Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 50 in total

  1. Al-Alousy BM, Abdul-Razak SH, Al-Ajeeli KS, Al-Jashamy KA
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl, 2011 Nov;22(6):1269-74.
    PMID: 22089802
    In developing countries, the majority of infection by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) occurs during childhood and continues as a latent infection. By adulthood, almost all the population may show anti-HCMV IgG as positive. This study was undertaken to determine the correlation between the prevalence of HCMV antibodies and HCMV infection during post transplant period among renal transplant patients in Baghdad. 43 renal transplant patients attending three renal transplantation centers, and 40 healthy individuals who served as controls were enrolled in this study. 18 (41.9%) were transplanted recently and they were under post-operative follow-up and 25 (58.1%) were transplanted more than one year ago. Detection of anti-HCMV IgG was carried out using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). The results revealed that anti-HCMV IgG was significantly higher among renal transplant recipients compared to healthy controls (97.7% vs 85%, P = 0.04). The anti-HCMV IgG positivity rate was not affected by patients' age, sex, and duration after transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy. We conclude that the high anti-HCMV IgG positivity rate among Iraqi renal transplant recipients make them prone to considerable risk of reactivation of HCMV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology*
  2. Karuppaiya A, Cheah SH, Mohd S, Kamal WH, Zulkifli MH
    Hybridoma (Larchmt), 2009 Apr;28(2):133-7.
    PMID: 19249990 DOI: 10.1089/hyb.2008.0085
    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as a diagnostic marker for the detection of prostate cancer in men. We have generated stable hybridomas producing specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of the IgG class against PSA from fusions of splenocytes from immunized mice with myeloma cells. The hybridomas were adapted into serum-free media and cultured in CELLine CL-1000 bioreactors to produce milligram quantities of MAbs. Cross-reactivity study demonstrated that all the MAbs reacted did not cross-react with several other types of tumor antigens. Two of the MAbs were successfully radiolabeled by the iodogen method. The (125)I-labeled MAbs demonstrated strong binding to PSA on the surface of the LNCaP cells (Kd of 1.16 x 10(-9) M and 1.4 x 10(-9) M). Thus the (125)I-labeled MAbs retained their immunoreactivity and possessed high affinity and is potentially useful for binding to tumor cells. In conclusion, the MAbs can be used to develop radioimmunodiagnostic, radioimaging, and immunohistochemistry techniques for the early detection and treatment of prostate cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  3. Noordin R, Abdullah KA, Azahri NA, Ramachandran CP
    PMID: 10928359
    Western blot analysis of infective larvae (L3) antigen of Brugia malayi were performed on 200 sera from six groups of individuals: 36 samples from B. malayi microfilaremic individuals; 10 samples from individuals with elephantiasis; 50 and 20 samples from amicrofilaremic individuals in a B. malayi endemic area with no anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies (towards microfilaria and adult worm antigens) and samples with high titres of the anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies respectively; 50 samples from non-endemic normals and 34 samples from geohelminth-infected individuals. After protein transfer, PVDF membrane strips were successively incubated with blocking solution, human sera, monoclonal anti-human IgG4 antibody-HRP and developed with luminol chemiluminescence substrate. 28/36 (78%), 1/10 (10%) and 16/20(80%) of sera from individuals with microfilariae, elephantiasis and amicrofilaremic individuals with high titers of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies respectively recognized L3 antigenic epitopes; the dominant and consistent antigenic bands were of approximately MW 43 kDa, 14 kDa, 15 kDa and 59 kDa. The rest of the sera were unreactive. This study showed that microfilaremics may or may not mount a notable antibody response to somatic L3 antigens, thus lending evidence that antibody response to this antigen is not protective against establishment of Brugia malayi infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  4. Kow ASF, Chik A, Soo KM, Khoo LW, Abas F, Tham CL
    Front Immunol, 2019;10:190.
