METHODS: Retrospective data from 210 patients were obtained from a general hospital in Malaysia from May 2014 until June 2015, where 123 patients were having comorbid diabetes mellitus. The comparison of blood glucose control protocol performance between both protocol simulations was conducted through blood glucose fitted with physiological modelling on top of virtual trial simulations, mean calculation of simulation error and several graphical comparisons using stochastic modelling.
RESULTS: Stochastic Targeted Blood Glucose Control Protocol reduces hyperglycaemia by 16% in diabetic and 9% in nondiabetic cohorts. The protocol helps to control blood glucose level in the targeted range of 4.0-10.0 mmol/L for 71.8% in diabetic and 82.7% in nondiabetic cohorts, besides minimising the treatment hour up to 71 h for 123 diabetic patients and 39 h for 87 nondiabetic patients.
CONCLUSION: It is concluded that Stochastic Targeted Blood Glucose Control Protocol is good in reducing hyperglycaemia as compared to the current blood glucose management protocol in the Malaysian intensive care unit. Hence, the current Malaysian intensive care unit protocols need to be modified to enhance their performance, especially in the integration of insulin and nutrition intervention in decreasing the hyperglycaemia incidences. Improvement in Stochastic Targeted Blood Glucose Control Protocol in terms of uen model is also a must to adapt with the diabetic cohort.
METHODS: Crude extract obtained from the dried leaves using 80% methanolic solution was further partitioned using different polarity solvents. The resultant extracts were investigated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential followed by metabolites profiling using the gas chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
RESULTS: Multivariate data analysis was developed by correlating the bioactivity, and GC-MS data generated a suitable partial least square (PLS) model resulting in 11 bioactive compounds, namely, palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid (methyl ester), 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol, glycerol monostearate, alpha-tocospiro B, and stigmasterol. In-silico study via molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure Saccharomyces cerevisiae isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A). Interactions between the inhibitors and the protein were predicted involving residues, namely LYS156, THR310, PRO312, LEU313, GLU411, and ASN415 with hydrogen bond, while PHE314 and ARG315 with hydrophobic bonding.
CONCLUSION: The study provides informative data on the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors identified in C. nutans leaves, indicating the plant's therapeutic effect to manage hyperglycemia.
METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in high and low glucose concentrations. All HUVECs were treated with different concentrations of isoproterenol and propranolol for different time periods. The analytical procedures consisted of Western Blot, ELISA, DCFH-DA and TUNEL assays.
RESULTS: Isoproterenol (agonist of a beta-adrenergic receptor) significantly reduced phosphorylation at Ser-536 of NF-κB; and Ser-32 and Ser-36 of IκBα in hyperglycemic HUVECs. Isoproterenol also significantly reduced apoptosis and ROS generation. No effect of IκBα was observed on Tyr-42 phosphorylation. The effect of isoproterenol was reversed by the antagonist propranolol. We also checked if NF-κB inhibitor MG132 causes any change at the level of apoptosis. However, we observed an almost similar effect.
CONCLUSION: Given data demonstrates that beta-adrenergic receptors stimulation has a protective effect on HUVECs that might be occuring via NF-κβ and IκBα pathway.