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  1. Ismail MS, Siti-Zahrah A, Syafiq MR, Amal MN, Firdaus-Nawi M, Zamri-Saad M
    BMC Vet Res, 2016;12(1):194.
    PMID: 27608936 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-016-0834-1
    Streptococcosis is an important disease of tilapia throughout the world. In Malaysia, streptococcosis outbreak was commonly reported during the 3-month period of high water temperature between April and July. This study describes the duration of protection following single and double booster dose regimes against streptococcosis in tilapia using a feed-based vaccine containing formalin-killed Streptococcus agalactiae. A total of 510 tilapias of 120 ± 10 g were selected and divided into 3 groups. Fish of Group 1 were vaccinated at weeks 0 and 2 (single booster group) while fish of Group 2 were vaccinated at weeks 0, 2 and 6 (double booster group) with a feed-based vaccine against streptococcosis. Fish of Group 3 was not vaccinated. Serum samples were collected weekly to determine the antibody level while samples of eye, brain and kidney were collected for bacterial isolation. At week 10, all fish were challenged with live S. agalactiae and the survival rate was determined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunization, Secondary
  2. Michal Christina Steven, Jeffery Stephen
    MyJurnal
    Introduction:The incidence of pertussis has been said to increase over the years, and the affected patient-age group has also changed with the increasing number of cases amongst adolescents and adults. Therefore, adults require booster vaccination for protection against pertussis infection. Vaccination among healthcare workers (HCW) should be prioritized when a country implements an adult vaccine. However, the coverage of pertussis vaccination is still deficient among HCW due to low-risk perception. This study focused on finding the risk perception of pertussis in-fection amongst the HCWs based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and their acceptance to take pertussis vaccination. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using online survey. The website link is given to the Health-care workers consisting of doctors, Assistant Medical Officers, nurses, and Environmental Health Officers. Results: A total of 853 responders responded to the questionnaire. Most of the respondents (81.5%) are willing to receive the pertussis vaccine. Independent t-test showed that the PMT score was significantly different between those willing and those not willing to take the vaccine (p-value < 0.001, t statistics (df)= 7.729 (325). Robust path analysis showed that sociodemographic factors (age, the institution of working and prior pertussis vaccination) (p=0.004), threat (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunization, Secondary
  3. Muhilal
    MyJurnal
    Various studies conducted in Indonesia have shown that administration of Vitamin A to pre-school children had decreased the mortality and morbidity rates among them. In the first study conducted in the province of Acheh in North Sumatra, a twice yearly high dose of vitamin A led to a 34% decrease in mortality. In a second study in Bogor, conducted by fortifying the nutritional additive MSG with vitamin A and distributing the product in a designated area, the mortality rate among preschool children was 45% less than in a control area. In the third study also conducted in Bogor, where vitamin A was given to lactating women 2 weeks after giving birth and then directly to the infants themselves after 5 months of age, the mortality rate was 38% lower. The prevalences of respiratory and diarrhoeal infections were statistically lower than in the control gorups. Another study on preschool children showed a two-fold increase of anti TT IgG on primary immunisation against tetanus when compared to a control group and a four-fold increase with a secondary immunisation. Other studies conducted in Bogor and other parts of the world have showed that smaller doses given more often are more effective than bigger doses given less often.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunization, Secondary
  4. Mahmood S, Shah KU, Khan TM
    Sci Rep, 2018 08 22;8(1):12550.
    PMID: 30135554 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-30512-8
    A systematic review was performed to estimate the duration of protection of Hepatitis-B vaccine after primary vaccination during infancy. The number of seropositive participants with anti-HBs antibody titer ≥ 10 mIU/ml and seronegative participants who had anti-HBs antibody titer ≤ 10 mIU/ml after booster dose was the main outcome criteria to find out the protection time of Hepatitis-B vaccine. Twelve studies were selected for systematic review. Overall, results from the meta-analysis have revealed that the risk of Anti-HBs Titer ≤ 10 mIU/ml reduced by 50%. Upon performing the sub-group analysis it was revealed that the overall risk of having Anti-HBs Titre ≤ 10 mIU/ml was reduced up to 62% among the subjects age 21-30 years (0.38 [0.34, 0.44]; I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.938). Furthermore, it was observed that the risk of having titre level less than 10 mIU/ml for plasma derived vaccines were to be 56% [0.44, CI 0.33-0.57, I2 90.9%, p = <0.001]. Vaccination in early infancy does not ensure protection against Hepatitis-B infection. There is a strong correlation between the duration of protection and time elapsed after primary immunization during infancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunization, Secondary
