Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

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  1. BURMAN D
    Med J Malaya, 1954 Sep;9(1):46-60.
    PMID: 13213453
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal*
  2. Sachdev Manjit Singh B, Mahadzir MDA, Lee TC
    SAGE Open Med Case Rep, 2018;6:2050313X18812213.
    PMID: 30479767 DOI: 10.1177/2050313X18812213
    The differentiation between a pseudo-pneumoperitoneum and true pneumoperitoneum on an initial chest radiograph is challenging but essential to clinical practice. The former is managed conservatively whereas the latter may require surgical intervention. Chilaiditi's sign describes a rare incidental radiological finding of gas filled bowel interpositioned between the right hemi-diaphragm and the liver, which is visible on a plain abdominal or chest radiograph. It is often misdiagnosed as a pneumoperitoneum. Correct diagnosis of Chilaiditi's sign in an asymptomatic patient can prevent unnecessary procedures. We have reported one incidental chest radiograph with Chilaiditi's sign in a patient presenting and treated for pneumonia. The report aims to illustrate the diagnostic dilemma experienced by clinicians in distinguishing a true versus pseudo-pneumoperitoneum on a chest radiograph.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  3. Teoh SW, Mimi O, Poonggothai SP, Liew SM, Kumar G
    Malays Fam Physician, 2016;11(1):22-24.
    PMID: 28461845
    Chilaiditi's sign describes the incidental radiographic finding of the bowel positioned between the right diaphragm and the liver. This is often misdiagnosed as pneumoperitoneum or free air under the diaphragm, which may lead to unnecessary investigations or surgical procedures. Here, we report two incidental chest radiograph findings of air under the diaphragm in patients who were being screened for pulmonary tuberculosis. This case series highlights the importance of awareness of the diagnosis of Chilaiditi's sign to avoid unnecessary hospital referrals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  4. Che Badariah, A.A., Asma, H.A., Mohd Nizam, H., Siti, F.A.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamat extract on pain behaviour and Fos like immunoreactivity (FLI) expression in the ventral posterolateral thalamus using the acute pain model. Materials & Methods: Fourteen Sprague-Dawley male rats (220-300 gram) were given intraplantar injection of 0.05ml formalin (1%) followed by intraperitoneal administration of either 4 mg/kg gamat extracts (Holothuria spp.) or saline (control). Behavioural changes were observed and rats were sacrificed 2 hours post-formalin injection. Immunohistochemistry testing was done on the brain sections. FLI was examined using a light microscope attached to an image analyser. The behaviour and FLI data were analysed using repeated measure analysis of variance and independent t-test respectively. Significance level was taken as p
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  5. Islam MN, Khan J, Jaafar H
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2009 Apr;11 Suppl 1:S143-6.
    PMID: 19345604 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.02.045
    Series of experiments have been completed with Methamphetamine (MA). Some were with the higher, medium or lower duration of MA administration and some were with acute or chronic doses. Whatever may be the dose or duration the ultimate result came out with the further establishment of cardio-toxic effect of this drug. Cardiovascular symptoms related to MA toxicity include chest pain, palpitations, dyspnoea, hypertension, tachycardia, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and myocardial ischemia. MA abusers often go through a repeated pattern of frequent drug administrations followed by a period of abstinence. Previous studies have focused largely upon the chronic effect of MA intake to major organs, such as the brains and the heart, by using animal experiments. However, there is a lack of research into the effects of acute dose of MA, especially pertaining to the heart. To clarify the effect of MA on myocardium, 22 male Wister rats aged six weeks were divided into MA, Placebo (P) and Control (C) group were examined following single intraperitoneal administration of MA at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Normal saline was similarly injected in P group. Light microscopic changes was seen in the myocardium of MA treated group including cellular infiltration, with clusters of macrophage-like cells having large nuclei and little cytoplasm evident in the sub-endocardium region. There were presence of few macrophages, leucocytes, and spindle-like fibroblasts. Bringing in to account of cardiac changes by a single dose of MA, slogan should be voiced out to leave methamphetamine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  6. Haron MN, D'Souza UJ, Jaafar H, Zakaria R, Singh HJ
    Fertil. Steril., 2010 Jan;93(1):322-4.
    PMID: 19709655 DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.07.995
    Daily intraperitoneal injection of 5-30 microg/kg body weight of leptin for 42 days to adult rats decreases sperm count and increases the fraction of abnormal sperm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  7. Lutterodt GD, Maleque A
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1988 Dec;24(2-3):219-31.
