Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 200 in total

  1. Soon, C.K., Zaini, Z., Mohd Ujang, A., Nagapan, S., Abdullah, A.H., Hasmori, M.F., et al.
    The building sector consumes about forty percent of world energy, making energy efficiency in existing buildings an important issue. This study has been undertaken to investigate energy consumption of a building that has been redesigned to incorporate energy efficient features. It was found that the introduction of energy efficient features has helped to achieve savings up to 46% of the total spent on energy particularly based on electricity bills.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  2. Mahdavi M, Mahdavi M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:629-636.
    This paper considers a Monte Carlo simulation based method for estimating cycle stocks (production lot-sizing stocks) in a typical batch production system, where a variety of products is scheduled for production at determined periods of time. Delivery time is defined as the maximum lead time and pre-assembly processing time of the product's raw materials in the method. The product's final assembly cycle and delivery time, which were obtained via the production schedule and supply chain simulation, respectively, were both considered to estimate the demand distribution of product based on total duration. Efficient random variates generators were applied to model the lead time of the supply chain's stages. In order to support the performance reliability of the proposed method, a real case study is conducted and numerically analyzed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  3. Waleeda Swaidan, Amran Hussin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:305-313.
    A new numerical method was proposed in this paper to address the nonlinear quadratic optimal control problems, with state and control inequality constraints. This method used the quasilinearization technique and Haar wavelet operational matrix to convert the nonlinear optimal control problem into a sequence of quadratic programming problems. The inequality constraints for trajectory variables were transformed into quadratic programming constraints using the Haar wavelet collocation method. The proposed method was applied to optimize the control of the multi-item inventory model with linear demand rates. By enhancing the resolution of the Haar wavelet, we can improve the accuracy of the states, controls and cost. Simulation results were also compared with other researchers' work.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  4. Granados-García V, Flores YN, Díaz-Trejo LI, Méndez-Sánchez L, Liu S, Salinas-Escudero G, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(2):e0212558.
    PMID: 30807590 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212558
    AIM: This systematic review and meta-analysis characterizes the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in upper middle-income countries.

    METHODS: Five databases were searched from 1990-2016 for studies that took place in countries with a GDP per capita of $7,000 to $13,000 USD. The data extraction was performed based on information regarding prevalence, sample size, age of participants, duration of intravenous drug use (IDU), recruitment location, dates of data collection, study design, sampling scheme, type of tests used in identifying antibody reactivity to HCV, and the use of confirmatory tests. The synthesis was performed with a random effects model. The Cochrane statistical Q-test was used to evaluate the statistical heterogeneity of the results.

    RESULTS: The 33 studies included in the analysis correspond to a sample of seven countries and 23,342 observations. The point prevalence value estimates and confidence intervals of the random effects model were 0.729 and 0.644-0.800, respectively for all seven countries, and were greatest for China (0.633; 0.522-0.732) as compared to Brazil (0.396; 0.249-0.564). Prevalence for Montenegro (0.416; 0.237-0.621) and Malaysia (0.475; 0.177-0.792) appear to be intermediate. Mexico (0.960) and Mauritania (0.973) had only one study with the largest prevalence. A clear association was not observed between age or duration of IDU and prevalence of HCV, but the data from some groups may indicate a possible relationship. The measures of heterogeneity (Q and I2) suggest a high level of heterogeneity in studies conducted at the country level and by groups of countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we found that the pooled prevalence of HCV was high (0.729) among a group of seven upper middle income countries. However, there was significant variation in the prevalence of HCV observed in China (0.633) and Brazil (0.396).

    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  5. Tosanguan J, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Addiction, 2016 Feb;111(2):340-50.
    PMID: 26360507 DOI: 10.1111/add.13166
    AIMS: Clinical smoking cessation interventions have been found typically to be highly cost-effective in many high-income countries. There is a need to extend this to low- and middle-income countries and undertake comparative analyses. This study aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a range of clinical smoking cessation interventions available in Thailand.
    METHODS: Using a Markov model, cost-effectiveness, in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained, from a range of interventions was estimated from a societal perspective for males and females aged 40 years who smoke at least 10 cigarettes per day. Interventions considered were: counselling in hospital, phone counselling (Quitline) and counselling plus nicotine gum, nicotine patch, bupropion, nortriptyline or varenicline. An annual discounting rate of 3% was used. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC) plotted. Comparisons between interventions were conducted involving application of a 'decision rule' process.
