Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 319 in total

  1. Almaqtari FA, Farhan NHS, Al-Hattami HM, Elsheikh T
    PLoS One, 2022;17(12):e0279159.
    PMID: 36520881 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0279159
    The present study examines the moderation effect of board independence change on the relationship between board characteristics, related party transactions and financial performance of Indian listed banks over 10 years from 2010 to 2019. While board size, independence, diligence, and remuneration were taken to represent board characteristics, all key personnel and subsidiaries' transactions were considered measures for related party transactions. On the other hand, the financial performance of banks was measured by two accounting-based measures (return on assets and profit after tax) and two market-based measures (earning per share and Tobin Q). The results revealed that board independence change has a significant negative effect on financial performance. Further, the results indicated that board independence change moderates positively and significantly the relationship between related party transactions and financial performance. The findings also showed that board independence change had a moderating effect that significantly and negatively weakens board size and effectiveness, negatively influencing banks' profitability. Unlike other studies, this study uniquely uses board independence change as a moderator between board characteristics, related party transactions, and several measures of banks' financial performance. The limited research highlighting this issue, where Indian banks have encountered several challenges in the last few years, has motivated the present study to bridge the existing gaps in the strand literature. Therefore, this research opens useful insights and has beneficial implications for policymakers, bankers, financial analysts, and academicians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  2. Soon, C.K., Zaini, Z., Mohd Ujang, A., Nagapan, S., Abdullah, A.H., Hasmori, M.F., et al.
    The building sector consumes about forty percent of world energy, making energy efficiency in existing buildings an important issue. This study has been undertaken to investigate energy consumption of a building that has been redesigned to incorporate energy efficient features. It was found that the introduction of energy efficient features has helped to achieve savings up to 46% of the total spent on energy particularly based on electricity bills.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  3. Rylance S, Bateman ED, Boulet L, Cohen M, El Sony A, Halpin DMG, et al.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2022 Dec 01;26(12):1106-1108.
    PMID: 36447314 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.22.0544
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  4. Vijayasingham L, Jogulu U, Allotey P
    Soc Sci Med, 2021 01;269:113608.
    PMID: 33360218 DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113608
    For people with chronic illnesses in low-and-middle-income countries, access to enabling resources that contribute to health, economic and social resilience such as continued employment, often fall outside the health sector's remit or delivery of national structural protection. In the absence of sufficient laws and policies that mitigate discrimination and enhance reasonable work modifications, private employers have a high degree of agency and discretion in how they hire, manage, or terminate employees with chronic illnesses (ECI). There is a scarcity of research on how employers make decisions under these conditions. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we interviewed and analysed data from 30 human resource (HR) professionals and decision-makers within private organisations in Klang Valley, Malaysia (June 2015-September 2016). In this paper, we use 'ethics of care' as an analytic, and moral lens to present HR's decision-making rationales in caring for and managing ECI. Respondents described the positive influence of international practices, including through parent company policies, as a reference for best practice. While overt bias and discriminatory perceptions were predictably described, participants also discussed care as relational organisational culture, and strategy, albeit selectively. Apart from illness factors such as duration and severity, descriptions of 'selective caregiving' included considerations of an employee's duration in organisations, the perceived value of the employee to employers, organisation size, ethos, resources and capabilities, and how organisations managed the uncertainty of illness futures as a potential risk to organisation outcomes. Selective caregiving can contribute to social, economic and health inequalities in populations with chronic illness. Nevertheless, global health actors can use the problems identified by participants, as entry points to engage more closely with employers and the broader private and commercial sectors in LMICs, to facilitate more inclusive care, and care-based intersectoral work to address the social and economic determinants of health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  5. Hasnidar, Sibarani R, Sinar S, Mulyadi
    Gac Sanit, 2021;35 Suppl 2:S583-S587.
    PMID: 34929906 DOI: 10.1016/j.gaceta.2021.10.088
    OBJECTIVE: This study discusses the role of Batubara Malay women in maintaining health and preserving culinary through the Menotou Banjo tradition. The Menotou Banjo tradition is a tradition of growing rice in the Malay community in Batubara Regency, North Sumatra Province.

    METHOD: The research method used, namely qualitative with interactive models. The interactive model uses four stages, namely data collection, data condensation, data display, and conclusions: drawing/verifying. The research approach used is a Anthropolinguistics.