    PMID: 3253493
    Studies were carried out on the suppression of both exploratory and spontaneous locomotor activities in the mouse by a non-polar fraction from a methanol extract of the dried leaves of Psidium guajava. Shortly after intraperitoneal administration of this fraction, typical narcotic-like effects were observed, including catalepsy, analgesia, Straub tail, shallow respiratory movements and exophthalmos. The dose for 90% suppression of exploratory activity was between 3.3 and 6.6 mg/kg intraperitoneally and the onset of action was 6-8 min. The duration of activity was dose-dependent and, for a dose of 13.2 mg/kg given intraperitoneally, it was found to be more than 6 h. Qualitatively similar results on exploratory activity were obtained when the extract was administered orally. Doses of 3.3-6.6 mg/kg i.p. depressed spontaneous locomotor activity and tunnel running was curtailed. Higher doses abolished the spontaneous locomotor reflex action. A flavonoid compound or compounds appear to account for the activity seen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  8. Mansooreh, Sadat Mojani, Asmah Rahmat, Rajesh, Ramasamy, Vahid, Hosseinpour Sarmadi, Pratheep, Sandrasaigaran, Shalini, Vellasamy, et al.
    Malays J Nutr, 2016;22(3):421-432.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: This study was conducted to determine immunological and metabolic effects of different concentrations of ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide (NA) induced diabetic rats.

    Methods: Forty-eight fasted male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced diabetes using a single intraperitoneal injection of NA(110 mg/kg b.w.) and STZ (65 mg/kg b.w, 15 min after NA). Diabetic rats orally received either different concentrations (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) of ginger rhizome suspension or glibenclamide (10 mg/kg body weight) for 6 weeks. Two control diabetic and normal groups were gavaged with only distilled water as a vehicle.

    Results: The results indicated that the lower concentrations of ginger modulated body weight, fasting blood glucose, level of triglyceride and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  9. Halim NSS, Ch'ng ES, Kardia E, Ali SA, Radzi R, Yahaya BH
    Stem Cell Rev Rep, 2019 Feb;15(1):112-125.
    PMID: 30178289 DOI: 10.1007/s12015-018-9844-7
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MSCs and MSC-expressing ANGPT1 (MSC-pANGPT1) treatment via aerosolisation in alleviating the asthma-related airway inflammation in the rabbit model.

    METHODS: Rabbits were sensitised and challenged with both intraperitoneal injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (Ova). MSCs and MSC-pANGPT1 cells were aerosolised into rabbit lungs using the MicroSprayer® Aerosolizer Model IA-1B 48 h after injury. The post mortem was performed 3 days following cell delivery. Histopathological assessments of the lung tissues and inflammatory response were quantitatively scored following treatments.

    RESULT(S): Administration of aerosolised MSCs and MSC-pANGPT1 were significantly reduced inflammation of the airways (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  10. Apryani E, Hidayat MT, Moklas MA, Fakurazi S, Idayu NF
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2010 Jun 16;129(3):357-60.
    PMID: 20371280 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.03.036
    AIM OF THE STUDY: Mitragyna speciosa Korth from Rubiaceae family is a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia particularly in Thailand, Peninsular of Malaysia and Indonesia. The leaves have been used by natives for their opium-like effect and cocaine-like stimulant ability to combat fatigue and enhance tolerance to hard work. However there is no scientific information about the effect of mitragynine on the cognitive performances. This study is designed to examine the working memory effects of mitragynine which is extracted from Mitragyna speciosa mature leaves.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cognitive effect was studied using object location task and the motor activity in open-field test. Mitragynine 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg and were administered by intraperitoneal (IP) for 28 consecutive days and evaluated on day 28 after the last dose treatment. Scopolamine was used as the control positive drug.

    RESULTS: In this study there is prominent effects on horizontal locomotor activity was observed. Mitragynine significantly reduced locomotor activity in open-field test compared with vehicle. In object location task mitragynine (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) did not showed any significances discrimination between the object that had changed position than the object that had remain in a constant position.

    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that chronic administration of mitragynine can altered the cognitive behavioral function in mice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  11. Kue CS, Tan KY, Lam ML, Lee HB
    Exp. Anim., 2015;64(2):129-38.
