Massive slums have become major features of cities in many low-income and middle-income countries. Here, in the first in a Series of two papers, we discuss why slums are unhealthy places with especially high risks of infection and injury. We show that children are especially vulnerable, and that the combination of malnutrition and recurrent diarrhoea leads to stunted growth and longer-term effects on cognitive development. We find that the scientific literature on slum health is underdeveloped in comparison to urban health, and poverty and health. This shortcoming is important because health is affected by factors arising from the shared physical and social environment, which have effects beyond those of poverty alone. In the second paper we will consider what can be done to improve health and make recommendations for the development of slum health as a field of study.
In the first paper in this Series we assessed theoretical and empirical evidence and concluded that the health of people living in slums is a function not only of poverty but of intimately shared physical and social environments. In this paper we extend the theory of so-called neighbourhood effects. Slums offer high returns on investment because beneficial effects are shared across many people in densely populated neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood effects also help explain how and why the benefits of interventions vary between slum and non-slum spaces and between slums. We build on this spatial concept of slums to argue that, in all low-income and-middle-income countries, census tracts should henceforth be designated slum or non-slum both to inform local policy and as the basis for research surveys that build on censuses. We argue that slum health should be promoted as a topic of enquiry alongside poverty and health.
This study assesses waste management and recycling practices of the urban poor households residing as squatters and in low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. To attain the objective, the study employed some statistical techniques such as t-tests of equality of means, one-way analysis of variance, chi-squared 'likelihood ratio' tests, and simple descriptive statistics. The statistical techniques were used to determine and analyse the factors that significantly influence the environmental behaviour of the urban poor concerning solid waste management, particularly their recycling practices. The findings of the study show that the urban poor and low-income communities have been proved to behave in ways that are consistent with and conducive to environmentally friendly solid waste management. This study provides evidence that the urban poor and low-income communities are the main recyclers, re-users, and source-reducers of their household solid waste. The study, however, suggests that policies should be formulated to focus on promoting knowledge, education, and the skills of the urban poor and, in addition, to empower them as a means of improving their quality of life.
This study aims at exploring the impact of corruption control on energy efficiency in 60 countries categorized by income: lower middle (LMI), upper middle (UMI), and high (HI). Panel methodology was utilized taking the period of 2000-2017. As cross-sectional dependence is confirmed among the tested equations, the Pesaran (J Appl Econ 22(2):265-312, 2007) unit root test and the augmented mean group estimator proposed by Eberhardt and Teal (2010) were utilized to overcome this matter. The results in general indicate that the lower the corruption is, the more the energy efficiency for all income group economies. Moreover, renewable energy reduces energy efficiency in lower-middle income and high-income economies while its effect is positive in middle-income economies. In addition, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) found to be present in all income group economies. Lastly, causality relationships among energy efficiency, corruption, and GDP were present mostly in upper-middle income and high-income economies. From the results, it was recommended that the countries from all income groups should increase their corruption control for the purpose of enhancing energy efficiency.
Low-cost high rise housing project is developed to provide a chance for low-income
citizen to own a house at a lower market price. Each low-cost high-rise residential
building possesses its own building management body where one of its duties is to
manage residential area after the strata title has been issued to the purchaser. The
study was carried out to evaluate the level of satisfaction among residents of one lowcost
housing area towards the maintenance activities administered by the building
management body. This research employed mixed-method approach; quantitative and
qualitative, as it able to capture accurate data from both residents and the building
management body. This study concluded that the residents of Rumah Selangorku
Damai Utama are mostly leaning towards dissatisfaction with the building and facilities
maintenance services provided by the building management body.
This paper examines the effects of energy consumption, economic growth, and financial development on carbon emissions in a panel of 122 countries. We employ both first-generation and second-generation cointegration and estimation procedures in order to address diverse economic and econometric issues such as heterogeneity, endogeneity, and cross-sectional dependence. We find a cointegration relationship between the variables. Energy consumption, economic growth, and financial development have detrimental effects on carbon emissions in the full sample. When the sample is split into different income groups, we reveal that economic growth and financial development mitigate carbon emissions in high-income group but have the opposite effects in low-income and middle-income groups. The implication of the findings is that energy consumption increases carbon emissions. While high levels of income and financial development decrease carbon emissions, low levels of income and financial development intensify it. Based on the findings, the paper makes some policy recommendations.
"Indigenous people" have been acknowledged as among the poorest and most socio-economically and culturally marginalized all over the world. This paper explores the socio-economic status of the indigenous people and their poverty profile within watershed and environmentally protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of the study indicate that the "indigenous community" is likely to be poor if they live in environmentally sensitive and unprotected areas as compared to families under the new resettlement scheme. Inadequate access to basic education and employment contributed significantly to their poor economic status. The findings further reveal that the indigenous community is facing difficulties in receiving access and support in terms of basic needs such as housing, education, economic livelihood, and other social infrastructure. Moreover, the regulatory structure for the management of watershed areas as well as the emphasis for commodity crops such as palm oil and natural rubber have indirectly contributed toward the poverty level of the indigenous people.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country's level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms.
Objectives: (a) To examine the intra-observer reliability of the Malay language versions of two international respiratory questionnaires i.e. the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Children (ISAAC) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS) questionnaires, and (b) using the more reliable of these questionnaires, to estimate the prevalence of asthma and allergy related symptoms in an ethnically homogenous inner city community in Kuala Lumpur.