    RESULTS: The results showed the role of Batubara Malay women in maintaining the health of themselves and their families through healthy food during the rice planting season. The serving of food and cakes during the implementation of the Menotou Banjo tradition is a symbol of the ability and skills of the Batubara Malay woman in gathering almost the same food into various types of food. In addition, Batubara Malay women also have a high social and mutual cooperation in social life.

    CONCLUSION: The conclusion of the research shows that the Batubara Malay woman has an important role in maintaining health and also helps her husband to earn a living for family survival. Thus the next generation of healthy, prosperous, and intelligent people will be created.

    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  6. Penkunas MJ, Chong SY, Rhule ELM, Berdou E, Allotey P
    Global Health, 2021 06 21;17(1):63.
    PMID: 34154605 DOI: 10.1186/s12992-021-00714-3
    Efficacious health interventions tested through controlled trials often fail to show desired impacts when implemented at scale. These challenges can be particularly pervasive in low- and middle-income settings where health systems often lack the capacity and mechanisms required for high-quality research and evidence translation. Implementation research is a powerful tool for identifying and addressing the bottlenecks impeding the success of proven health interventions. Implementation research training initiatives, although growing in number, remain out of reach for many investigators in low- and middle-income settings, who possess the knowledge required to contextualize challenges and potential solutions in light of interacting community- and system-level features. We propose a realigned implementation research training model that centers on team-based learning, tailored didactic opportunities, learning-by-doing, and mentorship.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  7. Cheah YK, Appannah G, Abdul Adzis A
    Nutr Cancer, 2023;75(2):498-509.
    PMID: 36111368 DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2022.2123534
    Background: The objective of the present study is to investigate the influences of sociodemographic and household factors on consumption expenditure on processed meat among households in Malaysia.Methods: Data were extracted from the Malaysian Household Expenditure Survey (HES) 2016. Lognormal hurdle models were utilized to assess the likelihood of consuming processed meat and the amount consumed. The independent variables consisted of household heads' age, educational level, gender, marital status, employment status, ethnicity, as well as household income, household region and household locality.Results: Bumiputera households with younger heads were more likely to consume processed meat and spent more than households with older heads. Chinese and Indian households in a higher income group had a higher likelihood of consuming and spending on processed meat than those in a lower income group. The probability of consuming processed meat and the amount consumed were positively associated with being from East Malaysia and urban areas.Conclusions: There are distinguished roles of sociodemographic and household factors across ethnic groups in consumption expenditure on processed meat. Policy makers should take account of age, income, education, household region and household locality factors when formulating intervention measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  8. Dzulkipli MR, Shafie AA, Maon SN, Ramli A, Yahaya AHM, Ho SW, et al.
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2024 Mar;40:19-26.
    PMID: 37972430 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2023.10.003
    OBJECTIVES: Early access to innovative oncology medicine is crucial to provide better treatment alternatives to patients with cancer. However, innovative oncology medicines often come at higher prices, thus limiting the government's ability for its universal coverage. Hence an alternative paying mechanism is needed. This study is intended to determine the willingness to pay (WTP) for innovative oncology medicines among Malaysians.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional contingent valuation study on 571 Malaysians was conducted to elicit respondents' WTP value via bidding game approach. A double-bounded dichotomous choice was used in 3 hypothetical scenarios: innovative diabetes medicine, innovative oncology medicine one-off (IOMO), and innovative oncology medicine insurance. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors affecting respondent's WTP, whereas the mean WTP value and the factors affecting amount to WTP was determined using a parametric 2-part model.

    RESULTS: This study received 95% response rate. The mean age of the respondents is 48 years (SD 17) with majority of the respondents female (60.3%) and from ethnic Malay (62%). About 343 (64.7%) of the respondents expressed WTP for IOMO. Those in higher income bracket were willing to pay more for the access of IOMO than the overall WTP mean value (P = .046, coefficient 351.57).

