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  1. Tan CW, Poh CL, Sam IC, Chan YF
    J Virol, 2013 Jan;87(1):611-20.
    PMID: 23097443 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02226-12
    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are usually associated with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children but have been reported to cause severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. To date, four EV-71 receptors have been identified, but inhibition of these receptors by antagonists did not completely abolish EV-71 infection, implying that there is an as yet undiscovered receptor(s). Since EV-71 has a wide range of tissue tropisms, we hypothesize that EV-71 infections may be facilitated by using receptors that are widely expressed in all cell types, such as heparan sulfate. In this study, heparin, polysulfated dextran sulfate, and suramin were found to significantly prevent EV-71 infection. Heparin inhibited infection by all the EV-71 strains tested, including those with a single-passage history. Neutralization of the cell surface anionic charge by polycationic poly-d-lysine and blockage of heparan sulfate by an anti-heparan sulfate peptide also inhibited EV-71 infection. Interference with heparan sulfate biosynthesis either by sodium chlorate treatment or through transient knockdown of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 and exostosin-1 expression reduced EV-71 infection in RD cells. Enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by heparinase I/II/III inhibited EV-71 infection. Furthermore, the level of EV-71 attachment to CHO cell lines that are variably deficient in cell surface glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower than that to wild-type CHO cells. Direct binding of EV-71 particles to heparin-Sepharose columns under physiological salt conditions was demonstrated. We conclude that EV-71 infection requires initial binding to heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism*
  2. Naveen SV, Ahmad RE, Hui WJ, Suhaeb AM, Murali MR, Shanmugam R, et al.
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(1):97-105.
    PMID: 24396291 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.6964
    Monosodium -iodoacetate (MIA)-induced animal model of osteoarthritis (OA) is under-utilised despite having many inherent advantages. At present, there is lack of studies that directly compare the degenerative changes induced by MIA with the surgical osteoarthritis induction method and human osteoarthritis, which would further verify a greater use of this model. Therefore, we compared the histological, biochemical and biomechanical characteristics in rat model using MIA against the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and human cartilage with clinically established osteoarthritis. The right knees of Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either MIA or ACLT (n=18 in each group). Six rats were used as controls. Human cartilage samples were collected and compared from patients clinically diagnosed with (n=7) and without osteoarthritis (n=3). Histological, biochemical (Glycosaminoglycans/total protein) and biomechanical (cartilage stiffness) evaluations were performed at the end of the 1(st) and 2(nd) week after OA induction. For human samples, evaluations were performed at the time of sampling. Histopathological changes in the MIA group were comparable to that observed in the ACLT group and human OA. The Mankin scores of the 3 groups were comparable (MIA: 11.5 ± 1.0; ACLT: 10.1 ± 1.1; human OA: 13.2 ± 0.8). Comparable reduction in Glycosaminoglycan/total protein content in the intervention groups were observed (MIA: 7 ± 0.6; ACLT: 6.6 ± 0.5; human OA: 3.1 ± 0.7). Cartilage stiffness score were 24.2 ± 15.3 Mpa for MIA, 25.3 ± 4.8 for ACLT and 0.5 ± 0.0 Mpa for human OA. The MIA model produces comparable degenerative changes to ACLT and human OA with the advantage of being rapid, minimally invasive and reproducible. Therefore, wider utilisation of MIA as animal translational OA model should perhaps be advocated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism*
  3. Krishnamurithy G, Shilpa PN, Ahmad RE, Sulaiman S, Ng CL, Kamarul T
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2011 Dec 01;99(3):500-6.
