Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is widely utilised to develop various types of biosensors; however, producing self-assembled rGO nanoflake networks through single-droplet drop-casting remains inconsistent. In the present work, we systematically used three different methods to prepare rGO suspensions in order to produce large scale self-assembled rGO nanoflake networks through single-droplet drop-casting. The rGO suspensions were prepared using only deionised water with no added any chemicals/organic solvents, which we considered to be a low-cost method. Subsequently, the most effective preparation method was used to deposit rGO nanoflakes onto commercial gold interdigitated microelectrodes (Au-IDE) to examine their electrical performance. Assessment of the yields, developed methods, surface morphologies, spectroscopy and structural analyses of the as-prepared rGO nanoflakes were conducted. The results revealed that method-3 (involving sonication, centrifugation and post-sonication) produced large self-assembled rGO nanoflake networks with strong adhesion to glass substrates. Furthermore, the as-prepared rGO/Au-IDE modified sensors showed excellent electron mobility where the electrical conductivity was enhanced approximately ~ 1000 fold compared to the bare devices. The present work provided new insights for depositing large self-assembled interconnected rGO nanoflake networks through single-droplet drop-casting which will be beneficial for biosensor development and other downstream applications.
The synthesis of Janus nanosheets using κ-carrageenan (κ-Ca) as a green template endows a greener and more straightforward method compared to traditional approaches of using wax template. We hypothesize that the hydrogen bonding interaction between κ-Ca and graphene oxide (GO) allows partial masking of GO's single facet, paving the way for the asymmetric modification of the exposed surface. GO is first encapsulated within the porous hydrogel matrix formed by κ-Ca to isolate one of the facets. The exposed surface was then selectively hydrophobized to produce an amphiphilic asymmetrically modified graphene oxide (AMGO). The properties of AMGO synthesized under different κ-Ca/GO ratios were studied. The κ-Ca/GO interactions and the properties of GO and AMGO were investigated and characterized. AMGO was successfully produced with a yield of 90.37 % under optimized synthesis conditions. The separation of κ-Ca and AMGO was conducted without organic solvents, and the κ-Ca could be subsequently recovered. Furthermore, the porous hydrogel matrix formed by κ-Ca and GO exhibited excellent shape-retaining properties with high thermal tolerance of up to 50 °C. Given these benefits, this newly developed method endows sustainability and open the possibility of formulating more flexible material synthesis protocols.
The suitability and efficacy of three-dimensional (3D) graphene, including its derivatives, have garnered widespread attention towards the development of novel, sustainable materials with ecological amenability. This is especially relevant towards its utilization as adsorbents of wastewater contaminants, such as heavy metals, dyes, and oil, which could be majorly attributed to its noteworthy physicochemical features, particularly elevated chemical and mechanical robustness, advanced permeability, as well as large specific surface area. In this review, we emphasize on the adsorptive elimination of oil particles from contaminated water. Specifically, we assess and collate recent literature on the conceptualization and designing stages of 3D graphene-based adsorbents (3DGBAs) towards oil adsorption, including their applications in either batch or continuous modes. In addition, we analytically evaluate the adsorption mechanism, including sorption sites, physical properties, surface chemistry of 3DGBA and interactions between the adsorbent and adsorbate involving the adsorptive removal of oil, as well as numerous effects of adsorption conditions on the adsorption performance, i.e. pH, temperature, initial concentration of oil contaminants and adsorbent dosage. Furthermore, we focus on the equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies, in order to comprehend the oil elimination procedures. Lastly, we designate encouraging avenues and recommendations for a perpetual research thrust, and outline the associated future prospects and perspectives.