    PMID: 25736707 DOI: 10.1538/expanim.14-0059
    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a preclinical model widely used for vascular and anti-vascular effects of therapeutic agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the suitability of CAM as a predictive model for acute toxicology studies of drugs by comparing it to conventional mouse and rat models for 10 FDA-approved anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, carmustine, camptothecin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cisplatin, aloin, mitomycin C, actinomycin-D, melphalan). Suitable formulations for intravenous administration were determined before the average of median lethal dose (LD50) and median survival dose (SD(50)) in the CAM were measured and calculated for these drugs. The resultant ideal LD(50) values were correlated to those reported in the literature using Pearson's correlation test for both intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection in rodents. Our results showed moderate correlations (r(2)=0.42 - 0.68, P<0.005-0.05) between the ideal LD(50) values obtained using the CAM model with LD(50) values from mice and rats models for both intravenous and intraperitoneal administrations, suggesting that the chick embryo may be a suitable alternative model for acute drug toxicity screening before embarking on full toxicological investigations in rodents in development of anticancer drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  12. Ho K, Yazan LS, Ismail N, Ismail M
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2011 Jan;49(1):25-30.
    PMID: 20807560 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.08.023
    Vanillin is useful as anti-sickle cell anemia, anti-mutagen and anti-bacteria agent. However, vanillin must be administered at high concentration and cannot be oxidized by the upper gastrointestinal track of patients to be medically effective. In this study, we assessed the toxic effect of vanillin when administered in an un-oxidized form at high concentrations (150 and 300 mg/kg) via oral and intra-peritoneal injection. It was found that 300 mg/kg vanillin injection caused the rats to be unconscious without exerting any toxic effect on blood cells, kidney and liver. Besides, it showed blood protective property. Further analysis with GenomeLab GeXP genetic system on brain tissues showed that the expression of most xenobiotic metabolism, cell progression, tumor suppressor, DNA damage and inflammation genes were maintained at normal level. However, the expression of a few xenobiotic metabolism, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis genes were up-regulated by 5% ethanol injection. Nevertheless, when 5% ethanol was injected with the presence of vanillin, the expression was back to normal level. It is postulated that vanillin might have neuro-protective property. In conclusion, vanillin is not toxic at high concentration in both oral and intra-peritoneal injection and could provide blood and brain protective properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  13. Karami A, Christianus A, Ishak Z, Syed MA, Courtenay SC
    Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2011 Sep;74(6):1558-66.
    PMID: 21636131 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.05.012
    This study investigated the dose-dependent and time-course effects of intramuscular (i.m.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the biomarkers EROD activity, GST activity, concentrations of BaP metabolites in bile, and visceral fat deposits (Lipid Somatic Index, LSI) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Intraperitoneal injection resulted in 4.5 times higher accumulation of total selected biliary FACs than i.m. injection. Hepatic GST activities were inhibited by BaP via both injection methods. Dose-response relationships between BaP injection and both biliary FAC concentrations and hepatic GST activities were linear in the i.p. injected group but nonlinear in the i.m. injected fish. Hepatic EROD activity and LSI were not significantly affected by BaP exposure by either injection route. We conclude that i.p. is a more effective route of exposure than i.m. for future ecotoxicological studies of PAH exposure in C. gariepinus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  14. Cherdchu C, Poopyruchpong N, Adchariyasucha R, Ratanabanangkoon K
    PMID: 199949
    Clinacanthus nutans Burm, a herb reputed in Thailand and Malaysia to be "snakebite antidote" has been tested in vitro and in vivo for antivenin activity. The aqueous extract of C. nutans leaves has been found to have no effect on the inhibition of neuromuscular transmission produced by purified Naja naja siamensis neurotoxin in isolated rat phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparations. The extract of C. nutans, when given orally or intraperitoneally, are ineffective in prolonging the survival time of experimental mice receiving lethal doses of N.n. siamensis crude venom. Oral administrations of the herb extracts pretreated with alpha-amylase or beta-amylase also fail to protect the animal. It is concluded that the extract of C. nutans can not antagonize the action of cobra venom.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  15. Osman AY, Abdullah FF, Kadir AA, Saharee AA
    Microb. Pathog., 2016 Nov;100:17-29.
