Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

    Med J Malaya, 1961 Jun;15:181-96.
    PMID: 14466037
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones*
  2. Kwan TK, Pertiwi AK, Taylor NF, Gower DB
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1988 Sep 23;962(2):214-9.
    PMID: 3167079
    Twenty authentic steroids, derivatized as O-methyl oximes (MO), trimethylsilyl (TMS) ethers or as MO-TMS ethers have been subjected to capillary gas chromatography using two different columns. Virtually all of the steroid derivatives have been resolved, one difficult pair to separate being 5,16-androstadien-3 beta-ol and 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3 beta-ol on the non-selective phase OV-1. Where syn and anti forms of MO derivatives arose, these were also resolved under the conditions utilised. This technique of 'steroid profiling' has been applied to the separation and quantification of metabolites of pregnenolone which were formed during incubations of the microsomal and cytosolic fractions from rat testes. The majority of the metabolites were found in the microsomal incubation. These compounds included some odorous 16-androstenes as well as other C21 and C19 steroids, the formation of which was consistent with the 5-ene and 4-ene pathways of testosterone biosynthesis being operative. In addition, evidence was obtained for 16 alpha-hydroxylation of C21 steroids. Very much less metabolic activity was found in the cytosolic fraction of rat testes. Metabolic pathways have been proposed which both confirm and extend earlier work. We conclude that the rat testis can only form some of the odorous, possibly pheromonal, 16-androstenes and that these are quantitatively less important than in the porcine testis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones/analysis*; Gonadal Steroid Hormones/metabolism; Gonadal Steroid Hormones/standards
  3. Cervenka I, Al Rahmoun M, Mahamat-Saleh Y, Fournier A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Severi G, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2019 Sep 10.
    PMID: 31506954 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32674
    Evidence suggests an influence of sex hormones on cutaneous melanoma risk, but epidemiologic findings are conflicting. We examined the associations between use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and melanoma risk in women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a prospective cohort study initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Information on exogenous hormone use at baseline was derived from country-specific self-administered questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over 1992-2015, 1,696 melanoma cases were identified among 334,483 women, whereof 770 cases among 134,758 postmenopausal women. There was a positive, borderline-significant association between OC use and melanoma risk (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.26), with no detected heterogeneity across countries (phomogeneity = 0.42). This risk increased linearly with duration of use (ptrend = 0.01). Among postmenopausal women, ever use of MHT was associated with a nonsignificant increase in melanoma risk overall (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.97-1.43), which was heterogeneous across countries (phomogeneity = 0.05). Our findings do not support a strong and direct association between exogenous hormone use and melanoma risk. In order to better understand these relations, further research should be performed using prospectively collected data including detailed information on types of hormone, and on sun exposure, which may act as an important confounder or effect modifier on these relations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  4. Nakamura Y, Ise K, McNamara KM, Azmahani A, Sato S, Fujishima F, et al.
    Hum. Pathol., 2019 02;84:124-132.
    PMID: 30290162 DOI: 10.1016/j.humpath.2018.09.011
    The expression statuses of sex steroid receptors and sex steroid-synthesizing/metabolizing enzymes have been reported in primary prostate cancer lesions, but that in metastatic lymph nodes has remained unknown. Therefore, in this study, we immunolocalized these proteins in primary tumors and paired metastatic lymph nodes of prostate cancer and correlated the findings with clinicopathological factors of individual patients. The expression statuses of AR and ER β was significantly increased in metastatic lymph nodes compared with primary lesions, whereas that of 17βHSD1, 17βHSD2, 17βHSD5, and STS immunoreactivity was decreased in metastatic lymph nodes. In metastatic lymph nodes, the status of 5α2 was significantly correlated with that of AR. In addition, 17βHSD5-, 5α1-, STS-, and EST-positive cases were significantly associated with Gleason score (GS) status (GS > 8 versus GS < 7) in metastatic lymph nodes. Results of our present study did demonstrate that in situ androgen and estrogen metabolism and action play roles in pathophysiology of prostate cancer in metastatic lymph nodes, but these steroidogenic effects could be different from those in primary lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  5. Pertiwi AK, Kwan TK, Gower DB
    J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 2002 Aug;81(4-5):363-7.