    PMID: 30809224 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00190
    Background: Anaphylaxis is an acute and life-threatening allergic response. Classically and most commonly, it can be mediated by the crosslinking of allergens to immunoglobulin E (IgE)- high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) complex found mostly on mast cells. However, there is another pathway of anaphylaxis that is less well-studied. This pathway known as the alternative pathway is mediated by IgG and its Fc gamma receptor (Fcγ). Though it was not documented in human anaphylaxis, a few studies have found that IgG-mediated anaphylaxis can happen as demonstrated in rodent models of anaphylaxis. In these studies, a variety of soluble mediators were being evaluated and they differ from each study which causes confusion in the suitability, and reliability of choice of soluble mediators to be analyzed for diagnosis or therapeutic purposes. Hence, the objective of this meta-analysis is to identify the potential soluble mediators that are involved in an IgG-mediated anaphylaxis reaction. Methods: Studies related to IgG-mediated anaphylaxis were sourced from five search engines namely PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, Cochrane Library, and Center for Agricultural Bioscience International (CABI) regardless of publication year. Relevant studies were then reviewed based on specific inclusion factors. The means and standard deviations of each soluble mediator studied were then extracted using ImageJ or Get Data Graph Digitiser software and the data were subjected to meta-analysis. Results: From our findings, we found that histamine, serotonin, platelet activating factor (PAF), β-hexosaminidase, leukotriene C4 (LTC4), mucosal mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1), interleukins (IL)-4,-6, and-13; tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) were often being analyzed. Out of these soluble mediators, histamine, PAF, β-hexosaminidase, IL-6, and-13, MIP-1α and TNF-α were more significant with positive effect size and p < 0.001. As study effect was relatively small, we performed publication bias and found that there was publication bias and this could be due to the small sample size studied. Conclusion: As such, we proposed that through meta-analysis, the potential soluble mediators involved in rodent IgG-mediated anaphylaxis to be histamine, PAF, β-hexosaminidase, IL-6 and-13 and MIP-1α, and TNF-α but will require further studies with larger sample size.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology*
  5. Noordin R, Anuar NS, Juri NM, Wongphutorn P, Ruantip S, Kopolrat KY, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2021 07 08;105(3):688-691.
    PMID: 34237022 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0317
    Strongyloides stercoralis affects more than half a billion people worldwide, and hyperinfection in immunocompromised patients can be fatal. Elimination of this neglected tropical disease requires field-applicable diagnostic tools. We conducted a laboratory evaluation of a lateral flow rapid dipstick test (SsRapid™) using sera samples from a Strongyloides-endemic area in northeast Thailand. Group 1 was S. stercoralis-positive and larvae- and/or antibody-positive (according to the IgG ELISA) (N = 100). Group 2 had negative fecal examination and IgG ELISA results (N = 25). Group 3 had other parasitic infections and negative IgG ELISA results (N = 25). The results showed good diagnostic sensitivity (82%) and excellent specificity (96%). Suggested improvements in the SsRapid™ test include increased diagnostic sensitivity and conversion to the more robust cassette format. Field studies should be performed as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology*
  6. Lim CC, Choong YS, Lim TS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Apr 15;20(8).
    PMID: 30991723 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20081861
    Antibodies leverage on their unique architecture to bind with an array of antigens. The strength of interaction has a direct relation to the affinity of the antibodies towards the antigen. In vivo affinity maturation is performed through multiple rounds of somatic hypermutation and selection in the germinal centre. This unique process involves intricate sequence rearrangements at the gene level via molecular mechanisms. The emergence of in vitro display technologies, mainly phage display and recombinant DNA technology, has helped revolutionize the way antibody improvements are being carried out in the laboratory. The adaptation of molecular approaches in vitro to replicate the in vivo processes has allowed for improvements in the way recombinant antibodies are designed and tuned. Combinatorial libraries, consisting of a myriad of possible antibodies, are capable of replicating the diversity of the natural human antibody repertoire. The isolation of target-specific antibodies with specific affinity characteristics can also be accomplished through modification of stringent protocols. Despite the ability to screen and select for high-affinity binders, some 'fine tuning' may be required to enhance antibody binding in terms of its affinity. This review will provide a brief account of phage display technology used for antibody generation followed by a summary of different combinatorial library characteristics. The review will focus on available strategies, which include molecular approaches, next generation sequencing, and in silico approaches used for antibody affinity maturation in both therapeutic and diagnostic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  7. Cheng HM, Phuah EB
    Immunol Lett, 1989 Oct;22(4):263-6.