    PMID: 21913317 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.33184
    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is an established biomaterial used in many clinical applications. However, its use for tissue engineering purposes has not been fully realized. A study was therefore conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using HAM as a chondrocyte substrate/carrier. HAMs were obtained from fresh human placenta and were process to produced air dried HAM (AdHAM) and freeze dried HAM (FdHAM). Rabbit chondrocytes were isolated and expanded in vitro and seeded onto these preparations. Cell proliferation, GAG expression and GAG/cell expression were measured at days 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 21, and 28. These were compared to chondrocytes seeded onto plastic surfaces. Histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe cell attachment. There was significantly higher cell proliferation rates observed between AdHAM (13-51%, P=0.001) or FdHAM (18-48%, p = 0.001) to chondrocytes in monolayer. Similarly, GAG and GAG/cell expressed in AdHAM (33-82%, p = 0.001; 22-60%, p = 0.001) or FdHAM (41-81%, p = 0.001: 28-60%, p = 0.001) were significantly higher than monolayer cultures. However, no significant differences were observed in the proliferation rates (p = 0.576), GAG expression (p = 0.476) and GAG/cell expression (p = 0.135) between AdHAM and FdHAM. The histology and scanning electron microscopy assessments demonstrates good chondrocyte attachments on both HAMs. In conclusion, both AdHAM and FdHAM provide superior chondrocyte proliferation, GAG expression, and attachment than monolayer cultures making it a potential substrate/carrier for cell based cartilage therapy and transplantation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  4. Kamarul T, Selvaratnam L, Masjuddin T, Ab-Rahim S, Ng C, Chan KY, et al.
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2008 Aug;16(2):230-6.
    PMID: 18725678
    To compare the efficacy of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) versus non-operative measures for cartilage repair in rabbits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  5. Jamil K, Chua KH, Joudi S, Ng SL, Yahaya NH
    J Orthop Surg Res, 2015;10:27.
    PMID: 25889942 DOI: 10.1186/s13018-015-0166-z
    Functional tissue engineering has emerged as a potential means for treatment of cartilage defect. Development of a stable cartilage composite is considered to be a good option. The aim of the study was to observe whether the incorporation of cultured chondrocytes on porous tantalum utilizing fibrin as a cell carrier would promote cartilage tissue formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  6. Yusof F, Sha'ban M, Azhim A
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:5491-5502.
    PMID: 31410000 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S207270
    Purpose: Meniscus is a fibrocartilagenous tissue that cannot effectively heal due to its complex structure and presence of avascular zone. Thus, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine offer an alternative for the regeneration of meniscus tissues using bioscaffolds as a replacement for the damaged one. The aim of this study was to prepare an ideal meniscus bioscaffold with minimal adverse effect on extracellular matrix components (ECMs) using a sonication treatment system.

    Methods: The decellularization was achieved using a developed closed sonication treatment system for 10 hrs, and continued with a washing process for 5 days. For the control, a simple immersion treatment was set as a benchmark to compare the decellularization efficiency. Histological and biochemical assays were conducted to investigate the cell removal and retention of the vital extracellular matrix. Surface ultrastructure of the prepared scaffolds was evaluated using scanning electron microscope at 5,000× magnification viewed from cross and longitudinal sections. In addition, the biomechanical properties were investigated through ball indentation testing to study the stiffness, residual forces and compression characteristics. Statistical significance between the samples was determined with p-value =0.05.

    Results: Histological and biochemical assays confirmed the elimination of antigenic cellular components with the retention of the vital extracellular matrix within the sonicated scaffolds. However, there was a significant removal of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. The surface histoarchitecture portrayed the preserved collagen fibril orientation and arrangement. However, there were minor disruptions on the structure, with few empty micropores formed which represented cell lacunae. The biomechanical properties of bioscaffolds showed the retention of viscoelastic behavior of the scaffolds which mimic native tissues. After immersion treatment, those scaffolds had poor results compared to the sonicated scaffolds due to the inefficiency of the treatment.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, this study reported that the closed sonication treatment system had high capabilities to prepare ideal bioscaffolds with excellent removal of cellular components, and retained extracellular matrix and biomechanical properties.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  7. Tay LX, Ahmad RE, Dashtdar H, Tay KW, Masjuddin T, Ab-Rahim S, et al.
    Am J Sports Med, 2012 Jan;40(1):83-90.
    PMID: 21917609 DOI: 10.1177/0363546511420819
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising alternative form of cell-based therapy for cartilage injury. However, the capacity of MSCs for chondrogenesis has not been fully explored. In particular, there is presently a lack of studies comparing the effectiveness of MSCs to conventional autologous chondrocyte (autoC) treatment for regeneration of full-thickness cartilage defects in vivo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  8. Tan SL, Sulaiman S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Selvaratnam L, Tai CC, Kamarul T
    Cell Tissue Bank, 2011 Feb;12(1):59-70.
