Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48 in total

  1. Lam SS, Ma NL, Peng W, Sonne C
    Science, 2020 May 29;368(6494):958.
    PMID: 32467384 DOI: 10.1126/science.abc2202
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities*
  2. Venkataraman VV, Kraft TS, Dominy NJ, Endicott KM
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2017 03 21;114(12):3097-3102.
    PMID: 28265058 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617542114
    The residential mobility patterns of modern hunter-gatherers broadly reflect local resource availability, but the proximate ecological and social forces that determine the timing of camp movements are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that the timing of such moves maximizes foraging efficiency as hunter-gatherers move across the landscape. The marginal value theorem predicts when a group should depart a camp and its associated foraging area and move to another based on declining marginal return rates. This influential model has yet to be directly applied in a population of hunter-gatherers, primarily because the shape of gain curves (cumulative resource acquisition through time) and travel times between patches have been difficult to estimate in ethnographic settings. We tested the predictions of the marginal value theorem in the context of hunter-gatherer residential mobility using historical foraging data from nomadic, socially egalitarian Batek hunter-gatherers (n = 93 d across 11 residential camps) living in the tropical rainforests of Peninsular Malaysia. We characterized the gain functions for all resources acquired by the Batek at daily timescales and examined how patterns of individual foraging related to the emergent property of residential movements. Patterns of camp residence times conformed well with the predictions of the marginal value theorem, indicating that communal perceptions of resource depletion are closely linked to collective movement decisions. Despite (and perhaps because of) a protracted process of deliberation and argument about when to depart camps, Batek residential mobility seems to maximize group-level foraging efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities*
  3. Wearn OR, Carbone C, Rowcliffe JM, Bernard H, Ewers RM
    Ecol Appl, 2016 Jul;26(5):1409-1420.
    PMID: 27755763 DOI: 10.1890/15-1363
    Diversity responses to land-use change are poorly understood at local scales, hindering our ability to make forecasts and management recommendations at scales which are of practical relevance. A key barrier in this has been the underappreciation of grain-dependent diversity responses and the role that β-diversity (variation in community composition across space) plays in this. Decisions about the most effective spatial arrangement of conservation set-aside, for example high conservation value areas, have also neglected β-diversity, despite its role in determining the complementarity of sites. We examined local-scale mammalian species richness and β-diversity across old-growth forest, logged forest, and oil palm plantations in Borneo, using intensive camera- and live-trapping. For the first time, we were able to investigate diversity responses, as well as β-diversity, at multiple spatial grains, and across the whole terrestrial mammal community (large and small mammals); β-diversity was quantified by comparing observed β-diversity with that obtained under a null model, in order to control for sampling effects, and we refer to this as the β-diversity signal. Community responses to land use were grain dependent, with large mammals showing reduced richness in logged forest compared to old-growth forest at the grain of individual sampling points, but no change at the overall land-use level. Responses varied with species group, however, with small mammals increasing in richness at all grains in logged forest compared to old-growth forest. Both species groups were significantly depauperate in oil palm. Large mammal communities in old-growth forest became more heterogeneous at coarser spatial grains and small mammal communities became more homogeneous, while this pattern was reversed in logged forest. Both groups, however, showed a significant β-diversity signal at the finest grain in logged forest, likely due to logging-induced environmental heterogeneity. The β-diversity signal in oil palm was weak, but heterogeneity at the coarsest spatial grain was still evident, likely due to variation in landscape forest cover. Our findings suggest that the most effective spatial arrangement of set-aside will involve trade-offs between conserving large and small mammals. Greater consideration in the conservation and management of tropical landscapes needs to be given to β-diversity at a range of spatial grains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities*
  4. Dalu MTB, Dalu T, Wasserman RJ
    Nature, 2017 07 19;547(7662):281.
    PMID: 28726820 DOI: 10.1038/547281c
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities*
  5. Lee JM, Wasserman RJ, Gan JY, Wilson RF, Rahman S, Yek SH
    Ecohealth, 2020 03;17(1):52-63.
