124/jpet.117.244483
    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic growth factor implicated in the development of atherosclerosis for its role in mediating glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain hyperelongation on the proteoglycan biglycan, a phenomenon that increases the binding of atherogenic lipoproteins in the vessel wall. Phosphorylation of the transcription factor Smad has emerged as a critical step in the signaling pathways that control the synthesis of biglycan, both the core protein and the GAG chains. We have used flavopiridol, a well-known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, to study the role of linker region phosphorylation in the TGF-β-stimulated synthesis of biglycan. We used radiosulfate incorporation and SDS-PAGE to assess proteoglycan synthesis, real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess gene expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation to assess the binding of Smads to the promoter region of GAG Synthesizing genes. Flavopiridol blocked TGF-β-stimulated synthesis of mRNA for the GAG synthesizing enzymes, and chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase (C4ST-1), chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (ChSy-1) and TGF-β-mediated proteoglycans synthesis as well as GAG hyperelongation. Flavopiridol blocked TGF-β-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation at both the serine triplet and the isolated threonine residue in the linker region. The binding of Smad to the promoter region of the C4ST-1 and ChSy-1 genes was stimulated by TGF-β, and this response was blocked by flavopiridol, demonstrating that linker region phosphorylated Smad can pass to the nucleus and positively regulate transcription. These results demonstrate the validity of the kinases, which phosphorylate the Smad linker region as potential therapeutic target(s) for the development of an agent to prevent atherosclerosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects
  19. Gandhi S, Salleh AB, Rahman RN, Chor Leow T, Oslan SN
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:529059.
    PMID: 26090417 DOI: 10.1155/2015/529059
    Geobacillus stearothermophilus SR74 is a locally isolated thermophilic bacteria producing thermostable and thermoactive α-amylase. Increased production and commercialization of thermostable α-amylase strongly warrant the need of a suitable expression system. In this study, the gene encoding the thermostable α-amylase in G. stearothermophilus SR74 was amplified, sequenced, and subcloned into P. pastoris GS115 strain under the control of a methanol inducible promoter, alcohol oxidase (AOX). Methanol induced recombinant expression and secretion of the protein resulted in high levels of extracellular amylase production. YPTM medium supplemented with methanol (1% v/v) was the best medium and once optimized, the maximum recombinant α-amylase SR74 achieved in shake flask was 28.6 U mL(-1) at 120 h after induction. The recombinant 59 kDa α-amylase SR74 was purified 1.9-fold using affinity chromatography with a product yield of 52.6% and a specific activity of 151.8 U mg(-1). The optimum pH of α-amylase SR74 was 7.0 and the enzyme was stable between pH 6.0-8.0. The purified enzyme was thermostable and thermoactive, exhibiting maximum activity at 65°C with a half-life (t₁/₂) of 88 min at 60°C. In conclusion, thermostable α-amylase SR74 from G. stearothermophilus SR74 would be beneficial for industrial applications, especially in liquefying saccrification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  20. Deng S, Mai Y, Niu J
    Gene, 2019 Mar 20;689:131-140.
    PMID: 30576805 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.12.016
    Citrus maxima "seedless" is originally from Malaysia, and now is widely cultivated in Hainan province, China. The essential features of this cultivar are thin skin, green epicarp and seedless at the ripening stage. Here, using C. maxima "seedless" as experimental material, we investigated the physical and inclusion indicators, and found the accumulation of storage compounds during 120-210 DAF leading to inconsistent increase between volume and weight. Component analysis of soluble sugar indicated that arabinose and xylose have a high content in early development of pummelo juice sacs (PJS), whereas fructose, glucose and sucrose show a significant increase during PJS maturation. To clarify a global overview of the gene expressing profiles, the PJSs from four periods (60, 120, 180 and 240 DAF) were selected for comparative transcriptome analysis. The resulting 8275 unigenes showed differential expression during PJS development. Also, the stability of 11 housekeeping genes were evaluated by geNorm method, resulting in a set of five genes (UBC, ACT, OR23, DWA2 and CYP21D) used as control for normalization of gene expression. Based on transcriptome data, 5 sucrose synthases (SUSs) and 10 invertases (INVs) were identified to be involved in sucrose degradation. Importantly, SUS4 may be responsible for arabinose and xylose biosynthesis to form the cell wall in early development, while SUS3 and VIN2 may be important in the accumulation of soluble hexose leading to cell expansion through an osmotic-independent pathway in late development. The information provides valuable metabolite and genetic resources in C. maxima "seedless", and is important for achieving high fruit yield and quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
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