    PMID: 12361726
    The intracellular movements of pregnenolone in rat testes were investigated. Whole testes were incubated in the presence or absence of pregnenolone (2.5mM) in the medium for 120 min (in some studies 30, 60, and 90 min). The testes were homogenised, subcellular fractions prepared and analysed in quadruplicate for steroid content by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Quantification of pregnenolone and 11 of its metabolites, obtained from non-incubated whole testes, provided values for endogenous amounts. Pregnenolone was the only steroid of quantitative importance found initially in the mitochondrial fraction but was subsequently found in the microsomal fraction, where metabolism occurred. Identification and quantification of metabolites indicated that both classical pathways for testosterone production were operating, with the 4-en-3-oxosteroid pathway predominating. By 120 min, virtually all pregnenolone metabolites, including pregnenolone itself, were found in the cytosol, consistent with an overall movement from mitochondria to endoplasmic reticulum to cytosol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones/metabolism
  6. Cheah SH, Ng KH, Johgalingam VT, Ragavan M
    J. Endocrinol., 1995 Aug;146(2):331-7.
    PMID: 7561646
    The effects of exogenously introduced oestradiol-17 beta (E) and relaxin (RLX) on cervical extensibility and collagen organisation were tested in rats ovariectomised in late pregnancy. When the cervices were stretched in vitro by 1 mm increments, it was found that those from rats given E alone generated significantly higher tensions than those from control rats, while cervices from rats given both E and RLX had tensions similar to controls. Examination of cervical sections under the light microscope and ultra-thin sections under the electron microscope showed that the collagen fibres in the cervices from E-treated rats were highly organised, whereas those from animals given E+RLX and control animals were disorganised and dispersed. It was concluded that E decreased cervical extensibility, while RLX counteracted the effect of E to maintain a soft and easily extensible cervix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones/pharmacology*
  7. Bennett NC, Rajandram R, Ng KL, Gobe GC
    J Kidney Cancer VHL, 2014;1(2):17-25.
    PMID: 28326246 DOI: 10.15586/jkcvhl.2014.9
    Steroid hormones and their receptors have important roles in normal kidney biology, and alterations in their expression and function help explain the differences in development of kidney diseases, such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The distinct gender difference in incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with males having almost twice the incidence as females globally, also suggests a role for sex hormones or their receptors in RCC development and progression. There was a peak in interest in evaluating the roles of androgen and estrogen receptors in RCC pathogenesis in the late 20th century, with some positive outcomes for RCC therapy that targeted estrogen receptors, especially for metastatic disease. Since that time, however, there have been few studies that look at use of steroid hormone modulators for RCC, especially in the light of new therapies such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors and new immune therapies, which are having some success for treatment of metastatic RCC. This review summarises past and current literature and attempts to stimulate renewed interest in research into the steroid hormones and their receptors, which might be used to effect, for example, in combination with the other newer targeted therapies for RCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  8. Ling LS, Sidi H, Lope RAR, Das S, Baharudin A
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018 May 11.
    PMID: 29749310 DOI: 10.2174/1389450119666180511161420
    Transgender is a complex state of bio-psycho-social dimension of human sexuality. It encompasses cognitive-emotional-behavior component that makes the person unique in his or her sexual expression. Transgender tend to use cross sex hormone in order to eradicate their secondary sexual characteristics and to facilitate the shift to their experienced gender. The common masculinising sex hormone use, i.e. Female to Male Treatment Options (FMTO) is testosterone and for feminising hormone i.e. Male to Female Treatment Options (MFTO) is a combination of estrogen with anti-androgen, respectively. Cross sex hormone, i.e. FMTO, or MFTO has biological and psychological influences on the transgender individuals. Nevertheless, cross sex hormone may also poses a range of side effect profiles, varies from the biological to psychosocial impact. The psychological impact can be paramount until it causes severe mental-health problems and even suicide. Numerous ranges of bio-psycho-social influence of cross-sex hormone were highlighted in this review as fundamental core knowledge in the art to know practice when dealing with the treatment options. In psychiatry, the change in the biological appearance may have great influence in the transgender individual, especially in the context of psychosocial and cultural perspective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  9. Assi N, Rinaldi S, Viallon V, Dashti SG, Dossus L, Fournier A, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2019 Apr 10.