Methods: The study was conducted among 7 to 12 year old school children of Malay ethnic origin living in an inner city area of Kuala Lumpur. The sample consisted of 787 children attending the only primary school in the area. The Malay versions of both questionnaires were administered twice, one month apart, and were completed by parents. Agreement between the first and second responses to the same questions were assessed by Cohen’s kappa. Kappa values <0.4 were indicative of poor intra-observer reliability, 0.4-0.59 moderate reliability, 0.6-0.79 good reliability and >0.79 excellent reliability.
Results: 77.9% and 36.3% of parents responded to the first and second administrations of the questionnaires respectively. Kappa values of >0.4 were obtained in 15/16 (93.8%) and 17/27 (63.0%) questions of the ISAAC and ATS questionnaires respectively. Excellent kappa values were obtained in 4/16 (25%) questions of the ISAAC questionnaire versus only 1/27 (3.7%) questions of the ATS questionnaire. From the ISAAC questionnaire, all questions on wheeze had good reliability while those on asthma had excellent reliability. Questions on allergic symptoms had poor to moderate reliability. In contrast, from the ATS questionnaire, questions on wheeze had moderate reliability while questions on asthma were excellent reliable. Questions on allergic symptoms had moderate to good reliability while those on cough, phlegm and bronchitis had poor reliability.
According to the ISAAC questionnaire the prevalence of ever wheeze, wheeze in the last 12 months, ever asthma and wheeze with exercise in the last 12 months was 12.5%, 6.6%, 10.3% and 5.9% respectively. The prevalence of ever sneeze or runny nose, sneeze or runny nose in the last 12 months, watery eyes in the last 12 months and ever eczema was 15.2%, 11.1%, 4.4% and 8,5% respectively.
Conclusions: The translated ISAAC questionnaire was more reliable than the translated ATS questionnaire. Asthma and related symptoms were common among Malay school children in inner city Kuala Lumpur.
A cross-sectional study on helminthiasis among rural primary schoolchildren aged 9 to 10 years Bachok, Kelaritan was perfumed. A total of 680 schoolchildren participated in the study. Stool specimens were examined for the presence of the ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hoolcwonn. The worm load was then measured using the modified Stoll`s volumetric dilution
technique. The overall prevalence of helminthiasis was 77 .2%. Trichuris trichiura were the commonest type of heminth noted - 66.8%, compared with Ascaris lumlrricoides (49.7%) and hookworm (1.8%). Mixed infections with Ascaris lumlyricoides and Trichuris trichiura was the commonest type of infection 249(41 .5%) . For Ascaris lumbncoides, 34.6% had mild and 5 I .3% had moderate worm load while for Trichurb trichiura, 66.5% had mild and 30.8 % had moderate worm load. Only 14.1% and 2.7% 4 of the schoolchildren had a heavy load of Ascaris lumlwicoides and Trichuris trichiura respectively. All the schookhildren with hookworm were only mildly infected. Targeted mass treatment for rural Mahysian schoolchildren is still essential, especially in areas where poverty and malnutrition are still prevalent.
In order to address the issues of climate change through wise management of resources and environmental conservation, this study examined the intention and behavior towards green consumption among low-income households. This study was a cross-sectional that relied on 380 low-income household respondents who lived in coastal areas of Peninsular Malaysia. The findings revealed a positive effect of eco-literacy and self-efficacy on attitude towards green products. Subsequently, the findings also ascertained a positive effect of attitude and perceived behavioral control on intention and consumption of green products. In addition, both scholars and policymakers can rely on these findings to increase the intention and behavior towards the consumption of green products in order to reduce the environmental vulnerability to the coastal communities. Therefore, responsible organizations should implement programs and policies that minimize the adverse effects of climate change through resource management and environmental conservation by promoting the use of green products among Malaysians.
Centuries of scientific advances and developments in biomedical sciences have brought us a long way to understanding and managing disease processes, by reducing them to simplified cause-effect models. For most of the infectious diseases known today, we have the methods and technology to identify the causative agent, understand the mechanism by which pathology is induced and develop the treatment (drugs, vaccines, medical or surgical procedures) to cure, manage or control.Disease, however, occurs within a context of lives fraught with complexity. For any given infectious disease, who gets it, when, why, the duration, the severity, the outcome, the sequelae, are bound by a complex interplay of factors related as much to the individual as it is to the physical, social, cultural, political and economic environments. Furthermore each of these factors is in a dynamic state of change, evolving over time as they interact with each other. Simple solutions to infectious diseases are therefore rarely sustainable solutions. Sustainability would require the development of interdisciplinary sciences that allow us to acknowledge, understand and address these complexities as they occur, rather than rely solely on a form of science based on reducing the management of disease to simple paradigms.In this review we examine the current global health responses to the 'neglected' tropical diseases, which have been prioritised on the basis of an acknowledgment of the complexity of the poverty-disease cycle. However research and interventions for neglected tropical diseases, largely neglect the social and ecological contextual, factors that make these diseases persist in the target populations, continuing instead to focus on the simple biomedical interventions. We highlight the gaps in the approaches and explore the potential of enhanced interdisciplinary work in the development of long term solutions to disease control.