In this paper, we report about chemically interaction between Pt Subnano-Clusters on Graphene Nano Sheets (GNS). The aim of this research is to clarify the size effect of Pt clusters on Pt 1-7 wt.%/GNS. This research is an experimental laboratory research. GNS was synthesized by using modified Hummer's method and 1-7 wt.% Pt/GNS were prepared with impregnation method. Then, they were analyzed with TG/DTA, XRD, TEM and XPS, respectively. The results show that Pt clusters are well deposited on GNS (TG/DTA and TEM data). Those data also are consistent with XRD data. The weak and broad peaks appear at 2θ = 39°, indicating Pt metal exists on GNS. The state of Pt is confirmed by using XPS. The appearance of Pt 4f. peaks proves that Pt metal is chemical interaction on GNS. The size of Pt clusters may affect the chemically properties of Pt/GNS catalysts.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be congenital or acquired, results from the failure of the kidney to respond to the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH). This will lead to excessive water loss from the body in the form of urine. The kidney, therefore, has a crucial role in maintaining water balance and it is vital to restore this function in an artificial kidney. Herein, an ultrasensitive and highly selective aptameric graphene-based field-effect transistor (GFET) sensor for ADH detection was developed by directly immobilizing ADH-specific aptamer on a surface-modified suspended graphene channel. This direct immobilization of aptamer on the graphene surface is an attempt to mimic the functionality of collecting tube V 2 receptors in the ADH biosensor. This aptamer was then used as a probe to capture ADH peptide at the sensing area which leads to changes in the concentration of charge carriers in the graphene channel. The biosensor shows a significant increment in the relative change of current ratio from 5.76 to 22.60 with the increase of ADH concentration ranging from 10 ag/mL to 1 pg/mL. The ADH biosensor thus exhibits a sensitivity of 50.00 µA· ( g / mL ) - 1 with a limit of detection as low as 3.55 ag/mL. In specificity analysis, the ADH biosensor demonstrated a higher current value which is 338.64 µA for ADH-spiked in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 557.89 µA for ADH-spiked in human serum in comparison with other biomolecules tested. This experimental evidence shows that the ADH biosensor is ultrasensitive and highly selective towards ADH in PBS buffer and ADH-spiked in human serum.
In the present study, electrochemical sensing for urea was proposed utilizing graphene-based quaternary nanocomposites YInWO4-G-SiO2 (YIWGS). These YIWGS nanocomposites were utilized due to their exceptionally delicate determination of urea with the lowest detection limit (0.01 mM). These YIWGS composites were developed through a simple self-assembly method. From physical characterization, we found that the YIWGS composites are crystalline in nature (powdered X-ray diffraction), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis provided the surface functionality and bonding. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies indicated the morphology characteristics of the as-synthesized composites and the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image supported the formation of cubic or hexagonal morphology of the YIW nanocomposites. The YIWGS sensor showed a great electroanalytical sensing performance of 0.07 mM urea with a sensitivity of 0.06 mA cm-2, an expansive linear range of 0.7-1.5 mM with a linear response (R2 1/4 0.99), and an eminent reaction time of around 2 s. It also displayed a good linear response toward urea with negligible interferences from normal coinciding species in urine samples.
Over the last few decades, various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely used in the processing of building materials and this practice adversely affected the environment i.e. both indoor and outdoor air quality. A cost-effective solution for detecting a wide range of VOCs by sensing approaches includes chemiresistive, optical and electrochemical techniques. Room temperature (RT) chemiresistive gas sensors are next-generation technologies desirable for self-powered or battery-powered instruments utilized in monitoring emissions that are associated with indoor/outdoor air pollution and industrial processes. In this review, a state-of-the-art overview of chemiresistive gas sensors is provided based on their attractive analytical characteristics such as high sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility, rapid assay time and low fabrication cost. The review mainly discusses the recent advancement and advantages of graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites-based chemiresistive gas sensors and various factors affecting their sensing performance at RT. Besides, the sensing mechanisms of GO nanocomposites-based chemiresistive gas sensors derived using metals, transition metal oxides (TMOs) and polymers were discussed. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives of GO nanocomposites-based RT chemiresistive gas sensors are addressed.
In the present research work, 2D-Porous NiO decorated graphene nanocomposite was synthesized by hydrothermal method to monitored the concentration of epinephrine (EPI). The morphology (SEM and TEM) results confirmed 2D-Porous NiO nanoparticles firmly attached over graphene nanosheets. FTIR and XPS analysis confirmed the formation of nickel oxide formation and complete reduction of GO to rGO. The electrochemical activity of the proposed NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode on epinephrine was analyzed by simple cyclic voltammetry technique. The proposed low cost NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity over GCE and rGO/GCE electrodes. Due to its high conductivity and charge transfer ability of the NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode exhibited high sensitivity of EPI at optimized conditions. The anodic peak current of the EPI linearly increases with increasing the concertation of EPI. A wide linear range (50 μM-1000 μM) was achieved with high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9986) and the limit of detection (LOD) of NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode was calculated to be 10 μM. NiO-rGO/GCE electrode showed good stability and repeatability towards the EPI oxidation. Mainly, the proposed NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode showed good sensitivity of EPI in the human biological fluid with high recovery percentage. The low cost, NiO-rGO/GCE electrode could be the promising sensor electrode for the detection of Epinephrine in the real samples.