    RESULTS: Counselling with varenicline and counselling with nortriptyline were found to be cost-effective. Hospital counselling only, nicotine patch and bupropion were dominated by Quitline, nortriptyline and varenicline, respectively, according to the decision rule. When compared with unassisted cessation, probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that all interventions have very high probabilities (95%) of being cost-saving except for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch (74%).
    CONCLUSION: In middle-income countries such as Thailand, nortriptyline and varenicline appear to provide cost-effective clinical options for supporting smokers to quit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  6. Hasan SS, Clavarino AM, Mamun AA, Kairuz T
    Australas Med J, 2015;8(6):179-88.
    PMID: 26213581 DOI: 10.4066/AMJ.2015.2330
    Once a disease of developed countries, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become widespread worldwide. For people with T2DM, achievement of therapeutic outcomes demands the rational and quality use of medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  7. Mahmod, M., Na’in, N., Ahmad, R., Chit, S.C., Habbal, A.
    Crowdsourcing is an initiative implemented by the Malaysian government to support its National Key Result Area (NKRA) agenda to improve the lives of citizens with low household income in the B40 group. Crowdsourcing activities are done on mobile crowdsourcing platforms that enable workers to perform micro tasks at any time for a fixed payment. However, without active and constant participation from the crowd, this initiative might not be successful. This paper describes a preliminary study in identifying motivation factors for participating in mobile crowdsourcing platforms. This study identified intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors that can attract crowds to participate in mobile crowdsourcing platforms. Technology efficacy factors that interlink with motivation factors were also identified in this study. The preliminary study employed the qualitative method where in-depth interviews were conducted among 30 crowdsourcing participants in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of this study are the basis for a motivation model that can attract crowdworkers from among the B40 group of household-income earners to participate in crowdsourcing to procure and perform available micro-tasks. The findings will also help improvise mobile platforms for crowdsourcing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  8. Ozturk I, Al-Mulali U, Solarin SA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Jun;26(17):17277-17283.
    PMID: 31012074 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05016-1
    This study aims at exploring the impact of corruption control on energy efficiency in 60 countries categorized by income: lower middle (LMI), upper middle (UMI), and high (HI). Panel methodology was utilized taking the period of 2000-2017. As cross-sectional dependence is confirmed among the tested equations, the Pesaran (J Appl Econ 22(2):265-312, 2007) unit root test and the augmented mean group estimator proposed by Eberhardt and Teal (2010) were utilized to overcome this matter. The results in general indicate that the lower the corruption is, the more the energy efficiency for all income group economies. Moreover, renewable energy reduces energy efficiency in lower-middle income and high-income economies while its effect is positive in middle-income economies. In addition, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) found to be present in all income group economies. Lastly, causality relationships among energy efficiency, corruption, and GDP were present mostly in upper-middle income and high-income economies. From the results, it was recommended that the countries from all income groups should increase their corruption control for the purpose of enhancing energy efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  9. Omar M, Supadi S
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:367-370.
    This paper considers the problem of a vendor or manufacturer supplying a final production batch to a single buyer under linearly decreasing demand for a finite time horizon. The vendor manufactures the product at a finite rate and ships the output to the buyer. In this model we considered the case where the holding cost at the vendor is greater than the buyer and propose a consignment model. The objective was to minimize the total cost of stock transfer from vendor to buyer and stock holding at the vendor and the buyer. We derived the structure of the optimal solution and illustrate the proposed models with numerical examples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  10. Fatimah Abdul Razak, Faridatulazna Ahmad Shahabuddin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2187-2194.
    Malaysian Household Income Survey data provided by the Malaysian Department of Statistics is used to provide evidence
    that the upper tails of the household income distribution follows a fractal based distribution known as power-law.
    Inequality measures are then applied to ascertain the levels of inequality based on this distribution. In addition to that,
    we analyzed the data in terms of different classes of occupation, obtained power-law exponents for each class and then
    highlighted the inequality between these classes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  11. Ehigiamusoe KU, Lean HH
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Aug;26(22):22611-22624.