    PMID: 31786667 DOI: 10.1007/s10393-019-01457-9
    Knowledge of the interrelationship of mosquito communities and land use changes is of paramount importance to understand the potential risk of mosquito disease transmission. This study examined the effects of land use types in urban, peri-urban and natural landscapes on mosquito community structure to test whether the urban landscape is implicated in increased prevalence of potentially harmful mosquitoes. Three land use types (park, farm, and forest nested in urban, peri-urban and natural landscapes, respectively) in Klang Valley, Malaysia, were surveyed for mosquito larval habitat, mosquito abundance and diversity. We found that the nature of human activities in land use types can increase artificial larval habitats, supporting container-breeding vector specialists such as Aedes albopictus, a dengue vector. In addition, we observed a pattern of lower mosquito richness but higher mosquito abundance, characterised by the high prevalence of Ae. albopictus in the urban landscape. This was also reflected in the mosquito community structure whereby urban and peri-urban landscapes were composed of mainly vector species compared to a more diverse mosquito composition in natural landscape. This study suggested that good environmental management practices in the tropical urban landscape are of key importance for effective mosquito-borne disease management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities*
  6. Saad SM, Andrew AM, Shakaff AY, Saad AR, Kamarudin AM, Zakaria A
    Sensors (Basel), 2015;15(5):11665-84.
    PMID: 26007724 DOI: 10.3390/s150511665
    Monitoring indoor air quality (IAQ) is deemed important nowadays. A sophisticated IAQ monitoring system which could classify the source influencing the IAQ is definitely going to be very helpful to the users. Therefore, in this paper, an IAQ monitoring system has been proposed with a newly added feature which enables the system to identify the sources influencing the level of IAQ. In order to achieve this, the data collected has been trained with artificial neural network or ANN--a proven method for pattern recognition. Basically, the proposed system consists of sensor module cloud (SMC), base station and service-oriented client. The SMC contain collections of sensor modules that measure the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless network. The IAQ monitoring system is also equipped with IAQ Index and thermal comfort index which could tell the users about the room's conditions. The results showed that the system is able to measure the level of air quality and successfully classify the sources influencing IAQ in various environments like ambient air, chemical presence, fragrance presence, foods and beverages and human activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities
  7. Márquez-Sánchez S, Campero-Jurado I, Robles-Camarillo D, Rodríguez S, Corchado-Rodríguez JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2021 May 12;21(10).
    PMID: 34066186 DOI: 10.3390/s21103372
    Wearable technologies are becoming a profitable means of monitoring a person's health state, such as heart rate and physical activity. The use of the smartwatch is becoming consolidated, not only as a novelty but also as a very useful tool for daily use. In addition, other devices, such as helmets or belts, are beneficial for monitoring workers and the early detection of any anomaly. They can provide valuable information, especially in work environments, where they help reduce the rate of accidents and occupational diseases, which makes them powerful Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The constant monitoring of the worker's health can be done in real-time, through temperature, falls, noise, impacts, or heart rate meters, activating an audible and vibrating alarm when an anomaly is detected. The gathered information is transmitted to a server in charge of collecting and processing it. In the first place, this paper provides an exhaustive review of the state of the art on works related to electronics for human activity behavior. After that, a smart multisensory bracelet, combined with other devices, developed a control platform that can improve operators' security in the working environment. Artificial Intelligence and the Internet of Things (AIoT) bring together the information to improve safety on construction sites, power stations, power lines, etc. Real-time and historic data is used to monitor operators' health and a hybrid system between Gaussian Mixture Model and Human Activity Classification. That is, our contribution is also founded on the use of two machine learning models, one based on unsupervised learning and the other one supervised. Where the GMM gave us a performance of 80%, 85%, 70%, and 80% for the 4 classes classified in real time, the LSTM obtained a result under the confusion matrix of 0.769, 0.892, and 0.921 for the carrying-displacing, falls, and walking-standing activities, respectively. This information was sent in real time through the platform that has been used to analyze and process the data in an alarm system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities
  8. Hockings KJ, McLennan MR, Carvalho S, Ancrenaz M, Bobe R, Byrne RW, et al.
    Trends Ecol Evol, 2015 Apr;30(4):215-22.