    PMID: 19953328 DOI: 10.1007/s10561-009-9164-x
    This study investigates the feasibility of processed human amnion (HAM) as a substrate for chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). HAM preparations processed by air drying (AD) and freeze drying (FD) underwent histological examination and MSC seeding in chondrogenic medium for 15 days. Monolayer cultures were used as control for chondrogenic differentiation and HAMs without cell seeding were used as negative control. Qualitative observations were made using scanning electron microscopy analysis and quantitative analyses were based on the sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) assays performed on day 1 and day 15. Histological examination of HAM substrates before seeding revealed a smooth surface in AD substrates, while the FD substrates exhibited a porous surface. Cell attachment to AD and FD substrates on day 15 was qualitatively comparable. GAG were significantly highly expressed in cells seeded on FD HAM substrates. This study indicates that processed HAM is a potentially valuable material as a cell-carrier for MSC differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  9. Tilwani RK, Vessillier S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Lee DA, Bader DL, Chowdhury TT
    Inflamm Res, 2017 Jan;66(1):49-58.
    PMID: 27658702 DOI: 10.1007/s00011-016-0991-5
    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Oxygen tension and biomechanical signals are factors that regulate inflammatory mechanisms in chondrocytes. We examined whether low oxygen tension influenced the cells response to TNFα and dynamic compression.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chondrocyte/agarose constructs were treated with varying concentrations of TNFα (0.1-100 ng/ml) and cultured at 5 and 21 % oxygen tension for 48 h. In separate experiments, constructs were subjected to dynamic compression (15 %) and treated with TNFα (10 ng/ml) and/or L-NIO (1 mM) at 5 and 21 % oxygen tension using an ex vivo bioreactor for 48 h. Markers for catabolic activity (NO, PGE2) and tissue remodelling (GAG, MMPs) were quantified by biochemical assay. ADAMTS-5 and MMP-13 expression were examined by real-time qPCR. 2-way ANOVA and a post hoc Bonferroni-corrected t test were used to analyse data.

    RESULTS: TNFα dose-dependently increased NO, PGE2 and MMP activity (all p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  10. Ab-Rahim S, Selvaratnam L, Kamarul T
    Cell Biol Int, 2008 Jul;32(7):841-7.
    PMID: 18479947 DOI: 10.1016/j.cellbi.2008.03.016
    Articular cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in regulating chondrocyte functions via cell-matrix interaction, cytoskeletal organization and integrin-mediated signaling. Factors such as interleukins, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) have been shown to modulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix in vitro. However, the effects of TGF-beta1 and beta-estradiol in ECM regulation require further investigation, although there have been suggestions that these factors do play a positive role. To establish the role of these factors on chondrocytes derived from articular joints, a study was conducted to investigate the effects of TGF-beta1 and beta-estradiol on glycosaminoglycan secretion and type II collagen distribution (two major component of cartilage ECM in vivo). Thus, chondrocyte cultures initiated from rabbit articular cartilage were treated with 10ng/ml of TGF-beta1, 10nM of beta-estradiol or with a combination of both factors. Sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and type II collagen levels were then measured in both these culture systems. The results revealed that the synthesis of GAG and type II collagen was shown to be enhanced in the TGF-beta1 treated cultures. This increase was also noted when TGF-beta1 and beta-estradiol were both used as culture supplements. However, beta-estradiol alone did not appear to affect GAG or type II collagen deposition. There was also no difference between the amount of collagen type II and GAG being expressed when chondrocyte cultures were treated with TGF-beta1 when compared with cultures treated with combined factors. From this, we conclude that although TGF-beta1 appears to stimulate chondrocyte ECM synthesis, beta-estradiol fails to produce similar effects. The findings of this study confirm that contrary to previous claims, beta-estradiol has little or no effect on chondrocyte ECM synthesis. Furthermore, the use of TGF-beta1 may be useful in future studies looking into biological mechanisms by which ECM synthesis in chondrocyte cultures can be augmented, particularly for clinical application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism*
  11. Tay LX, Lim CK, Mansor A, Kamarul T
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(1):24-33.