    PMID: 30968961 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32324
    Alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of breast cancer (BC); however, the biological mechanisms underlying this association are not fully elucidated, particularly the extent to which this relationship is mediated by sex hormone levels. Circulating concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, their free fractions and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), were examined in 430 incident BC cases and 645 matched controls among alcohol-consuming postmenopausal women nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Mediation analysis was applied to assess whether individual hormone levels mediated the relationship between alcohol intake and BC risk. An alcohol-related hormonal signature, obtained by partial least square (PLS) regression, was evaluated as a potential mediator. Total (TE), natural direct and natural indirect effects (NIE) were estimated. Alcohol intake was positively associated with overall BC risk and specifically with estrogen receptor-positive tumors with respectively TE = 1.17(95%CI: 1.01,1.35) and 1.36(1.08,1.70) for a 1-standard deviation (1-SD) increase of intake. There was no evidence of mediation by sex steroids or SHBG separately except for a weak indirect effect through free estradiol where NIE = 1.03(1.00,1.06). However, an alcohol-related hormonal signature negatively associated with SHBG and positively with estradiol and testosterone was associated with BC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25 [1.07,1.47]) for a 1-SD higher PLS score, and had a statistically significant NIE accounting for a mediated proportion of 24%. There was limited evidence of mediation of the alcohol-BC association by individual sex hormones. However, a hormonal signature, reflecting lower levels of SHBG and higher levels of sex steroids, mediated a substantial proportion of the association.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  10. Richards G, Davies W, Stewart-Williams S, Bellin W, Reed P
    Transpers Psychol Rev, 2018;20(1):23-36.
    PMID: 30283240
    The ratio of index to ring finger length (2D:4D) is used as a proxy for prenatal sex hormone exposure. It has been hypothesised to correlate with religiosity, though no published research has explored this possibility. Here, we initially examined 2D:4D in relation to self-reported religious affiliation and questionnaire measures of general religiosity, spirituality, religious fundamentalism, and religious commitment in male (N = 106) and female (N = 105) university students (Study 1). Although no significant correlations were observed between 2D:4D and the questionnaire measures, females who affiliated with organised religions had higher digit ratios compared to agnostic or atheist females. Study 2 attempted to replicate these findings in an adult general population sample (N = 172 males, N = 257 females), but did not observe significant effects in either sex. Overall, these findings suggest that high 2D:4D may be relatively-specifically associated with religious affiliation in young, highly-educated, females.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  11. Adebiyi FA, Siraj SS, Harmin SA, Christianus A
    Fish Physiol. Biochem., 2013 Jun;39(3):547-57.
    PMID: 23010937 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-012-9718-x
    Plasma sex steroid hormonal profile and gonad histology were correlated to study the annual reproductive cycle of Hemibagrus nemurus. Hormones were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Gonad tissues were observed by using light microscopy. The highest testosterone (T) value for male was observed in November and that of female was in October. 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were highest in June and November, respectively. Hormonal profiles of T, 11-KT and E2 showed several peaks which indicated a non-seasonal pattern. There were significant differences (p steroid hormonal profile and asynchronous ovarian development of H. nemurus. This information will contribute to our knowledge of reproductive biology of H. nemurus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood*
  12. Nwe KH, Morat PB, Khalid BA
    Gen. Pharmacol., 1997 May;28(5):661-4.
    PMID: 9184798
    1. Sex steroids have been shown to regulate the biosynthesis of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD). 2. In vitro studies showed that oestradiol (E2) or testosterone (T) can interfere with the bioassay of enzyme activity, but not progesterone (P4). 3. For in vivo studies, the activity of 11 beta-HSD in the testis of normal and adrenalectomized (ADX) adult male Wistar rats was determined following a daily IM injection of sex steroids for 7 days. 4. The 11 beta-HSD activity was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) either by E2 or T in normal and ADX rats. The enzyme activity in normal rats given both T and E2 was even lower (P < 0.001) than when E2 was given alone. 5. P4 given to normal and ADX rats increased the enzyme activity higher than normal (P < 0.001). 6. The presence of corticosteroids influenced the effects of E2, but not of T and P4, on 11 beta-HSD activity. 7. E2 and T downregulate 11 beta-HSD activity, whereas P4 increased it. E2 did not act through lowering T level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones/pharmacology*
  13. Albishtue AA, Yimer N, Zakaria MZA, Haron AW, Babji AS, Abubakar AA, et al.
    Theriogenology, 2019 Mar 01;126:310-319.