    PMID: 2628284
    Normal human sera (NHS), heat-inactivated at 56 degrees C for 30 min, demonstrated positive ELISA reactions for anti-cardiolipin (aCL) antibodies. The heat-induced reactivity in ELISA was inhibitable by the cardiolipin antigen and was abolished by prior IgG depletion of the heated NHS with a protein A preparation. The heat-potentiated aCL also cross-reacted selectively with phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine, but not with phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  8. Sil BK, Jamiruddin MR, Haq MA, Khondoker MU, Jahan N, Khandker SS, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2021;16:4739-4753.
    PMID: 34267520 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S313140
    BACKGROUND: Serological tests detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are widely used in seroprevalence studies and evaluating the efficacy of the vaccination program. Some of the widely used serological testing techniques are enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), and lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). However, these tests are plagued with low sensitivity or specificity, time-consuming, labor-intensive, and expensive. We developed a serological test implementing flow-through dot-blot assay (FT-DBA) for SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG detection, which provides enhanced sensitivity and specificity while being quick to perform and easy to use.

    METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 antigens were immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane to capture human IgG, which was then detected with anti-human IgG conjugated gold nanoparticle (hIgG-AuNP). A total of 181 samples were analyzed in-house. Within which 35 were further evaluated in US FDA-approved CLIA Elecsys SARS-CoV-2 assay. The positive panel consisted of RT-qPCR positive samples from patients with both <14 days and >14 days from the onset of clinical symptoms. The negative panel contained samples collected from the pre-pandemic era dengue patients and healthy donors during the pandemic. Moreover, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of FT-DBA were evaluated against RT-qPCR positive sera. However, the overall efficacies were assessed with sera that seroconverted against either nucleocapsid (NCP) or receptor-binding domain (RBD).

    RESULTS: In-house ELISA selected a total of 81 true seropositive and 100 seronegative samples. The sensitivity of samples with <14 days using FT-DBA was 94.7%, increasing to 100% for samples >14 days. The overall detection sensitivity and specificity were 98.8% and 98%, respectively, whereas the overall PPV and NPV were 99.6% and 99%. Moreover, comparative analysis between in-house ELISA assays and FT-DBA revealed clinical agreement of Cohen's Kappa value of 0.944. The FT-DBA showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% when compared with commercial CLIA kits.

    CONCLUSION: The assay can confirm past SARS-CoV-2 infection with high accuracy within 2 minutes compared to commercial CLIA or in-house ELISA. It can help track SARS-CoV-2 disease progression, population screening, and vaccination response. The ease of use of the assay without requiring any instruments while being semi-quantitative provides the avenue of its implementation in remote areas around the globe, where conventional serodiagnosis is not feasible.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  9. Kerishnan JP, Gopinath SC, Kai SB, Tang TH, Ng HL, Rahman ZA, et al.
    Int J Med Sci, 2016;13(6):424-31.
    PMID: 27279791 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.14475
    The association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and oral cancer has been widely reported. However, detecting anti-HPV antibodies in patient sera to determine risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been well studied. In the present investigation, a total of 206 OSCC serum samples from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database & Tissue Bank System, with 134 control serum samples, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to detect HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. In addition, nested PCR analysis using comprehensive consensus primers (PGMY09/11 and GP5(+)/6(+)) was used to confirm the presence of HPV. Furthermore, we have evaluated the association of various additional causal factors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel quid chewing) in HPV-infected OSCC patients. Statistical analysis of the Malaysian population indicated that OSCC was more prevalent in female Indian patients that practices betel quid chewing. ELISA revealed that HPV16 IgG, which demonstrates past exposure, could be detected in 197 (95.6%) OSCC patients and HPV16-specific IgM was found in a total of 42 (20.4%) OSCC patients, indicating current exposure. Taken together, our study suggest that HPV infection may play a significant role in OSCC (OR: 13.6; 95% CI: 3.89-47.51) and HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies could represent a significant indicator of risk factors in OSCC patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  10. Mohamed Ismail NA, Wan Abd Rahim WE, Salleh SA, Neoh HM, Jamal R, Jamil MA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:436975.