    PMID: 24396283 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.7244
    This preliminary study aims to determine the differentially expressed proteins from chondrogenic differentiated multipotent stromal cells (cMSCs) in comparison to undifferentiated multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) and adult chondrocytes (ACs).
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  12. Ab-Rahim S, Selvaratnam L, Raghavendran HR, Kamarul T
    Mol. Cell. Biochem., 2013 Apr;376(1-2):11-20.
    PMID: 23238871 DOI: 10.1007/s11010-012-1543-0
    Tissue engineering approaches often require expansion of cell numbers in vitro to accelerate tissue regenerative processes. Although several studies have used this technique for therapeutic purposes, a major concern involving the use of isolated chondrocyte culture is the reduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) protein expressed due to the transfer of cells from the normal physiological milieu to the artificial 2D environment provided by the cell culture flasks. To overcome this issue, the use of alginate hydrogel beads as a substrate in chondrocyte cultures has been suggested. However, the resultant characteristics of cells embedded in this bead is elusive. To elucidate this, a study using chondrocytes isolated from rabbit knee articular cartilage expanded in vitro as monolayer and chondrocyte-alginate constructs was conducted. Immunohistochemical evaluation and ECM distribution was examined with or without transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) supplement to determine the ability of cells to express major chondrogenic proteins in these environments. Histological examination followed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was performed to determine the morphology and the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells. Results demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan/mg protein levels in chondrocyte cultures grown in alginate construct than in monolayer cultures. In addition, an abundance of ECM protein distribution surrounding chondrocytes cultured in alginate hydrogel was observed. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that the use of alginate hydrogel beads in chondrocyte cultures with or without TGF-β1 supplement provided superior ECM expression than monolayer cultures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  13. Bhaskar HN, Udupa SL, Udupa AL
    Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2005 Mar;43(3):294-6.
    PMID: 15816421
    Effect of two calcium channel blockers (CCBs) nifedipine and amlodipine, was studied on normal and steroid depressed wound healing in albino rats, using the dead space wound model. The drugs enhanced normal healing as evidenced by increase in tensile strength of 10 days old granulation tissue. There was neither a significant change in the hydroxyproline level (or collagen) nor a change in the glycosaminoglycan content in granulation tissue. However, lysyloxidase level was increased significantly. The increase in tensile strength could thus be attributed to better cross-linking and maturation of collagen rather than collagen synthesis per se. The drugs were also able to overcome steroid depressed wound healing. It is likely that the prohealing effects may be related to the improved antioxidant status too, since superoxide dismutase levels were observed to be higher in the CCB- treated animals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  14. Baie SH, Sheikh KA
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2000 Nov;73(1-2):15-30.
    PMID: 11025135
    Haruan has been proved to influence the different phases of wound healing process. The current research focuses on the effects of haruan on the different constituents of extracellular matrix of healing wounds in normal and diabetic rats. Anaesthetized normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were provided with excision wounds at the back and then animals were divided into four groups as: group 1, wounds treated with cetrimide+haruan cream; group 2, wounds treated with haruan cream; group 3, wounds treated with cetrimide (commercial) cream; and group 4, wounds untreated and served as control. Animals were sacrificed after 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. These wounds were used to determine the hexosamine, protein, uronic acid and glycosaminoglycan contents and the wound contraction. The results suggested a marked increase (P<0.05) in the uronic acid, hexosamine and dermatan sulfate contents on day 3 of group 1 when compared with groups 2-4. Wound contraction of group 1 was also markedly enhanced of group 1 (P<0.01) when compared with groups 2- 4. On the basis of these results, we conclude that haruan enhances the synthesis of different glycosaminoglycans in healing wounds, which are the first component of extracellular matrix to be synthesized during the wound healing process. The enhanced levels of glycosaminoglycans may help in the formation of a resistant scar and enhanced wound contraction represents the positive influence of haruan on the fibroplastic phase of wound healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism*
  15. Samuel S, Ahmad RE, Ramasamy TS, Karunanithi P, Naveen SV, Kamarul T
    Platelets, 2019;30(1):66-74.