    PMID: 31165972 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05309-5
    This paper examines the effects of energy consumption, economic growth, and financial development on carbon emissions in a panel of 122 countries. We employ both first-generation and second-generation cointegration and estimation procedures in order to address diverse economic and econometric issues such as heterogeneity, endogeneity, and cross-sectional dependence. We find a cointegration relationship between the variables. Energy consumption, economic growth, and financial development have detrimental effects on carbon emissions in the full sample. When the sample is split into different income groups, we reveal that economic growth and financial development mitigate carbon emissions in high-income group but have the opposite effects in low-income and middle-income groups. The implication of the findings is that energy consumption increases carbon emissions. While high levels of income and financial development decrease carbon emissions, low levels of income and financial development intensify it. Based on the findings, the paper makes some policy recommendations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  12. Sorketti EA, Zuraida NZ, Habil MH
    Int Psychiatry, 2010 Jul;7(3):71-74.
    PMID: 31508045
    The importance of traditional healing in low- and middle-income countries cannot be underestimated. It is generally perceived as part of the prevailing belief system and traditional healers are often seen as the primary agents for psychosocial problems in these countries; estimates of their service share range from 45% to 60% (World Health Organization, 1992). The World Health Organization (2000) estimated that 80% of people living in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries depend on traditional medicine for their health needs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  13. Solarin SA, Lean HH
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Sep;23(18):18753-65.
    PMID: 27314422 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7063-9
    The objective of this study is to examine the impact of natural gas consumption, output, and urbanization on CO2 emission in China and India for the period, 1965-2013. A cointegraton test, which provides for endogenously determined structural breaks, has been applied to examine the long-run relationship and to investigate the presence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the two countries. The presence of causal relationship between the variables is also investigated. The findings show that there is a long-run relationship in the variables and natural gas, real GDP, and urbanization have long-run positive impact on emission in both countries. There is no evidence for EKC in China and India. The findings further suggest that there is a long-run feedback relationship between the variables. The policy inferences of these findings are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  14. Phua J, Joynt GM, Nishimura M, Deng Y, Myatra SN, Chan YH, et al.
    Intensive Care Med, 2016 Jul;42(7):1118-27.
    PMID: 27071388 DOI: 10.1007/s00134-016-4347-y
    PURPOSE: To compare the attitudes of physicians towards withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments in intensive care units (ICUs) in low-middle-income Asian countries and regions with those in high-income ones, and to explore differences in the role of families and surrogates, legal risks, and financial considerations between these countries and regions.

    METHODS: Questionnaire study conducted in May-December 2012 on 847 physicians from 255 ICUs in 10 low-middle-income countries and regions according to the World Bank's classification, and 618 physicians from 211 ICUs in six high-income countries and regions.

    RESULTS: After we accounted for personal, ICU, and hospital characteristics on multivariable analyses using generalised linear mixed models, physicians from low-middle-income countries and regions were less likely to limit cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and inotropes, tracheostomy and haemodialysis than those from high-income countries and regions. They were more likely to involve families in end-of-life care discussions and to perceive legal risks with limitation of life-sustaining treatments and do-not-resuscitate orders. Nonetheless, they were also more likely to accede to families' requests to withdraw life-sustaining treatments in a patient with an otherwise reasonable chance of survival on financial grounds in a case scenario (adjusted odds ratio 5.05, 95 % confidence interval 2.69-9.51, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  15. Sararaks S, Jamaluddin R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Sep;54(3):310-9.
    PMID: 11045056
    Motivation, especially on the relationship of remuneration of government doctors to it, has long been an issue of concern. This study sought to elucidate the demotivating factors in service and the perceived discrepancy in income. It was conducted amongst doctors serving in the Ministry of Health, Negeri Sembilan, using self-administered questionnaires. Factors considered demotivating were remuneration, workload and recognition given. Career development, promotion prospects, issues with superiors, resources and patient attitudes were other factors identified. On average, respondents expect an income of 1.63 times more than their current drawn salary and 87.2% cited rewards as a recommendation to improve their satisfaction in service. In-service training was desired by almost all. Though the medical profession has traditionally been viewed as altruistic in nature, doctors in service are voicing out their views and perception, and they should be heard.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  16. Yusuf S, Rangarajan S, Teo K, Islam S, Li W, Liu L, et al.
    N. Engl. J. Med., 2014 08 28;371(9):818-27.
    PMID: 25162888 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1311890
    BACKGROUND: More than 80% of deaths from cardiovascular disease are estimated to occur in low-income and middle-income countries, but the reasons are unknown.