    PMID: 25587564 DOI: 10.1155/2014/436975
    Malaysia a dengue endemic country with dengue infections in pregnancy on the rise. The present study was aimed at determining dengue seroprevalence (IgG or IgM) during pregnancy and its neonatal transmission in dengue seropositive women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  11. Sudo M, Yamaguchi Y, Späth PJ, Matsumoto-Morita K, Ong BK, Shahrizaila N, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(9):e107772.
    PMID: 25259950 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107772
    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is the first line treatment for Guillain-Barré syndrome and multifocal motor neuropathy, which are caused by anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. IVIG has many potential mechanisms of action, and sialylation of the IgG Fc portion reportedly has an anti-inflammatory effect in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity models. We investigated the effects of different IVIG glycoforms on the inhibition of antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Deglycosylated, degalactosylated, galactosylated and sialylated IgG were prepared from IVIG following treatment with glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. Sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome and multifocal motor neuropathy associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies were used. Inhibition of complement deposition subsequent to IgG or IgM autoantibody binding to ganglioside, GM1 or GQ1b was assessed on microtiter plates. Sialylated and galactosylated IVIGs more effectively inhibited C3 deposition than original IVIG or enzyme-treated IVIGs (agalactosylated and deglycosylated IVIGs). Therefore, sialylated and galactosylated IVIGs may be more effective than conventional IVIG in the treatment of complement-dependent autoimmune diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  12. Khalilpour A, Sadjjadi SM, Moghadam ZK, Yunus MH, Zakaria ND, Osman S, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2014 Nov;91(5):994-9.
    PMID: 25200268 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0170
    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus is of major concern for humans in many parts of the world. Antigen B was prepared from E. granulosus hydatid fluid, and Western blots confirmed eight batches showing a band corresponding to the 8-/12-kDa subunit with positive serum and no low-molecular mass band (< 15 kDa) with negative serum. The batches were pooled and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and IgG dipsticks. Diagnostic sensitivity was determined using serum samples from 21 hydatidosis patients, and diagnostic specificity was established using sera from 17 individuals infected with other parasites and 15 healthy people. IgG4 dipstick had a diagnostic sensitivity of 95% (20 of 21) and a specificity of 100% (32 of 32). The IgG dipstick had a sensitivity of 100% (21 of 21) and a specificity of 87.5% (28 of 32). Thus, both IgG and IgG4 dipsticks had high sensitivities, but IgG4 had greater specificity for the diagnosis of human CE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  13. Syed-Hussain SS, Howe L, Pomroy WE, West DM, Smith SL, Williamson NB
    Vet Parasitol, 2014 Jun 16;203(1-2):21-8.
    PMID: 24582279 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.01.003
    Recent reports indicate Neospora caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep in New Zealand. Knowledge about the epidemiology of neosporosis in sheep is limited. This study aimed to adapt and validate a commercially available ELISA assay as an IgG avidity assay to discriminate between acute (primary and re-inoculated) and chronic N. caninum infections in sheep. In addition, it was used to compare the antibody avidity values between lambs from ewes inoculated with N. caninum either during the pregnancy or in the previous year. The avidity assay was undertaken by using 6M urea for the first wash after incubation with the primary antibody in the commercial ELISA (Chekit* Neospora antibody test kit, IDEXX Laboratories, Australia). Sequential serum samples were obtained from naïve ewes (n=16) experimentally inoculated with live N. caninum tachyzoites. All ewes were seropositive by two weeks post-inoculation and remained seropositive for 20 weeks post-inoculation. There was a linear relationship between time after inoculation and avidity values (p<0.05) over the first 24 weeks. In Week 4, all animals had avidity values <35% and by Week 8, 8/16 animals had avidity values of >35%. These results suggest that an avidity value of <35% indicates a recent primary infection while a value of >35% is indicative of a chronic infection. The assay was then validated using samples from other groups of experimentally inoculated sheep as well as samples from naturally infected ewes. When comparing sample to positive ratio (S/P) and avidity values from lambs born from recently inoculated ewes with those from ewes inoculated the previous year and re-inoculated in the current year, it was possible to differentiate the lambs at 2 weeks of age. Lambs from recently inoculated ewes had low S/P and avidity values at 2 weeks of age which increased by 12 weeks of age. In comparison, lambs from re-inoculated ewes had high S/P and avidity values at 2 weeks of age, due to maternal antibody influence but values were similar to those from lambs that were born from recently inoculated ewes at 12 weeks of age. Avidity values for four naturally infected ewes were all >60% indicating chronic infection. These results suggest that the assay is able to discriminate between recent and chronic infection in sheep as well as able to differentiate lambs with maternal immunity compared to their own de novo immunity. As such it can be utilized to understand the kinetics of N. caninum infection in sheep.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology*
  14. Seenichamy A, Bahaman AR, Mutalib AR, Khairani-Bejo S
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:592858.