    CONCLUSIONS: More than half of Malaysian are willing to pay for IOMO at mean value of Malaysian Ringgit 279.10 (US dollar 66.77). Collaborative funding mechanisms and appropriate financial screening among the stakeholders could be introduced as methods to expedite the access of innovative oncology medicine among patients with cancer in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  9. Waleeda Swaidan, Amran Hussin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:305-313.
    A new numerical method was proposed in this paper to address the nonlinear quadratic optimal control problems, with state and control inequality constraints. This method used the quasilinearization technique and Haar wavelet operational matrix to convert the nonlinear optimal control problem into a sequence of quadratic programming problems. The inequality constraints for trajectory variables were transformed into quadratic programming constraints using the Haar wavelet collocation method. The proposed method was applied to optimize the control of the multi-item inventory model with linear demand rates. By enhancing the resolution of the Haar wavelet, we can improve the accuracy of the states, controls and cost. Simulation results were also compared with other researchers' work.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  10. Mahdavi M, Mahdavi M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:629-636.
    This paper considers a Monte Carlo simulation based method for estimating cycle stocks (production lot-sizing stocks) in a typical batch production system, where a variety of products is scheduled for production at determined periods of time. Delivery time is defined as the maximum lead time and pre-assembly processing time of the product's raw materials in the method. The product's final assembly cycle and delivery time, which were obtained via the production schedule and supply chain simulation, respectively, were both considered to estimate the demand distribution of product based on total duration. Efficient random variates generators were applied to model the lead time of the supply chain's stages. In order to support the performance reliability of the proposed method, a real case study is conducted and numerically analyzed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  11. Chang CT, Lim XJ, Chew CC, Rajan P, Chan HK, Abu Hassan MR, et al.
    Vaccine, 2022 Dec 12;40(52):7515-7519.
    PMID: 36371369 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.10.057
    The recent wave of COVID-19 cases has led to the potential need for booster doses. We surveyed 6,294 people and found that 87.6% reported willingness to take a booster dose, with vaccine efficacy rate being the most common reason cited to accept booster dose. Differences in acceptance rates were noted among those working in non-health related sectors, different ethnic groups as well as those who had taken viral vector vaccines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  12. Subramaniam Y, Loganathan N, Tang CF
    PMID: 37036215 DOI: 10.1177/27551938231163991
    This study examines the impact of food security on health outcomes in 56 developing countries from 2011 to 2019, using a comprehensive measure of food security. Applying generalized methods of moments, the results provide supportive evidence that food security influences health in a positive way. The existence of positive effects suggests that food availability (i.e., more supply), accessibility (i.e., higher income), utilization (i.e., healthy foods), and stability (i.e., more certainty in production) for livelihoods sustain life and promote good health. As a result, this study justifies the need for governments to provide equal support to all four dimensions of food security to promote better nutrition and health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
  13. Granados-García V, Flores YN, Díaz-Trejo LI, Méndez-Sánchez L, Liu S, Salinas-Escudero G, et al.
    PLoS One, 2019;14(2):e0212558.
    PMID: 30807590 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212558
    AIM: This systematic review and meta-analysis characterizes the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in upper middle-income countries.

    METHODS: Five databases were searched from 1990-2016 for studies that took place in countries with a GDP per capita of $7,000 to $13,000 USD. The data extraction was performed based on information regarding prevalence, sample size, age of participants, duration of intravenous drug use (IDU), recruitment location, dates of data collection, study design, sampling scheme, type of tests used in identifying antibody reactivity to HCV, and the use of confirmatory tests. The synthesis was performed with a random effects model. The Cochrane statistical Q-test was used to evaluate the statistical heterogeneity of the results.

    RESULTS: The 33 studies included in the analysis correspond to a sample of seven countries and 23,342 observations. The point prevalence value estimates and confidence intervals of the random effects model were 0.729 and 0.644-0.800, respectively for all seven countries, and were greatest for China (0.633; 0.522-0.732) as compared to Brazil (0.396; 0.249-0.564). Prevalence for Montenegro (0.416; 0.237-0.621) and Malaysia (0.475; 0.177-0.792) appear to be intermediate. Mexico (0.960) and Mauritania (0.973) had only one study with the largest prevalence. A clear association was not observed between age or duration of IDU and prevalence of HCV, but the data from some groups may indicate a possible relationship. The measures of heterogeneity (Q and I2) suggest a high level of heterogeneity in studies conducted at the country level and by groups of countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we found that the pooled prevalence of HCV was high (0.729) among a group of seven upper middle income countries. However, there was significant variation in the prevalence of HCV observed in China (0.633) and Brazil (0.396).

    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  14. Chow CK, Nguyen TN, Marschner S, Diaz R, Rahman O, Avezum A, et al.
    BMJ Glob Health, 2020 11;5(11).
    PMID: 33148540 DOI: 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002640
    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the relationship between access to medicine for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) among people at high risk of CVD in high-income countries (HICs), upper and lower middle-income countries (UMICs, LMICs) and low-income countries (LICs) participating in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study.