    PMID: 27591112 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2016.08.019
    Brucella melitensis is one of the major zoonotic pathogens with significant economic implications worldwide. The pathogenicity is complex and not always well understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) remains the major virulent factor of B. melitensis and responsible for the mechanism by which the pathogen causes its deleterious effects. In this study, 84 mice of 6-8 weeks old of both sexes were divided equally into 3 groups; namely Brucella melitensis infected group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infected group and control group. The former two groups contained 36 mice each with equal gender distribution. The control group consisted of 12 mice only. Animals in B. melitensis infected group, a single inoculum of 0.4 ml containing 10(9) of B. melitensis were intraperitoneally challenged while animals in LPS group, a single dose of 0.4 ml containing LPS extracted from the B. melitensis were intraperitoneally inoculated. Animals in control group received intraperitoneally, a single dose of 0.4 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS) of pH7. Animals that were infected intraperitoneally with B. melitensis demonstrated significant clinical presentation; gross and histo-pathological evidence than LPS infected group. However, both infected groups showed elevated levels of interleukins (IL-1β and IL6), antibody levels (IgM an IgG) as early as 3 days post-infection with predominance in LPS infected group. In contrast, low levels of sex related hormonal changes in which LPS infected group showed the least concentration were also detected throughout the experimental period. In conclusion, B. melitensis can be transmitted via gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive tract. Moreover, LPS stimulated significantly the innate and acquired immune system without significant systemic dysfunction, suggesting potentiality of the protective properties of this component as alternative vaccine for brucellosis infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  16. Amal MNA, Ismail A, Saad MZ, Md Yasin IS, Nasruddin NS, Mastor SS, et al.
    Microb. Pathog., 2019 Jun;131:47-52.
    PMID: 30940607 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.03.034
    This study determines the median lethal dose, and describes the clinico-pathological changes and disease development following Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Javanese medaka model. Javanese medakas were infected with S. agalactiae via intraperitoneal (IP) from 104 to 108 CFU/mL, and immersion (IM) route from 103 to 107 CFU/mL. The LD50-240h and clinico-pathological changes of the fish was determined until 240 h post infection (hpi). Next, the disease development was determined for 96 hpi in the fish following IP and IM infection at 103 CFU/mL and 104 CFU/mL, respectively. The LD50-240h of S. agalactiae in Javanese medaka was lower following IP injection (4.5 × 102 CFU/mL), compared to IM route (3.5 × 103 CFU/mL). The clinical signs included separating from the schooling group, swimming at the surface of water column, lethargy, erratic swimming pattern, corneal opacity and exophthalmia. Histopathological examinations revealed generalized congestion in almost all internal organs, particularly in liver and brain, while the kidney displayed tubular necrosis. Both IP and IM routes showed significant positive correlation (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  17. Koriem KM, Abdelhamid AZ, Younes HF
    Toxicol. Mech. Methods, 2013 Feb;23(2):134-43.
    PMID: 22992185 DOI: 10.3109/15376516.2012.730561
    Caffeic acid (CA) (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is among the major hydroxycinnamic acids. Hydroxycinnamic acid is the major subgroup of phenolic compounds. Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent addictive psychostimulant. Chronic use and acute METH intoxication can cause substantial medical consequences, including spleen, kidney, liver and heart. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of CA to protect against oxidative stress and DNA damage to various organs in METH toxicity. Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four equal groups: group 1 was injected (i.p) with saline (1 mL/kg) while groups 2,3 and 4 were injected (i.p) with METH (10 mg/kg) twice a day over five days period. Where 100 & 200 mg/kg of CA were injected (i.p) into groups 3 and 4, respectively one day before exposure to METH injections. Tissue antioxidants and DNA content were evaluated in different tissues. METH decreased glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels while increased malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and protein carbonyl levels in brain (hypothalamus), liver, and kidney tissues of rats. METH increased hyperdiploidy in these tissues and DNA damage results. Prior treatment of CA to animals exposed to METH restores the above parameters to the normal levels and preserves the DNA content of these tissues. These results were supported by histopathological investigations. In conclusion, METH induced oxidative stress and DNA damage and pretreatment of CA before METH injections prevented tissue oxidative stress and DNA damage in METH-treated animals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  18. Sosroseno W
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2009 Mar;63(3):221-7.