In this study, ellagic acid (ELA), a skin anticancer drug, is capped on the surface(s) of functionalised graphene oxide (GO) nano-sheets through electrostatic and π-π staking interactions. The prepared ELA-GO nanocomposite have been thoroughly characterised by using eight techniques: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographic imaging, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and surface morphology via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, ELA drug loading and release behaviours from ELA-GO nanocomposite were studied. The ELA-GO nanocomposite has a uniform size distribution averaging 88 nm and high drug loading capacity of 30 wt.%. The in vitro drug release behaviour of ELA from the nanocomposite was investigated by UV-Vis spectrometry at a wavelength of λmax 257 nm. The data confirmed prolonged ELA release over 5000 min at physiological pH (7.4). Finally, the IC50 of this ELA-GO nanocomposite was found to be 6.16 µg/ml against B16 cell line; ELA and GO did not show any cytotoxic effects up to 50 µg/ml on the same cell lines.
We report the growth of gallium-based compounds, i.e., gallium oxynitride (GaON) and gallium oxide (Ga2O3) on multilayer graphene (MLG) on insulator using a mixture of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and gallium nitrate (Ga(NO3)3) by electrochemical deposition (ECD) method at room temperature (RT) for the first time. The controlling parameters of current density and electrolyte molarity were found to greatly influence the properties of the grown structures. The thicknesses of the deposited structures increase with the current density since it increases the chemical reaction rates. The layers grown at low molarities of both solutions basically show grain-like layer with cracking structures and dominated by both Ga2O3 and GaON. Such cracking structures seem to diminish with the increases of molarities of one of the solutions. It is speculated that the increase of current density and ions in the solutions helps to promote the growth at the area with uneven thicknesses of graphene. When the molarity of Ga(NO3)3 is increased while keeping the molarity of NH4NO3 at the lowest value of 2.5 M, the grown structures are basically dominated by the Ga2O3 structure. On the other hand, when the molarity of NH4NO3 is increased while keeping the molarity of Ga(NO3)3 at the lowest value of 0.8 M, the GaON structure seems to dominate where their cubic and hexagonal arrangements are coexisting. It was found that when the molarities of Ga(NO3)3 are at the high level of 7.5 M, the grown structures tend to be dominated by Ga2O3 even though the molarity of NH4NO3 is made equal or higher than the molarity of Ga(NO3)3. When the grown structure is dominated by the Ga2O3 structure, the deposition process became slow or unstable, resulting to the formation of thin layer. When the molarity of Ga(NO3)3 is increased to 15 M, the nanocluster-like structures were formed instead of continuous thin film structure. This study seems to successfully provide the conditions in growing either GaON-dominated or Ga2O3-dominated structure by a simple and low-cost ECD. The next possible routes to convert the grown GaON-dominated structure to either single-crystalline GaN or Ga2O3 as well as Ga2O3-dominated structure to single-crystalline Ga2O3 structure have been discussed.
A graphene-based three-branch nanojunction (TBJ) device having nanowire width of 200 nm was successfully fabricated. The layer number of graphene prepared by mechanical exfoliation was determined using a simple optical contrast method which showed good agreement with theoretical value. n-type doping by Polyethylene imines (PEI) was done to control the position of Dirac point. Baking and PEI doping was found to decrease contact resistance and increase the carrier mobility. The chemically-doped TBJ graphene showed carrier mobility of 20000 cm2/Vs, which gave related mean free path of 175 nm.