    METHODS: We enrolled 156,424 persons from 628 urban and rural communities in 17 countries (3 high-income, 10 middle-income, and 4 low-income countries) and assessed their cardiovascular risk using the INTERHEART Risk Score, a validated score for quantifying risk-factor burden without the use of laboratory testing (with higher scores indicating greater risk-factor burden). Participants were followed for incident cardiovascular disease and death for a mean of 4.1 years.
    RESULTS: The mean INTERHEART Risk Score was highest in high-income countries, intermediate in middle-income countries, and lowest in low-income countries (P<0.001). However, the rates of major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure) were lower in high-income countries than in middle- and low-income countries (3.99 events per 1000 person-years vs. 5.38 and 6.43 events per 1000 person-years, respectively; P<0.001). Case fatality rates were also lowest in high-income countries (6.5%, 15.9%, and 17.3% in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, respectively; P=0.01). Urban communities had a higher risk-factor burden than rural communities but lower rates of cardiovascular events (4.83 vs. 6.25 events per 1000 person-years, P<0.001) and case fatality rates (13.52% vs. 17.25%, P<0.001). The use of preventive medications and revascularization procedures was significantly more common in high-income countries than in middle- or low-income countries (P<0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: Although the risk-factor burden was lowest in low-income countries, the rates of major cardiovascular disease and death were substantially higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries. The high burden of risk factors in high-income countries may have been mitigated by better control of risk factors and more frequent use of proven pharmacologic therapies and revascularization. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others.).
    Note: Malaysia is a study site (Author: Yusoff K)
    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  17. Masood M, Reidpath DD
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(6):e0178928.
    PMID: 28662041 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178928
    BACKGROUND: This study explores the relationship between BMI and national-wealth and the cross-level interaction effect of national-wealth and individual household-wealth using multilevel analysis.
    METHODS: Data from the World Health Survey conducted in 2002-2004, across 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries was used. Participants aged 18 years and over were selected using multistage, stratified cluster sampling. BMI was used as outcome variable. The potential determinants of individual-level BMI were participants' sex, age, marital-status, education, occupation, household-wealth and location(rural/urban) at the individual-level. The country-level factors used were average national income (GNI-PPP) and income inequality (Gini-index). A two-level random-intercepts and fixed-slopes model structure with individuals nested within countries was fitted, treating BMI as a continuous outcome.
    RESULTS: The weighted mean BMI and standard-error of the 206,266 people from 70-countries was 23.90 (4.84). All the low-income countries were below the 25.0 mean BMI level and most of the high-income countries were above. All wealthier quintiles of household-wealth had higher scores in BMI than lowest quintile. Each USD10000 increase in GNI-PPP was associated with a 0.4 unit increase in BMI. The Gini-index was not associated with BMI. All these variables explained 28.1% of country-level, 4.9% of individual-level and 7.7% of total variance in BMI. The cross-level interaction effect between GNI-PPP and household-wealth was significant. BMI increased as the GNI-PPP increased in first four quintiles of household-wealth. However, the BMI of the wealthiest people decreased as the GNI-PPP increased.
    CONCLUSION: Both individual-level and country-level factors made an independent contribution to the BMI of the people. Household-wealth and national-income had significant interaction effects.
    Study name: World Health Survey (Malaysia is a study site)
    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  18. Rosenblatt E, Barton M, Mackillop W, Fidarova E, Cordero L, Yarney J, et al.
    Radiother Oncol, 2015 Jul;116(1):35-7.
    PMID: 26164776 DOI: 10.1016/j.radonc.2015.06.012
    Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate (RTU) is the proportion of all cancer cases that should receive radiotherapy. Optimal RTU was estimated for 9 Middle Income Countries as part of a larger IAEA project to better understand RTU and stage distribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  19. Tey, Y.S., Mad Nasir, S., Zainalabidin, M., Jinap, S., Abdul Gariff, R.
    The objective of this study is to investigate the demand for quality vegetables in Malaysia. This study estimates quality elasticities from the difference between expenditure and quantity elasticities in order to show the demand for quality vegetables in Malaysia. By using the Household Expenditure Survey 2004/2005, expenditure and quantity Engel equations are estimated via two stage least square. The positive estimated quality elasticities (except root and tuberous vegetable) show that Malaysian consumers tend to increase their demand for quality vegetables in response to their incomes rise. To be more specific, urban consumers are expected to demand more of higher quality vegetables (except root and tuberous vegetable) than rural consumers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
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