    PMID: 25766059 DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2015.02.002
    We are in a new epoch, the Anthropocene, and research into our closest living relatives, the great apes, must keep pace with the rate that our species is driving change. While a goal of many studies is to understand how great apes behave in natural contexts, the impact of human activities must increasingly be taken into account. This is both a challenge and an opportunity, which can importantly inform research in three diverse fields: cognition, human evolution, and conservation. No long-term great ape research site is wholly unaffected by human influence, but research at those that are especially affected by human activity is particularly important for ensuring that our great ape kin survive the Anthropocene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities*
  9. Jeevananthan C, Muhamad NA, Jaafar MH, Hod R, Ab Ghani RM, Md Isa Z, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2020 11 04;10(11):e039623.
    PMID: 33148753 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039623
    INTRODUCTION: The current global pandemic of the virus that emerged from Hubei province in China has caused coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19), which has affected a total number of 900 036 people globally, involving 206 countries and resulted in a cumulative of 45 693 deaths worldwide as of 3 April 2020. The mode of transmission is identified through airdrops from patients' body fluids such as during sneezing, coughing and talking. However, the relative importance of environmental effects in the transmission of the virus has not been vastly studied. In addition, the role of temperature and humidity in air-borne transmission of infection is presently still unclear. This study aims to identify the effect of temperature, humidity and air quality in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will systematically conduct a comprehensive literature search using various databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, CENTRAL and Google Scholar to identify potential studies. The search will be performed for any eligible articles from the earliest published articles up to latest available studies in 2020. We will include all the observational studies such as cohort case-control and cross-sectional studies that explains or measures the effects of temperature and/or humidity and/or air quality and/or anthropic activities that is associated with SARS-CoV-2. Study selection and reporting will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline. All data will be extracted using a standardised data extraction form and quality of the studies will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale guideline. Descriptive and meta-analysis will be performed using a random effect model in Review Manager File.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No primary data will be collected, and thus no formal ethical approval is required. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation.


    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities*
  10. Díaz S, Settele J, Brondízio ES, Ngo HT, Agard J, Arneth A, et al.
    Science, 2019 12 13;366(6471).
    PMID: 31831642 DOI: 10.1126/science.aax3100
    The human impact on life on Earth has increased sharply since the 1970s, driven by the demands of a growing population with rising average per capita income. Nature is currently supplying more materials than ever before, but this has come at the high cost of unprecedented global declines in the extent and integrity of ecosystems, distinctness of local ecological communities, abundance and number of wild species, and the number of local domesticated varieties. Such changes reduce vital benefits that people receive from nature and threaten the quality of life of future generations. Both the benefits of an expanding economy and the costs of reducing nature's benefits are unequally distributed. The fabric of life on which we all depend-nature and its contributions to people-is unravelling rapidly. Despite the severity of the threats and lack of enough progress in tackling them to date, opportunities exist to change future trajectories through transformative action. Such action must begin immediately, however, and address the root economic, social, and technological causes of nature's deterioration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities/trends*
  11. Mahboubeh Ebrahimian, Ahmad Ainuddin Nuruddin, Mohd Amin Mohd Soom, Alias Mohd Sood, Liew Juneng
    The hydrological effects of climate variation and land use conversion can occur at various spatial scales, but the most important sources of these changes are at the regional or watershed scale. In addition, the managerial and technical measures are primarily implemented at local and watershed scales in order to mitigate adverse impacts of human activities on the renewable resources of the watershed. Therefore, quantitative estimation of the possible hydrological consequences of potential land use and climate changes on hydrological regime at watershed scale is of tremendous importance. This paper focuses on the impacts of climate change as well as land use change on the hydrological processes of river basin based on pertinent published literature which were precisely scrutinized. The various causes, forms, and consequences of such impacts were discussed to synthesize the key findings of literature in reputable sources and to identify gaps in the knowledge where further research is required. Results indicate that the watershed-scale studies were found as a gap in tropical regions. Also, these studies are important to facilitate the application of results to real environment. Watershed scale studies are essential to measure the extent of influences made to the hydrological conditions and understanding of causes and effects of climate variation and land use conversion on hydrological cycle and water resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities
  12. Nizam Y, Mohd MNH, Jamil MMA
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 Jul 13;18(7).