Graphene-based adsorbents have attracted wide interests as effective adsorbents for heavy metals removal from the environment. Due to their excellent electrical, mechanical, optical and transport properties, graphene and its derivatives such as graphene oxide (GO) have found various applications. However, in many applications, surface modification is necessary as pristine graphene/GO may be ineffective in some specific applications such as adsorption of heavy metal ions. Consequently, the modification of graphene/GO using various metals and non-metals is an ongoing research effort in the carbon-material realm. The use of organic materials represents an economical and environmentally friendly approach in modifying GO for environmental applications such as heavy metal adsorption. This review discusses the applications of organo-functionalized GO composites for the adsorption of heavy metals. The aspects reviewed include the commonly used organic materials for modifying GO, the performance of the modified composites in heavy metals adsorption, effects of operational parameters, adsorption mechanisms and kinetic, as well as the stability of the adsorbents. Despite the significant research efforts on GO modification, many aspects such as the interaction between the functional groups and the heavy metal ions, and the quantitative effect of the functional groups are yet to be fully understood. The review, therefore, offers some perspectives on the future research needs.
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has been regarded as a promising visible light-driven photocatalyst ascribable to its tailorable structures, thermal stability and chemical inertness. Enhanced photocatalytic activity is achievable by the construction of homojunction nanocomposites to reduce the undesired recombination of photogenerated charge carriers. In the present work, a novel g-C3N4/g-C3N4 metal-free homojunction photocatalyst was synthesized via hydrothermal polymerization. The g-C3N4/g-C3N4 derived from urea and thiourea demonstrated admirable photocatalytic activity towards rhodamine B (RhB) degradation upon irradiation of an 18 W LED light. The viability of the photoreaction with a low-powered excitation source highlighted the economic and environmental benefits of the process. The optimal g-C3N4/g-C3N4 homojunction photocatalyst exhibited a 2- and 1.8-fold increase in efficiency in relative to pristine g-C3N4 derived from urea and thiourea respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic performance is credited to the improved interfacial transfer and separation of electron-hole pairs across the homojunction interface. Furthermore, an excellent photochemical stability and durability is displayed by g-C3N4/g-C3N4 after three consecutive cycles. In addition, a plausible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on various scavenging tests. Overall, experimental results generated from this study is expected to intrigue novel research inspirations in developing metal-free homojunction photocatalysts to be feasible for large-scale wastewater treatment without compromising economically. Graphical abstract.
Graphene and its derivative materials present high potential towards medical and biological applications, including drug delivery and bioimaging, due to their exceptional properties such as thermal conductivity and high specific surface area. The main focus of this work is to review the current development of graphene materials and the derivatives for biocompatible, bioimaging and drug delivery applications. Also, the synthesis methods with variation of graphene nanocomposites and the functionalisation will be further explained. For the graphene approaches, chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is the best-known technique to make high-quality graphene sheet by growth route with mass production. By considering the organic graphene nanocomposites, the biocompatibility and cytotoxic effects against graphene nanocomposites were evaluated for biomedical employments such as high quality bioimaging and effective drug delivery for cancer treatments. For example, graphene oxide incorporated with PEG and loaded with SN 38 for camptothecin analolgue as anticancer drug and revealed high cytotoxicity has an effect of 1000 times better effect than CPT in HCT-116 cells. Their drug delivery ability for both in-vivo and in-vitro applications compared to the controlled drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX) will be discussed accordingly. The graphene and its deriavatives possess some intriguing properties, which will lead to drug delivery due to strong biocompatibility and cyctotoxic effect towards biomedicine applications.
Hazardous industrial wastes negatively impact the environment by creating issues for aquatic as well as human's life. This study investigates the treatment of hazardous industrial wastewater using cost-effective graphite adsorbent along with electrochemical regeneration integrated with renewable solar energy. The synthetic industrial effluent containing crystal violet dye was treated using an adsorbent (Nyex™ 1000) having a surface area of 1.0 m2 g-1 . The efficiency of removing solute was found to be more than 90%. The adsorbent regeneration efficiency was achieved at 99.5% by passing a charge of 100 C g-1 at current density of 10 mA cm-2 for 1 h. Solar energy was integrated with electrochemical reactor for the regeneration of adsorbent to make the system cost-effective and self-sustainable. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Industrial hazardous wastewater treatment with a cost-effective graphite integrated adsorbent. Development of renewable solar energy-integrated with electrochemical system for regeneration. Regeneration efficiency of adsorbent Nyex™ 1000 was achieved around 99.5% with integrated system. Sustainable system was introduced to incorporate with renewable energy for waste water treatment.