    PMID: 24860824 DOI: 10.1155/2014/592858
    Leptospirosis is one of the zoonotic diseases in animals and humans throughout the world. LipL21 is one of the important surface-exposed lipoproteins in leptospires and the most effective cross protective immunogenic antigen. It is widely considered as a diagnostic marker for leptospirosis. In this study, we evaluated the serodiagnostic potential of LipL21 protein of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. We have successfully amplified, cloned, and expressed LipL21 in E. coli and evaluated its specificity by immunoblotting. Purified recombinant LipL21 (rLipL21) was inoculated into rabbits for the production of polyclonal antibody. Characterization of the purified IgG antibody against rLipL21 was performed by cross reactivity assay. Only sera from leptospirosis patients and rabbit hyperimmune sera recognized rLipL21 while the nonleptospirosis control sera showed no reaction in immunoblotting. We confirmed that anti-rLipL21-IgG antibody cross reacted with and detected only pathogenic leptospiral species and it did not react with nonpathogenic leptospires and other bacterial species. Results observed showed that anti-rLipL21-IgG antibody has high specificity and sensitivity to leptospires. The findings indicated that the antibody could be used in a diagnostic assay for detection of leptospires or their proteins in the early phase of infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology*
  15. Sasidharan S, Uyub AM
    J Immunoassay Immunochem, 2009;30(1):70-81.
    PMID: 19117203 DOI: 10.1080/15321810802569477
    Helicobacter pylori is recognized as a major case of gastritis and peptic ulcer and a key factor in the development of gastric cancer, gastric lymphoma, and non-ulcerative dyspepsia in man. The detection of antibodies specific for strains of H. pylori has demonstrated the value of serology for providing evidence of infection. The present study was conducted to detect the antigenic proteins of excretory antigen of H. pylori with Western blotting and examine whether anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA antibodies from H. pylori positive patients cross-react with antigens from other common bacterial pathogens. By using SDS-PAGE, 20 different proteins were found in the excretory antigen. By Western blotting and absorption studies, there were indications that anti-H. pylori IgA antibodies directed against 54 kDa, 50 kDa and 27 kDa cross-reacted with antigens from other bacteria, and that H. pylori proteins of 99 kDa, 88 kDa and 81 kDa possibly shared similar epitope with antigens of other pathogens not tested in the absorption studies. The cross-reactivity occurred in this study was not significantly affect the performance of the in-house ELISA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  16. Chan SW, Nathan S
    FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 2005 Jan 1;43(1):37-44.
    PMID: 15607634
    Filamentous phage random peptide libraries were used to identify the epitopes of Burkholderia pseudomallei protease by panning against IgG polyclonal sera that exhibited protease neutralizing properties. The isolated fusion peptides presented a consensus peptide sequence, TKSMALSG, which closely resembles part of the active site sequence, 435GTSMATPHVAG445, of B. pseudomallei serine metalloprotease. By comparing the consensus sequence, TKSMALSG, with the predicted three-dimensional molecular model of B. pseudomallei serine metalloprotease, it appears that the potential antibody binding epitope was buried within the molecule. This active site was conformational whereby one continuous sub-region (SMA) was located between two discontinuous sub-regions, supplied by the flanking residues in the same polypeptide. All phages selected from the biopanning with IgG polyclonal sera showed good binding towards the polyclonal antibodies when compared to the negative control. In addition, these peptide-bearing phages showed competitive inhibition of B. pseudomallei serine metalloprotease binding to the polyclonal IgG.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  17. Rahmah N, Anuar AK, Karim R, Mehdi R, Sinniah B, Omar AW
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1994 Nov 30;205(1):202-7.