    PMID: 30011823 DOI: 10.3390/s18072260
    Unintentional falls are a major public health concern for many communities, especially with aging populations. There are various approaches used to classify human activities for fall detection. Related studies have employed wearable, non-invasive sensors, video cameras and depth sensor-based approaches to develop such monitoring systems. The proposed approach in this study uses a depth sensor and employs a unique procedure which identifies the fall risk levels to adapt the algorithm for different people with their physical strength to withstand falls. The inclusion of the fall risk level identification, further enhanced and improved the accuracy of the fall detection. The experimental results showed promising performance in adapting the algorithm for people with different fall risk levels for fall detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities
  13. Maryam, Z.
    Human activities in a large array of industrial and agricultural sectors produce chemical contaminants which are chiefly hydrocarbons of various types that are potentially toxic and carcinogenic to aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Globally, millions of tons of these pollutants are generated annually, and in some areas, they are released indiscriminately to the environment. In order to overcome this problem, microbiological decontamination or bioremediation has been suggested. Bioremediation has been argued to be an efficient, economic, and adaptable alternative to physicochemical remediation. However, to date, such claims of successful bioremediation are often not supported by evidence from toxicity studies. In this regard, luminescent bacteria have been employed in some hydrocarbon remediation experiments to denote reduction in toxicity. In this review, the utilization of luminescence bacteria as toxicity monitoring agent for hydrocarbon remediation is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities
  14. Kano Y, Miyazaki Y, Tomiyama Y, Mitsuyuki C, Nishida S, Rashid ZA
    Zoolog Sci, 2013 Mar;30(3):178-84.
    PMID: 23480377 DOI: 10.2108/zsj.30.178
    Mesohabitat selection in fluvial fishes was studied in a small tropical stream of the Malay Peninsula. A total of 681 individuals representing 24 species were sampled at 45 stations within heterogeneous stream (ca. 1 km in length), in which water depth, water velocity, substrate size, and riparian canopy cover were measured as environmental variables. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) yielded a diagram that shows a specific mesohabitat selection of the fish assemblage, in which the species were plotted widely on the CCA1-CCA2 biplot. Generalized linear model also revealed a significant pattern of the mesohabitat selection of several species. Water velocity and substrate size mainly separated on CCA1, indicating variation of pool (deep, slow-flow section) and riffle (shallow, fast-flow section) structures is a primary factor of mesohabitat selection in the fluvial fish assemblage. The mean body weight of species significantly correlated with CCA1; larger species tended to inhabit pools, while small ones occupied riffles. The riparian canopy cover separated on CCA2. The trophic level of species significantly correlated with CCA2; herbivorous species (low trophic level) selected open sites without riparian cover, whereas omnivorous/carnivorous (middle-high trophic level) species preferred highly covered sites. In conclusion, our results suggest that mesohabitat selection is closely related to the species feeding habit, which is consistent with the results of previous studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities
  15. Thatcher A, Yeow PH
    Appl Ergon, 2016 May 24.
    PMID: 27234806 DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2016.05.007
    Current human activities are seriously eroding the ability of natural and social systems to cope. Clearly we cannot continue along our current path without seriously damaging our own ability to survive as a species. This problem is usually framed as one of sustainability. As concerned professionals, citizens, and humans there is a strong collective will to address what we see as a failure to protect the natural and social environments that supports us. While acknowledging that we cannot do this alone, human factors and ergonomics needs to apply its relevant skills and knowledge to assist where it can in addressing the commonly identified problem areas. These problems include pollution, climate change, renewable energy, land transformation, and social unrest amongst numerous other emerging global problems. The issue of sustainability raises two fundamental questions for human factors and ergonomics: which system requires sustaining and what length of time is considered sustainable? In this paper we apply Wilson (2014) parent-sibling-child model to understanding what is required of an HFE sustainability response. This model is used to frame the papers that appear in this Special Issue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities
  16. Poon WC, Herath G, Sarker A, Masuda T, Kada R
    Appl Ergon, 2016 Feb 21.