  5. Kotirum S, Muangchana C, Techathawat S, Dilokthornsakul P, Wu DB, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Front Public Health, 2017;5:289.
    PMID: 29209602 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00289
    Current study aimed to estimate clinical and economic outcomes of providing the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination as a national vaccine immunization program in Thailand. A decision tree combined with Markov model was developed to simulate relevant costs and health outcomes covering lifetime horizon in societal and health care payer perspectives. This analysis considered children aged under 5 years old whom preventive vaccine of Hib infection are indicated. Two combined Hib vaccination schedules were considered: three-dose series (3 + 0) and three-dose series plus a booster does (3 + 1) compared with no vaccination. Budget impact analysis was also performed under Thai government perspective. The outcomes were reported as Hib-infected cases averted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in 2014 Thai baht (THB) ($) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. In base-case scenario, the model estimates that 3,960 infected cases, 59 disability cases, and 97 deaths can be prevented by national Hib vaccination program. The ICER for 3 + 0 schedule was THB 1,099 ($34) per QALY gained under societal perspective. The model was sensitive to pneumonia incidence among aged under 5 years old and direct non-medical care cost per episode of Hib pneumonia. Hib vaccination is very cost-effective in the Thai context. The budget impact analysis showed that Thai government needed to invest an additional budget of 110 ($3.4) million to implement Hib vaccination program. Policy makers should consider our findings for adopting this vaccine into national immunization program.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunization, Secondary
  6. Umer M, Jesse FFA, Mohammed Saleh WM, Chung ELT, Haron AW, Saharee AA, et al.
    Microb Pathog, 2020 Dec;149:104539.
    PMID: 33007431 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104539
    Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is characterized by the development of abscesses, mainly in superficial and internal lymph nodes, visceral and reproductive organs in small ruminants. This study aims to examine the histopathological changes in reproductive organs of goats immunized with killed vaccine of C. pseudotuberculosis. In this study, twenty four (24) clinically healthy bucks and does were divided into four groups A, B, C and D. Animals in groups A and B were immunized with 0.5 and 1% formalin killed vaccine, respectively; followed by a booster dose. After the booster dose of immunization, groups A, B and C were challenged with C. pseudotuberculosis at 106 cfu/ml. Goats in group D were immunize and unchallenged and left as control group. All C. pseudotuberculosis infected animals were euthanized humanely 12 weeks post-challenged. Tissue samples such as testes, epididymis, spermatic cord, penis, pituitary gland, mammary gland, vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovaries were collected for histopathology study. Microscopic examination of all tissues (testes, seminiferous tubules, spermatic cord, penile tissues and the pituitary gland) in the male reproductive organs of the bucks that were inoculated with 2 ml of 0.5% and 1.0% of C. pseudotuberculosis killed vaccine showed normal (animals inoculated with 1.0%) to mild (animals inoculated with 0.5%) histopathological changes when compared with those from group C which showed varying degrees of histopathological changes (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunization, Secondary
  7. Hazlina Y, Marlindawati MA, Shamsuddin K
    BMC Infect Dis, 2016 Dec 08;16(1):740.
    PMID: 27931192
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia still faces challenges optimizing resources to effectively eliminate measles through high immunization and herd immunity, with sporadic outbreaks of measles as evidence. The objective of this study is to determine the age-specific positive measles antibodies seroprevalence used for assessing the establishment of herd immunity against measles in different age groups. This is useful for identifying vulnerable age groups requiring supplementary immunization.