    PMID: 30605790 DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.12.026
    This study was conducted to determine the effect of edible bird's nest (EBN) supplement on uterine function and embryo-implantation rate. A total of 24 adult female rats, divided equally into four groups, were treated with different doses of EBN for 8 weeks. In the last week of treatment, intact fertile male rats were introduced into each group (three per group) for overnight for mating. On day 7 post-mating (post-implantation), blood samples were collected from the hearts of anaesthetised rats that were later sacrificed. The uteri were removed for assessment of embryo implantation rate, histological and electron microscopic examination, and immunohistochemical analyses. Results showed that as the concentration of EBN supplemented increased, the pregnancy and embryo implantation rates were also increased in the treated groups; significantly at G3 and G4. Although histological evaluation did not show much difference among the groups, scanning electron microscopic examination showed enhanced development of elongated microvilli and pinopods in G4. Results also revealed up-regulated expressions of epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferating cell nulear antigen (PCNA), and progesterone and estrogen receptors (P4R, E2R) in the uteri of treated groups. Moreover, plasma E2, P4, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (P) levels were higher (p steroid receptors, EGF, EGFR, VEGF, and PCNA in the uterus. Furthermore, observations of improved growth of ultrastructural pinopods that assist in embryo attachment with uterine epithelium, increased concentrations of E2, P4, GH and P levels, as well as increased AO capacities with reduced OS levels in the treated groups might reflect additional possible mechanisms by which EBN enhances embryo implantation rate and pregnancy success.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones/metabolism
  14. Dehghan F, Muniandy S, Yusof A, Salleh N
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(2):180-91.
    PMID: 24465164 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.6283
    The incidence of non-contact knee injury was found higher in female than in male and is related to the phases of the menstrual cycle. This raised the possibility that female sex-steroids are involved in the mechanism underlying this injury via affecting the expression of the receptors for relaxin, a peptide hormone known to modulate ligament laxity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of sex-steroids on relaxin receptor isoforms (RXFP1 & RXFP2) expression in the ligaments and tendons of the knee.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones/administration & dosage*
  15. Karimi B, Hafidzi MN, Panandam JM, Fuzina NH
    J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents, 2013 Jul-Sep;27(3):869-74.
    PMID: 24152851
    It has long been known that spatial memory and the ability to navigate through space are sexually dimorphic traits among mammals, and numerous studies have shown that these traits can be altered by means of sex hormone manipulation. Hippocampus, the main organ involved in this kind of memory, has specific signature genes with high expression level compared to other regions of the brain. Based on their expression levels and the role that products of these genes can play in processes like signal transduction, mediation of hormone effects and long term potentiation, these genes can be considered as genes necessary for routine tasks of hippocampus. Male and female rat pups were injected with estradiol and testosterone respectively. at early stage of their lives to examine the effect of sex hormone manipulation on mRNA expression of Slc9a4, Nr3c2, Htr5b and Mas1 using comparative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that expressions of these genes are strongly influenced by sex hormones in both the frontal cortex and hippocampus, especially in male hippocampus, in which expression of all genes were up-regulated. Htr5b was the only gene that was affected only in the males. Expression of Mas1 was contrary to expectations, showed stronger changes in its expression in cortex than in hippocampus. Nr3c2 was down regulated in all samples but up regulated in male hippocampus, and Slc9a4 also showed a huge up-regulation in male hippocampus compared to other samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones/pharmacology*
  16. Chong HL, Ong HC, Ang LT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1974 Sep;29(1):44-53.
    PMID: 4282630
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones/physiology*
  17. Giribabu N, Karim K, Salleh N
    Phytomedicine, 2018 Oct 01;49:95-105.
    PMID: 30217266 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.05.018
    BACKGROUND: In sex-steroid deficiency, increased in the pH of vaginal fluid is due to low estrogen levels.

    HYPOTHESIS: Consumption of Marantodes pumilum leaves helps to ameliorate increased in vaginal fluid pH in sex-steroid deficient condition.

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in vaginal fluid pH and expression of proteins that participate in pH changes i.e vacoular (V)-ATPases and carbonic anhydrases (CA) in the vagina following M. pumilum leaves consumption.

    METHODS: Ovariectomized adult female rats were treated orally with M. pumilum leaves extract (MPE) at 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg.b.w and estradiol at 0.2 µg/kg/b.w for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, vaginal fluid pH was measured in anesthetised rats by using micropH probe. Following sacrificed, levels of V-ATPase and CA proteins and mRNAs in the vagina were identified by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. Protein distribution was visualized by immunohistochemistry.