    PMID: 26911247 DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2016.02.009
    Human activities, such as industrial, agricultural, and domestic pursuits, discharge effluents into riverine ecological systems that contains aquatic resources, such as fish, which are also used by humans. We conducted case studies in Malaysia to investigate the impacts of these human activities on water and fish resources, as well as on human well-being from an ergonomics perspective. This research shows that a green ergonomics approach can provide us with useful insights into sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in facilitating human well-being in consideration of the overall performance of the social-ecological system. Heavy metal concentrations contained in the effluents pollute river water and contaminate fish, eventually creating significant health risks and economic costs for residents, including the polluters. The study suggests a number of policy interventions to change human behavior and achieve greater collaboration between various levels of government, academia, civil society, and businesses to help establish sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities
  17. Alina, M., Azrina, A., Mohd Yunus, A.S., Mohd Zakiuddin, S., Mohd Izuan Effendi, H., Muhammad Rizal, R.
    Level of heavy metals in marine ecosystem has been intensively studied during recent years as these hazardous substances could be accumulated in the biota. Generally, the presence of contaminants in fish is a result of human activities such as industrial and agricultural wastes. In this study, the marine fish and shellfish from the Straits of Malacca were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) and Flow Injection Mercury System (FIMS) for Cd, As and Pb and Hg, respectively. The Straits of Malacca is one of the busiest shipping routes in the world that make the level of heavy metals potentially high besides the various industrial activities along the west region of Peninsular Malaysia. The range of heavy metals in samples were 1.0-3-6.5-3 µg/ g wet sample for Hg, 0.5-2-47-2 µg/ g wet sample for Cd, 0.01-0.39 µg/ g wet sample for Pb and 0.14-6.57 µg/ g wet sample for As. Most part of the values was below the permitted limit set by FAO/WHO 2004 as well as Food Act 1983 and Food Regulations 1985. Therefore it can be generalized that fish and shellfish from the Straits of Malacca are safe to consume in terms of these heavy metals concentrationand do not constitute a risk for human health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities
  18. Mohd Armi, A.S., Afiza, A.S., Mohd Ramzi, A.
    ASM Science Journal, 2012;6(2):149-151.
    Over the last century, the earth’s climate has changed. It is a serious global, long-term problem which involves complex interactions. A lot of evidence suggests that most of the observed factors contributing to the crisis over the last 50 years can be attributed to human activities. Malaysia has always been vulnerable to extreme climatic events such as typhoons, floods and drought. We expect climate change to exacerbate these vulnerabilities. To ensure, that our water resources will always be secure and ready for use. We need to create awareness in the public and the policy makers so that they will acknowledge that the climate change issue is real. They also need to accept that actions to adapt with our vulnerabilities should be immediately put in place. We can do this by integrating the various sector policies and securing the participation of all stakeholders in Malaysia and other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities
  19. Ghazally Ismail
    ASM Science Journal, 2011;5(1):73-74.
    Human activity has ‘very likely’ been the primary cause of global warming since the start of the Industrial Revolution (18th–19th century). As a new player in industrial transformation, Malaysia can choose to ignore the warnings of global warming. blame. This may not augur well. Release of greenhouse gases have been categorically linked to climate change and global warming. In her march towards industrialization, Malaysia too has contributed to the release of greenhouse gases. Apart from those arising from natural sources, the industrial sector in Malaysia also releases other types of gases such as the fluorocarbons. This is evident from the worsening air quality in some of our cities. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities
  20. Khalib Abdul Latiff
    Researchers all over the world have continuously contributed knowledge on common human cancers and its related risks. Despite these mountains of information, the trend of cancer problems has not significantly declined and perhaps in certain occasion, it gradually increased affecting those who are previously known to be less risky'. Cancer is still identified to be one of the top leading killer worldwide and is also the main source of psychosocial burden of the community particularly to the caregiver' Its problems are expected to be further increased as human beings are constantly modified and manipulated by unpredictable and dynamic human activities and globalization phenomena. Furthermore, the current advances in cancer therapy and others clinical interventions are not always guaranteed of a permanent cure, improve survival or prognosis, sustainable compliances, prolonging life and improving quality of life, thus the mortality and its associated biological and management complications are still prevalence. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Human Activities
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