    METHODS: A seroprevalence study was conducted among respondents aged 6-9 years, 15-24 years and 45-54 years attending government health clinics in Seremban between September 2014 and January 2015. A total of 1541 measles IgG antibody status were determined using ELISA technique (NovaTec Immundiagnostica GMBH) and assessment of establishment of herd immunity was based on indicators developed by Plans. Data on socio-demographic background as well as medical and medication history were also gathered.

    RESULTS: Seropositive rate for all respondents were 87% (95% CI 85-89), while the rest had either indeterminate [6% (95% CI 5-7)] or negative titre [7% (95% CI 6-8)]. None of the factors analyzed except for age were significant predictors of positive measles antibodies. Seropositive rate differed by age with the highest rate seen in adults (94%; CI 92-96), followed by children (90%; 95% CI 87-94) and adolescents, and young adults (74%; 95% CI 70-78). Based on Plans' indicators, herd immunity was established in adults and children, but not in adolescents and young adults.

    CONCLUSIONS: To tackle the most susceptible group in the present study, it is advisable to give booster vaccination to secondary school students and freshmen who enter colleges and universities in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunization, Secondary
  8. Bande F, Arshad SS, Bejo MH, Omar AR, Moeini H, Khadkodaei S, et al.
    Microb Pathog, 2020 Dec;149:104560.
    PMID: 33068733 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104560
    Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is an economically important avian disease that considerably threatens the global poultry industry. This is partly, as a result of its negative consequences on egg production, weight gain as well as mortality rate.The disease is caused by a constantly evolving avian infectious bronchitis virus whose isolates are classified into several serotypes and genotypes that demonstrate little or no cross protection. In order to curb the menace of the disease therefore, broad based vaccines are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to develop a recombinant DNA vaccine candidate for improved protection of avian infectious bronchitis in poultry. Using bioinformatics and molecular cloning procedures, sets of monovalent and bivalent DNA vaccine constructs were developed based on the S1 glycoprotein from classical and variants IBV strains namely, M41 and CR88 respectively. The candidate vaccine was then encapsulated with a chitosan and saponin formulated nanoparticle for enhanced immunogenicity and protective capacity. RT-PCR assay and IFAT were used to confirm the transcriptional and translational expression of the encoded proteins respectively, while ELISA and Flow-cytometry were used to evaluate the immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine following immunization of various SPF chicken groups (A-F). Furthermore, histopathological changes and virus shedding were determined by quantitative realtime PCR assay and lesion scoring procedure respectively following challenge of various subgroups with respective wild-type IBV viruses. Results obtained from this study showed that, groups vaccinated with a bivalent DNA vaccine construct (pBudCR88-S1/M41-S1) had a significant increase in anti-IBV antibodies, CD3+ and CD8+ T-cells responses as compared to non-vaccinated groups. Likewise, the bivalent vaccine candidate significantly decreased the oropharyngeal and cloacal virus shedding (p < 0.05) compared to non-vaccinated control. Chickens immunized with the bivalent vaccine also exhibited milder clinical signs as well as low tracheal and kidney lesion scores following virus challenge when compared to control groups. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that bivalent DNA vaccine co-expressing dual S1 glycoprotein induced strong immune responses capable of protecting chickens against infection with both M41 and CR88 IBV strains. Moreso, it was evident that encapsulation of the vaccine with chitosan-saponin nanoparticle further enhanced immune responses and abrogates the need for multiple booster administration of vaccine. Therefore, the bivalent DNA vaccine could serve as efficient and effective alternative strategy for the control of IB in poultry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunization, Secondary/veterinary
  9. Lim FS, Koh MT, Tan KK, Chan PC, Chong CY, Shung Yehudi YW, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2014;14:530.
    PMID: 25278086 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-530
    BACKGROUND: The immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with routine childhood vaccines were evaluated among infants from Singapore and Malaysia, where PHiD-CV has been licensed.
    METHODS: In the primary vaccination phase, 298 infants from Singapore and 168 infants from Malaysia were randomised to receive the Phase III Clinical (Clin) or the Commercial (Com) lot of PHiD-CV at 2, 3, and 5 months of age. In the booster vaccination phase, 238 toddlers from Singapore received one dose of the PHiD-CV Commercial lot at 18-21 months of age. Immune responses to pneumococcal polysaccharides were measured using 22F-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and functional opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assay and to protein D, using ELISA.
    RESULTS: Immune responses induced by primary vaccination with the PHiD-CV Commercial lot were non-inferior to the Phase III Clinical lot in terms of adjusted antibody geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratios for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype and protein D. For each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, ≥93.6% and ≥88.5% of infants from Malaysia and Singapore had post-primary vaccination antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL and OPA titres ≥8, in the Clin and Com groups, respectively. For each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, ≥60.8% and ≥98.2% of toddlers from Singapore had pre- and post-booster antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL, in the Clin and Com groups, respectively. All children, except one, had measurable anti-protein D antibodies and the primary and booster doses of the co-administered vaccines were immunogenic. The incidence of each grade 3 solicited symptom was ≤11.1% in both study phases. No serious adverse events considered causally related to vaccination were reported throughout the study.
    CONCLUSIONS: PHiD-CV given as three-dose primary vaccination to infants in Singapore and Malaysia and booster vaccination to toddlers in Singapore was shown to be immunogenic with a clinically acceptable-safety profile.This study has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.govNCT00808444 and NCT01119625.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunization, Secondary
  10. Hudu SA, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, Harmal NS, Alshrari AS, Sekawi Z
    Ann Saudi Med, 2014 1 15;33(6):591-4.
    PMID: 24413864 DOI: 10.5144/0256-4947.2013.591
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) are detected in almost every patient with previous exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, with this marker alone, one cannot understand the activity of the disease; therefore, this study aimed to identify the implication of isolated hepatitis B core antibody and evaluate the effect of hepatitis B vaccine booster in isolated anti-HBc among adults who received the HBV vaccine as infants.

    DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A prospective cohort study of vaccinated undergraduate students of University Putra Malaysia.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 408 undergraduate students who received infant hepatitis B vaccination volunteered for this study; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from the volunteers. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and core antibodies were tested using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (DRG international Inc., USA). Molecular detection of hepatitis B viral DNA was performed using nested polymerase chain reaction.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of isolated anti-HBc among the vaccinated cohort was found to be 5.0%, out of which 80% had a hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs) titer higher than 10 IU/L, while 20% had less than 10 IU/L anti-HBs titer. All the anti-HBc positivesubjects had detectable hepatitis B viral DNA in their serum. Anamnestic response was found to be 100% among isolated anti-HBc with negative antibody.

    CONCLUSION: Isolated anti-HBc developed protective levels of anti-HBs after a single dose of recombinant hepatitis B vaccination. HBV DNA was detected in all isolated anti-HBc indicating occult chronic HBV infection with undetectable HBsAg.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunization, Secondary
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