Due to the crucial role of dopamine (DA) in health and peripheral nervous systems, it is particularly important to develop an efficient and accurate sensor to monitor and determine DA concentrations for diagnostic purposes and diseases prevention. Up to now, using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors in DA determination is very limited and its application still at the primary stage. In this work, a simple and ultra-sensitive SPR sensor was constructed for DA detection by preparation of chitosan- graphene quantum dots (CS-GQDs) thin film as the sensing layer. Other SPR measurements were conducted using different sensing layers; GQDs, CS for comparison. The proposed thin films were prepared by spin coating technique. The developed CS-GQDs thin film-based SPR sensor was successfully tested in DA concentration range from 0 fM to 1 pM. The designed SPR sensor showed outstanding performance in detecting DA sensitively (S = 0.011°/fM, R2 = 0.8174) with low detection limit of 1.0 fM has been achieved for the first time. The increased angular shift of SPR dip, narrow full width half maximum of the SPR curves, excellent signal-to-noise ratio and figure of merit, and a binding affinity constant (KA) of 2.962 PM-1 demonstrated the potential of this sensor to detect DA with high accuracy. Overall, it was concluded that the proposed sensor would serve as a valuable tool in clinical diagnostic for the serious neurological disorders. This in turns has a significant socio-economic impact.
Graphene is one of the most promising materials in the field of nanotechnology and has attracted a tremendous amount of research interest in recent years. Due to its large specific surface area, high thermal conductivity, and superior electron mobility, graphene is regarded as an extremely attractive component for the preparation of composite materials. At the same time, the use of photocatalysts, particularly TiO(2), has also been widely studied for their potential in addressing various energy and environmental-related issues. However, bare TiO(2) suffers from low efficiency and a narrow light-response range. Therefore, the combination of graphene and TiO(2) is currently one of the most active interdisciplinary research areas and demonstrations of photocatalytic enhancement are abundant. This Review presents and discusses the current development of graphene-based TiO(2) photocatalysts. The theoretical framework of the composite, the synthetic strategies for the preparation and modification of graphene-based TiO(2) photocatalysts, and applications of the composite are reviewed, with particular attention on the photodegradation of pollutants and photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen generation.
Graphene has attracted much attention from researchers due to its interesting mechanical, electrochemical, and electronic properties. It has many potential applications such as polymer filler, sensor, energy conversion, and energy storage devices. Graphene-based nanocomposites are under an intense spotlight amongst researchers. A large amount of graphene is required for preparation of such samples. Lately, graphene-based materials have been the target for fundamental life science investigations. Despite graphene being a much sought-after raw material, the drawbacks in the preparation of graphene are that it is a challenge amongst researchers to produce this material in a scalable quantity and that there is a concern about its safety. Thus, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is greatly desired to address these problems. In this work, one-pot chemical oxidation of graphite was carried out at room temperature for the preparation of large-area GO with ~100% conversion. This high-conversion preparation of large-area GO was achieved using a simplified Hummer's method from large graphite flakes (an average flake size of 500 μm). It was found that a high degree of oxidation of graphite could be realized by stirring graphite in a mixture of acids and potassium permanganate, resulting in GO with large lateral dimension and area, which could reach up to 120 μm and ~8000 μm(2), respectively. The simplified Hummer's method provides a facile approach for the preparation of large-area GO.
The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481 mWm(-2) using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems.
Calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) ceramic composites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared using hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150°C. Quantitative microstructural analysis suggests that GNP play a role in grain size and is responsible for the improved densification. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that GNP survived the harsh processing conditions of the selected HIP processing parameters. The uniform distribution of 1 wt.% GNP in the CS matrix, high densification and fine CS grain size help to improve the fracture toughness by ∼130%, hardness by ∼30% and brittleness index by ∼40% as compared to the CS matrix without GNP. The toughening mechanisms, such as crack bridging, pull-out, branching and deflection induced by GNP are observed and discussed. The GNP/CS composites exhibit good apatite-forming ability in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Our results indicate that the addition of GNP decreased pH value in SBF. Effect of addition of GNP on early adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblast cells (hFOB) was measured in vitro. The GNP/CS composites showed good biocompatibility and promoted cell viability and cell proliferation. The results indicated that the cell viability and proliferation are affected by time and concentration of GNP in the CS matrix.