    METHODS: We defined high CVD risk as the presence of any of the following: hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, smoker, diabetes or age >55 years. Availability and affordability of blood pressure lowering drugs, antiplatelets and statins were obtained from pharmacies. Participants were categorised: group 1-all three drug types were available and affordable, group 2-all three drugs were available but not affordable and group 3-all three drugs were not available. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models with nested clustering at country and community levels, adjusting for comorbidities, sociodemographic and economic factors.

    RESULTS: Of 163 466 participants, there were 93 200 with high CVD risk from 21 countries (mean age 54.7, 49% female). Of these, 44.9% were from group 1, 29.4% from group 2 and 25.7% from group 3. Compared with participants from group 1, the risk of MACEs was higher among participants in group 2 (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31), and among participants from group 3 (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.50).

    CONCLUSION: Lower availability and affordability of essential CVD medicines were associated with higher risk of MACEs and mortality. Improving access to CVD medicines should be a key part of the strategy to lower CVD globally.

    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  15. Abd Khalim MA, Sukeri S
    PLoS One, 2023;18(1):e0278404.
    PMID: 36649258 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0278404
    Malaysia's subsidised public healthcare system is heavily reliant on government funding. Increasing the uptake of private health insurance (PHI) would alleviate the financial burden on public healthcare facilities caused by high patient loads. The study aimed to determine the uptake of PHI and its associated factors among the East Coast Malaysian populations. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between February and June 2021. Proportionate stratified sampling was applied to select 1138 participants, and logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with PHI uptake. The proportion of the study samples that purchased PHI was 54.3%. Enrolment of private health insurance was associated with working in the public sector (aOR: 6.06, 95% CI: 2.65, 13.88) and private sector (aOR: 6.27, 95% CI: 2.65, 14.85), being self-employed (aOR: 9.23, 95% CI: (3.59, 23.70), being in the middle 40% household income percentile (aOR: 2.74, 95% CI: 1.95, 3.85) and top 20% household income percentile (aOR: 4.42, 95% CI: 2.87, 6.80), and living in urban areas (aOR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.70). Even in the presence of subsidised public healthcare, the high proportion of PHI uptake reflects a demand for private health insurance. The study suggests that PHI should be promoted among those who are employed or self-employed, the middle- and high-income groups, and urban residents. The findings may be beneficial for the government and insurance companies to improve strategies to enhance PHI uptake among these population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  16. Fahim A, Mahmood R, Haider I, Luqman M, Ikhlaq I, Mahmood T, et al.
    PeerJ, 2022;10:e14152.
    PMID: 36213513 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.14152
    OBJECTIVE: The perceived oral health refers to the very own perception of a person's oral health (OH). This study aims to explore the association of perceived oral health status (PSR-OHS) with clinically determined OHS in three age groups: young adults, adults and older adults. This study also aims to identify demographic, socio-economic and/or clinical factors that influence PSR-OHS.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in ten different dental hospitals of Pakistan. The one-way ANOVA test was used to analyze patient's demographic distribution with PSR-OHS and oral functions. The complex sample general linear model was used to determine association between clinical OH and PSR-OHS. Analyses of each age group were conducted separately.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,804 outdoor patients participated in the study, out of which 660 were young adults, 685 adults and 459 were older adults. Overall self-perception of all age groups about their oral health was 'good' (mean = 3.71). Female gender and education status were a significant factor in young adults and adults. Family income affected PSR-OHS of only the adult age group. Frequent visit to dental clinic and preventive reason of dental attendance were associated with good PSR-OHS. DMFT score, prosthesis score and periodontal score also affected the PSR-OHS of individuals. Association between PSR-OHS and clinical examination was confirmed by complex general linear model.