    PMID: 29090639 DOI: 10.1080/09537104.2017.1371287
    Platelet-rich concentrate (PRC), used in conjunction with other chondroinductive growth factors, have been shown to induce chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) in pellet culture. However, pellet culture systems promote cell hypertrophy and the presence of other chondroinductive growth factors in the culture media used in previous studies obscures accurate determination of the effect of platelet itself in inducing chondrogenic differentiation. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of PRC alone in enhancing the chondrogenic differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) encapsulated in three-dimensional alginate constructs. Cells encapsulated in alginate were cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with only 15% PRC. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the cell morphology. Chondrogenic molecular signature of hMSCs was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and verified at protein levels via immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that the cells cultured in the presence of PRC for 24 days maintained a chondrocytic phenotype and demonstrated minimal upregulation of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) marker genes (SOX9, TNC, COL2, ACAN, COMP) and reduced expression of chondrocyte hypertrophy genes (Col X, Runx2) compared to the standard chondrogenic medium (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  16. Rostam MA, Shajimoon A, Kamato D, Mitra P, Piva TJ, Getachew R, et al.
    J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 2018 04;365(1):156-164.
    PMID: 29438988 DOI: 10.1124/jpet.117.244483
    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic growth factor implicated in the development of atherosclerosis for its role in mediating glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain hyperelongation on the proteoglycan biglycan, a phenomenon that increases the binding of atherogenic lipoproteins in the vessel wall. Phosphorylation of the transcription factor Smad has emerged as a critical step in the signaling pathways that control the synthesis of biglycan, both the core protein and the GAG chains. We have used flavopiridol, a well-known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, to study the role of linker region phosphorylation in the TGF-β-stimulated synthesis of biglycan. We used radiosulfate incorporation and SDS-PAGE to assess proteoglycan synthesis, real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess gene expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation to assess the binding of Smads to the promoter region of GAG Synthesizing genes. Flavopiridol blocked TGF-β-stimulated synthesis of mRNA for the GAG synthesizing enzymes, and chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase (C4ST-1), chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (ChSy-1) and TGF-β-mediated proteoglycans synthesis as well as GAG hyperelongation. Flavopiridol blocked TGF-β-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation at both the serine triplet and the isolated threonine residue in the linker region. The binding of Smad to the promoter region of the C4ST-1 and ChSy-1 genes was stimulated by TGF-β, and this response was blocked by flavopiridol, demonstrating that linker region phosphorylated Smad can pass to the nucleus and positively regulate transcription. These results demonstrate the validity of the kinases, which phosphorylate the Smad linker region as potential therapeutic target(s) for the development of an agent to prevent atherosclerosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  17. Dashtdar H, Rothan HA, Tay T, Ahmad RE, Ali R, Tay LX, et al.
    J Orthop Res, 2011 Sep;29(9):1336-42.
    PMID: 21445989 DOI: 10.1002/jor.21413
    Chondrogenic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (CMSCs) have been shown to produce superior chondrogenic expression markers in vitro. However, the use of these cells in vivo has not been fully explored. In this study, in vivo assessment of cartilage repair potential between allogenic-derived chondrogenic pre-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and undifferentiated MSCs (MSCs) were compared. Bilateral full thickness cartilage defects were created on the medial femoral condyles of 12 rabbits (n = 12). Rabbits were divided into two groups. In one group, the defects in the right knees were repaired using alginate encapsulated MSCs while in the second group, CMSCs were used. The animals were sacrificed and the repaired and control knees were assessed at 3 and 6 months after implantation. Quantitative analysis was performed by measuring the Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)/total protein content. The mean Brittberg score was higher in the transplanted knees as compared to the untreated knee at 6 months (p  0.05). This study demonstrates that the use of either MSC or CMSC produced superior healing when compared to cartilage defects that were untreated. However, both cells produced comparable treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  18. Chong PP, Selvaratnam L, Abbas AA, Kamarul T
    J Orthop Res, 2012 Apr;30(4):634-42.