    PMID: 18534811 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2008.04.004
    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that colchicine may alter Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced immune response and abscess formation in mice. BALB/c mice were either sham-immunized or immunized with heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans. Spleen cells were stimulated with heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans in the presence or absence of colchicine. Specific IgG subclass antibodies, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and cell proliferation were determined. The animals were sham-immunized (group I) or immunized with heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans (groups II-VII). Colchicine was administered intraperitoneally before (group III), on the same day of (group IV), or after (group V) the primary immunization and on the same day of (group VI) or after (group VII) the secondary immunization. All groups were challenged with viable A. actinomycetemcomitans. The levels of serum-specific IgG subclasses and both IFN-gamma and IL-4 before and after bacterial challenge were assessed. The diameter of skin lesions was assessed. The results showed that colchicine augmented splenic-specific IgG1 and IL-4 as well as cell proliferation but suppressed specific IgG2a and IFN-gamma levels. Enhancement of serum-specific IgG1 and IL-4 levels, suppression of specific IgG2a and IFN-gamma levels as well as DTH response, and delayed healing of the lesions were observed in groups IV and VI, but not in the remaining groups of animals. Therefore, these results suggest that colchicine may induce a T helper 2 (Th2)-like immunity specific to A. actinomycetemcomitans in vitro and that colchicine administered on the same day as the immunization may stimulate a non-protective Th2-like immunity in A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced infections in mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  19. Islam MN, Jesmine K, Kong Sn Molh A, Hasnan J
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2009 Apr;11 Suppl 1:S147-50.
    PMID: 19345131 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.02.035
    A small amount of Methamphetamine (MA) can produce behavioural changes such as euphoria, increased alertness, paranoia, decreased appetite and increased physical activity. In cardiovascular system, it can produce chest pain and hypertension which can result in cardiovascular collapse. In addition, MA causes accelerated heartbeat, elevated blood pressure. It can also cause irreversible damage to blood vessels in the brain. A number of sympathomimetic amines are capable of causing myocardial damage, but the cardio-toxic action of MA has been of particular interest since standardized dosage consistently produces myocardial lesions. As this drug is a choice of many teenagers and young adults, the damage to their health, as well as their future aspects could be greatly affected, therefore more evidence must be sought to convince them the negative root and show them the optimism of recovery and salvation. To clarify the effect of Methamphetamine (MA) on myocardium, 56 male Wister rats aged four weeks were divided equally into MA, Methamphetamine withdrawal (MW), Placebo (P) and Control (C) group were examined following daily intra-peritoneal administration of MA at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight for 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Normal saline was similarly injected in P group. Light microscopic changes was seen in the myocardium of MA treated group including eosinophilic degeneration, atrophy, hypertrophy, disarray, edema, cellular infiltration, myolysis, granulation tissue, fibrosis and vacuolization. On the other hand, the withdrawal group showed evidence of gradual recovery of those myocardial changes. Optimism is therefore generated about possibility of returning towards normal by withdrawing of this drug by the addicts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
  20. Sosroseno W, Herminajeng E
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2002 Jul;51(7):581-8.
    PMID: 12132775
    The aim of this study was to determine the role of macrophages in the Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-induced murine immune response. BALB/c mice were given carrageenan solution by intraperitoneal injection before immunisation with heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans. Mice immunised with antigens and phosphate-buffered saline served as positive and negative controls, respectively. One week after the last immunisation, the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was assessed by measurement of footpad swelling. Serum IgG and IgM anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans antibody levels and culture supernate levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma were determined by ELISA. The diameter of abscess formation was determined every 5 days. Sham-immunised spleen cells were transferred to carrageenan-untreated recipients (groups A and B) and to carrageenan-treated recipients (group D). Antigen-immunised spleen cells were transferred to carrageenan-untreated (group C) and carrageenan-treated (group E) recipients. The carrageenan-treated recipients in groups F and G received macrophages from antigen- and sham-immunised mice respectively. All mice except those in group A were immunised with antigen 24 h after cell transfer. After 1 week, a partial suppression of DTH response, reduced levels of IFN-gamma, serum IgG and IgM anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans antibodies and delayed healing were seen in carrageenan-treated mice when compared with the positive control. The immune response to A. actinomycetemcomitans in groups A, B and D was lower than that in groups C and E. Healing of the lesion in the former groups was also delayed when compared with the latter groups. The immune response and the healing of the lesion could be partially restored in carrageenan-treated mice that received antigen-pulsed macrophages (group F) but not in those that received naive macrophages (group G). These results suggest that macrophages play a partial role in the induction of the murine immune response to A. actinomycetemcomitans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Intraperitoneal
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