    RESULTS: Administration of MPE causes the pH of vaginal fluid to decrease and expression and distribution of vaginal V-ATPase A & B and CA II, III, IX, XII and XIII to increase.

    CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in vaginal fluid pH following MPE treatment suggested that this herb has potential to be used to ameliorate vaginal fluid pH changes in sex-steroid deficient condition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones/deficiency
  18. Costas L, Lujan-Barroso L, Benavente Y, Allen NE, Amiano P, Ardanaz E, et al.
    Am. J. Epidemiol., 2019 02 01;188(2):274-281.
    PMID: 30481275 DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwy259
    The role of hormonal factors in the etiology of lymphoid neoplasms remains unclear. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results, have lacked sufficient statistical power to assess many lymphoma subtypes, or have lacked detailed information on relevant exposures. Within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we analyzed comprehensive data on reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use collected at baseline (1992-2000) among 343,458 women, including data on 1,427 incident cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and its major subtypes identified after a mean follow-up period of 14 years (through 2015). We estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable proportional hazards modeling. Overall, we observed no statistically significant associations between parity, age at first birth, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, or ever use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of B-cell NHL or its subtypes. Women who had undergone surgical menopause had a 51% higher risk of B-cell NHL (based on 67 cases) than women with natural menopause (hazard ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.94). Given that this result may have been due to chance, our results provide little support for the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in lymphomagenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  19. Koriem KM, Fathi GE, Salem HA, Akram NH, Gamil SA
    Toxicol. Mech. Methods, 2013 May;23(4):263-72.
    PMID: 23193971 DOI: 10.3109/15376516.2012.748857
    Cadmium has been classified as an environmental pollutant and human carcinogen. Pectin is a family of complex polysaccharides that function as hydrating agents and cementing materials for the cellulosic network. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of pectin against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups. Groups 1 and 2 were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) saline (1 mg/kg) and pectin (50 mg/kg), respectively, two days/weeks over three weeks period. Groups 3-5 were injected i.p. with 1 mg/kg cadmium two days/week while groups 4 and 5 co-administrated i.p. with 25 and 50 mg/kg pectin, respectively, three days/week over three weeks period. The results of the present work revealed that cadmium-exposed rats showed decrease in serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and lactate dehydrogenase. Testicular cholesterol, total protein, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione levels were also decreased while testicular malondialdehyde level was increased after cadmium injection. On the other hand, serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, sex hormone binding globulin and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were increased after cadmium exposure. Cadmium also induced sperms loss. Co-administration of pectin with cadmium restores all the above parameters and sperms to the normal levels where pectin at higher dose was more effective than lower one. These results were supported by histochemical investigations. In conclusion, pectin can counteract the testicular toxicity and oxidative stress induced by cadmium and the effect was dose-dependent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones/metabolism
  20. Teoh SL, Das S
    Tumour Biol., 2016 Nov;37(11):14363-14380.
    PMID: 27623943
    Obesity continues to be a major global problem. Various cancers are related to obesity and proper understanding of their aetiology, especially their molecular tumour biology is important for early diagnosis and better treatment. Genes play an important role in the development of obesity. Few genes such as leptin, leptin receptor encoded by the db (diabetes), pro-opiomelanocortin, AgRP and NPY and melanocortin-4 receptors and insulin-induced gene 2 were linked to obesity. MicroRNAs control gene expression via mRNA degradation and protein translation inhibition and influence cell differentiation, cell growth and cell death. Overexpression of miR-143 inhibits tumour growth by suppressing B cell lymphoma 2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5 activities and KRAS oncogene. Cancers of the breast, uterus, renal, thyroid and liver are also related to obesity. Any disturbance in the production of sex hormones and insulin, leads to distortion in the balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The possible mechanism linking obesity to cancer involves alteration in the level of adipokines and sex hormones. These mediators act as biomarkers for cancer progression and act as targets for cancer therapy and prevention. Interestingly, many anti-cancerous drugs are also beneficial in treating obesity and vice versa. We also reviewed the possible link in the mechanism of few drugs which act both on cancer and obesity. The present review may be important for molecular biologists, oncologists and clinicians treating cancers and also pave the way for better therapeutic options.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gonadal Steroid Hormones/metabolism
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