    PMID: 21922534 DOI: 10.1002/jor.21556
    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cartilage repair has generated much interest owing to their multipotentiality. However, their significant presence in peripheral blood (PB) has been a matter of much debate. The objectives of this study are to isolate and characterize MSCs derived from PB and, compare their chondrogenic potential to MSC derived from bone marrow (BM). PB and BM derived MSCs from 20 patients were isolated and characterized. From 2 ml of PB and BM, 5.4 ± 0.6 million and 10.5 ± 0.8 million adherent cells, respectively, were obtained by cell cultures at passage 2. Both PB and BM derived MSCs were able to undergo tri-lineage differentiation and showed negative expression of CD34 and CD45, but positively expressed CD105, CD166, and CD29. Qualitative and quantitative examinations on the chondrogenic potential of PB and BM derived MSCs expressed similar cartilage specific gene (COMP) and proteoglycan levels, respectively. Furthermore, the s-GAG levels expressed by chondrogenic MSCs in cultures were similar to that of native chondrocytes. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MSCs from PB maintain similar characteristics and have similar chondrogenic differentiation potential to those derived from BM, while producing comparable s-GAG expressions to chondrocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  19. Kanwar JR, Samarasinghe RM, Kumar K, Arya R, Sharma S, Zhou SF, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:2927-40.
    PMID: 26089642 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S77369
    INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory mediators are key players in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and bone destruction. Conventional drugs suppress symptomatic activity and have no therapeutic influence on disease. Cissus quadrangularis and Withania somnifera are widely used for the treatment of bone fractures and wounds; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulated by these herbals are still unclear.

    METHODS: We established an in vitro OA culture model by exposing human chondrocytes to proinflammatory cytokine and interleukin (IL)-1β for 36 hours prior to treatment with the herbals: C. quadrangularis, W. somnifera, and the combination of the two herbals. Cell viability, toxicity, and gene expression of OA modifying agents were examined. In addition, expression of survivin, which is crucial for cell growth, was analyzed. In vivo work on osteotomized rats studied the bone and cartilage regenerative effects of C. quadrangularis, W. somnifera, and the combination therapy.

    RESULTS: Exposure of chondrocytes to IL-1β induced significant toxicity and cell death. However, herbal treatment alleviated IL-1β induced cell toxicity and upregulated cell growth and proliferation. C. quadrangularis inhibited gene expression of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, known to aggravate cartilage and bone destruction, and augmented expression of survivin by inhibiting p38 MAPK. Interestingly, osteotomized rats treated with C. quadrangularis drastically enhanced alkaline phosphatase and cartilage tissue formation as compared to untreated, W. somnifera only, or the combination of both herbals.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate for the first time the signaling mechanisms regulated by C. quadrangularis and W. somnifera in OA and osteogenesis. We suggest that the chondroprotective effects and regenerative ability of these herbals are via the upregulation of survivin that exerts inhibitory effects on the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These findings thus validate C. quadrangularis as a potential therapeutic for rheumatic disorders.

    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
  20. Bahrampour Juybari K, Kamarul T, Najafi M, Jafari D, Sharifi AM
    Cell Tissue Res, 2018 08;373(2):407-419.
    PMID: 29582166 DOI: 10.1007/s00441-018-2825-y
    Strategies based on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for restoring injured articular cartilage are not effective enough in osteoarthritis (OA). Due to the enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress in OA microenvironment, differentiation of MSCs into chondrocytes would be impaired. This study aims to explore the effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) on IL-1β-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress in human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) during chondrogenesis. MTT assay was employed to examine the effects of various concentrations of DADS on the viability of hADSCs at different time scales to obtain non-cytotoxic concentration range of DADS. The effects of DADS on IL-1β-induced intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in hADSCs. Western blotting was used to analyze the protein expression levels of IκBα (np), IκBα (p), NF-κB (np) and NF-κB (p). Furthermore, the gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes in hADSCs and chondrogenic markers at days 7, 14 and 21 of differentiation were measured using qRT-PCR. The results showed that addition of DADS significantly enhanced the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as reduced ROS elevation, lipid peroxidation, IκBα activation and NF-κB nuclear translocation in hADSCs treated with IL-1β. In addition, DADS could significantly increase the expression levels of IL-1β-induced impaired chondrogenic marker genes in differentiated hADSCs. Treatment with DADS may provide an effective approach to prevent the pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress as catabolic causes of chondrocyte cell death and enhance the protective anabolic effects by promoting chondrogenesis associated gene expressions in hADSCs exposed to OA condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism
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