    PMID: 7999024
    Sera from fifty subjects with different presentations of Brugian filariasis and from common soil-transmitted helminth infections were tested for specific anti-filarial IgG and its subclasses. Anti-filarial IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 showed cross-reactivities with soil-transmitted helminthic infections and no significant differences in optical densities among the various groups of filarial patients. In comparison with other groups of subjects, IgG4-ELISA of sera from microfilaraemic patients and some previously microfilaraemic patients showed a significant increase in optical density readings, while IgG2-ELISA showed elevated optical density readings in sera of patients with chronic elephantiasis. Therefore IgG2-ELISA is potentially useful in the diagnosis of brugian chronic elephantiasis while IgG4-ELISA may be beneficial for follow-up diagnosis of treated microfilaraemic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology*
  18. Yadav M, Umamaheswari S, Ablashi D
    J Med Virol, 1991 Apr;33(4):236-9.
    PMID: 1649908
    A total of 234 sera from healthy Malaysians of diverse ethnic origins were tested for antibody to the Z29 and prototype GS strains of HHV-6. The prevalence in the races ranged from 58 to 80% for the GS strain and 49 to 76% for the Z29 strain. The highest prevalence was in Malays with semi-urban cultural lifestyles and lowest was in the indigenous rural tribes (Ibans, Kadazans, Bidayuhs, and Orang Asli). The antibody titres to GS and Z29 virus capsid antigens differed in 11 (4.7%) samples by more than 2 dilutions. In 9 of the 11 sera the titres to GS strain were higher than to the Z29 strain. The differences in the antibody titres between strains of HHV-6 may reflect subtle changes in antigen structure of the virus recognised by some individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  19. Fedirko V, Tran HQ, Gewirtz AT, Stepien M, Trichopoulou A, Aleksandrova K, et al.
    BMC Med, 2017 04 04;15(1):72.
    PMID: 28372583 DOI: 10.1186/s12916-017-0830-8
    BACKGROUND: Leakage of bacterial products across the gut barrier may play a role in liver diseases which often precede the development of liver cancer. However, human studies, particularly from prospective settings, are lacking.

    METHODS: We used a case-control study design nested within a large prospective cohort to assess the association between circulating levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-flagellin immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG) (reflecting long-term exposures to LPS and flagellin, respectively) and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 139 men and women diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma between 1992 and 2010 were matched to 139 control subjects. Multivariable rate ratios (RRs), including adjustment for potential confounders, hepatitis B/C positivity, and degree of liver dysfunction, were calculated with conditional logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Antibody response to LPS and flagellin was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (highest vs. lowest quartile: RR = 11.76, 95% confidence interval = 1.70-81.40; P trend = 0.021). This finding did not vary substantially by time from enrollment to diagnosis, and did not change after adjustment for chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses.

    CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings, based on exposures up to several years prior to diagnosis, support a role for gut-derived bacterial products in hepatocellular carcinoma development. Further study into the role of gut barrier failure and exposure to bacterial products in liver diseases is warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
  20. Boyle MJ, Chan JA, Handayuni I, Reiling L, Feng G, Hilton A, et al.
    Sci Adv, 2019 09;5(9):eaax4489.
    PMID: 31579826 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax4489
    Most studies on human immunity to malaria have focused on the roles of immunoglobulin G (IgG), whereas the roles of IgM remain undefined. Analyzing multiple human cohorts to assess the dynamics of malaria-specific IgM during experimentally induced and naturally acquired malaria, we identified IgM activity against blood-stage parasites. We found that merozoite-specific IgM appears rapidly in Plasmodium falciparum infection and is prominent during malaria in children and adults with lifetime exposure, together with IgG. Unexpectedly, IgM persisted for extended periods of time; we found no difference in decay of merozoite-specific IgM over time compared to that of IgG. IgM blocked merozoite invasion of red blood cells in a complement-dependent manner. IgM was also associated with significantly reduced risk of clinical malaria in a longitudinal cohort of children. These findings suggest that merozoite-specific IgM is an important functional and long-lived antibody response targeting blood-stage malaria parasites that contributes to malaria immunity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/immunology
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