    CONCLUSION: There are differences in the perceived oral health status of young adults, adults and older adults. The variables, age, education, family income, DMFT score, prosthesis score and periodontal score directly influence the self-perception of individuals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  17. Ang WC, Cheah YK
    PMID: 37081820 DOI: 10.1177/27551938231170831
    Pharmaceuticals play an important role in health improvements. This study is the first of its kind to examine the influences of household heads' sociodemographic characteristics and household profiles on pharmaceuticals expenditure among households of different income levels. The country of interest is a fast-growing developing country. Data from the Malaysian Household Expenditure Surveys 2014 and 2016 were used in the pooled cross-sectional analyses. Double-hurdle models were used to analyze consumption and amount decisions of pharmaceuticals. Analyses stratified by income were conducted. Results showed that households headed by younger adults (<60 years), males, less educated individuals, Bumiputera, and divorced/widowed adults were less likely to consume and spent less on pharmaceuticals compared with households headed by older adults (≥60 years), females, more educated individuals, non-Bumiputera, and single adults. These differentials varied across income groups. In conclusion, household heads' age, gender, educational levels, ethnicity, marital status, and household profiles are important determining factors of expenditure on pharmaceuticals among low-, middle- and high-income households.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  18. Zhang S, Bani Y, Izah Selamat A, Abdul Ghani J
    PLoS One, 2023;18(6):e0287910.
    PMID: 37384722 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0287910
    Income inequality is a good indicator reflecting the quality of people's livelihood. There are many studies on the determinants of income inequality. However, few studies have been conducted on the impacts of industrial agglomeration on income inequality and their spatial correlation. The goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of China's industrial agglomeration on income inequality from a spatial perspective. Using data on China's 31 provinces from 2003 to 2020 and the spatial panel Durbin model, our results show that industrial agglomeration and income inequality present an inverted "U-shape" relationship, proving that they are the non-linear change. As the degree of industrial agglomeration increases, income inequality will rise, after it reaches a certain value, income inequality will drop. Therefore, Chinese government and enterprises had better pay attention to the spatial distribution of industrial agglomeration, thereby reducing China's regional income inequality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  19. Luo Z, Azam SMF, Wang L
    PLoS One, 2023;18(12):e0296100.
    PMID: 38109435 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0296100
    The popularization of financial literacy has become a global trend, with governments across the world expressing commitment to continuously enhancing the financial literacy of their citizens to improve the country's overall financial well-being. However, there is a lack of research evaluating the actual effects of financial literacy on Chinese households. This study first investigated the micro impact of financial literacy on the household stock profit level using data from the 2019 China Household Finance Survey. As most existing studies use factor analysis to measure financial literacy from a single dimension of financial knowledge, our study additionally used the entropy method to construct a composite evaluation system of financial literacy from four dimensions: financial skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The ordinary least squares model was utilized as the primary regression model to estimate the correlation, and the average financial literacy of other households in the same community was selected as an instrumental variable. Further instrumental variable regression analysis was conducted using the two-stage least squares method. Three robustness tests were performed to ensure the reliability of the research findings. The results demonstrate that financial literacy significantly enhances household stock profit levels. The mediation effect analysis indicates that financial literacy affects stock profit levels through financial information attention. Moreover, financial literacy has a more substantial promoting effect on stock profit levels for households with members working for state-owned enterprises and those living in first-tier cities. This study confirms the value of financial literacy; identifies important channels for residents to increase their property income; and provides important guidance for the government, educational organizations, and financial institutions. This also injects more vigor into market participation to improve the persistently sluggish Chinese stock market.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income*
  20. Tosanguan J, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Addiction, 2016 Feb;111(2):340-50.
    PMID: 26360507 DOI: 10.1111/add.13166
    AIMS: Clinical smoking cessation interventions have been found typically to be highly cost-effective in many high-income countries. There is a need to extend this to low- and middle-income countries and undertake comparative analyses. This study aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a range of clinical smoking cessation interventions available in Thailand.
    METHODS: Using a Markov model, cost-effectiveness, in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained, from a range of interventions was estimated from a societal perspective for males and females aged 40 years who smoke at least 10 cigarettes per day. Interventions considered were: counselling in hospital, phone counselling (Quitline) and counselling plus nicotine gum, nicotine patch, bupropion, nortriptyline or varenicline. An annual discounting rate of 3% was used. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC) plotted. Comparisons between interventions were conducted involving application of a 'decision rule' process.
    RESULTS: Counselling with varenicline and counselling with nortriptyline were found to be cost-effective. Hospital counselling only, nicotine patch and bupropion were dominated by Quitline, nortriptyline and varenicline, respectively, according to the decision rule. When compared with unassisted cessation, probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that all interventions have very high probabilities (95%) of being cost-saving except for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch (74%).
    CONCLUSION: In middle-income countries such as Thailand, nortriptyline and varenicline appear to provide cost-effective clinical options for supporting smokers to quit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Income
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