Gut commensals profoundly affect host immunity and intestinal homeostasis, but the impact of commensal eukaryotic protozoans is poorly understood. In a recent Cell paper, Chudnovskiy et al. (2016) identify a commensal protozoan, Tritrichomonas musculis, that can enhance anti-bacterial defenses, but at the cost of increasing intestinal inflammation.
The potential health benefits of probiotics have long been elucidated since Metchnikoff and his coworkers postulated the association of probiotic consumption on human's health and longevity. Since then, many scientific findings and research have further established the correlation of probiotic and gut-associated diseases such as irritable bowel disease and chronic and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, the beneficial impact of probiotic is not limited to the gut-associated diseases alone, but also in different acute and chronic infectious diseases. This is due to the fact that probiotics are able to modify the intestinal microbial ecosystem, enhance the gut barrier function, provide competitive adherence to the mucosa and epithelium, produce antimicrobial substances, and modulate the immune activity by enhancing the innate and adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the current literature with respect to the association of probiotic and cancer, high serum cholesterol, and allergic and HIV diseases are still scarce and controversial. Therefore, in the present work, we reviewed the potential preventive and therapeutic role of probiotics for cancer, high serum cholesterol, and allergic and HIV diseases as well as providing its possible mechanism of actions.
Cholera, a severe form of gastroenteritis, is one of the most widespread diseases in developing countries. The mechanism of intestinal infection caused by V. cholerae O139 remains unclear. In order to explore some morphological aspects of its infection in the intestine including Peyer's patches, we investigated the V. cholerae O139 infection at intestinal site of the rabbit gut-loop model. The electron microscopic analysis revealed denuded mucosal surface with loss of microvilli and integrity of the surface epithelium. Infection of the intestine with V. cholerae O139 induces destruction of villi, microvilli and lining epithelium with exposure of crypts of Lieberkuhn.
The above survey based on a study of single stool specimens from 569 patients, drawn from a hospital population belonging to different ethnic groups and having different cultural backgrounds, failed to indicate an association between intestinal helminth infection and eosinophilic lung. The higher prevalence of eosinophilic lung in Indians than in the other ethnic groups, as reported previously, cannot be explained on a basis of differences in the prevalence of the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis.
To better understand gene expression in the intestine after Shewanella algae infection and provide insights into its immune roles in the tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, sequencing-based high-throughput RNA analysis (RNA-Seq) for the intestines between the control group and 12 h post-injection group was performed. After assembly, there was an average of 23,957,159 raw sequencing reads, and 23,943,491 clean reads were obtained after filtering out low-quality reads. Then, 383 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the intestines in response to S. algae infection were identified. Subsequently, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses of the DEGs were conducted to further explore their functions. Among all of the pathways involved, sixteen pathways were related to the immune system, among which the complement and coagulation cascades pathway was the most prominent for immunity-related DEGs, followed by the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathway. Furthermore, the expression levels of twelve selected DEGs in the immune-related pathways were identified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, substantiating the reliability and reproducibility of the RNA-Seq results. In summary, this study represents an important genomic resource for understanding the potential immune role of the tongue sole intestine from the perspective of gene expression.
Solubility and matrix play an important role in the gut lumen in delivering bioactive compounds to the absorptive surface of enterocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of certain commonly consumed lipids, soybean, olive and corn oil, on the transport and conjugation of flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and galangin) using the conjugation-competent co-cultured Caco-2/HT29-MTX intestinal cell monolayer model. To enable identification and quantification of conjugates, each flavonol was enzymatically glucuronidated or sulphated, then analysed by HPLC with triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Quantification showed large differences in mass spectrometric peak area response factors between the aglycones and many of the conjugates, with galangin-sulphate for example ionising ∼15-fold better than galangin. Flavonol aglycones and conjugates were transported to the basolateral side of Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultures. The total amount of methyl, sulphate and glucuronide conjugates was in the order: galangin > quercetin > kaempferol > myricetin. All oils inhibited the transport and conjugation of galangin, the most hydrophobic flavonol, whereas they increased the sulphation, and to some extent glucuronidation, of quercetin and kaempferol. The results show that the lipid matrix has the potential to modify both transport and conjugation of dietary flavonols, but that the effect depends upon the structure and hydrophobicity.
The parasitic protozoan fauna in sixty-six anurans comprising of Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Phrynoidis juxtaspera, Hylarana erythraea and Polypedates leucomystax collected from Zoo Negara Malaysia was investigated. The distribution and prevalence rate of parasitic species in the digestive tract and blood were examined. Seven species of intestinal protozoa (Opalina ranarum, Cepedea dimidiata, Nycthetorus cordiformis, Entamoeba ranarum, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endamoeba blattae, and Tritrichomonas sp.) and two species of blood protozoa (Lankesterella sp. and Trypanosoma sp.) were recorded. Opalina ranarum was the most common protozoan found in the rectum and intestine (prevalence rate: 34.8%) infecting all host species, with P. juxtaspera heavily infected with the parasite, whereas Tritrichomonas sp. was the least prevalent intestinal species infecting only D. melanostictus. Both Lankesterella sp. and Trypanosoma sp. were found in the blood of H. erythraea.
A study was conducted to determine the effects of adherent Lactobacillus culture on growth performance, intestinal microbial population, and serum cholesterol level of broilers. Four dietary treatments, consisting of the basal diet (control), basal diet + 0.05, 0.10, or 0.15% Lactobacillus culture (LC), were fed to 2,000 Arbor Acres broiler chicks from 1 to 42 d of age (DOA). The chicks were randomly assigned to 40 cages (50 chicks per cage, 10 cages per diet). The experimental period was 42 d. Body weights and feed to gain ratio were measured at 21 and 42 DOA. The intestinal microbial populations and serum cholesterol levels were determined at 10, 20, 30, and 40 DOA. The results showed that body weights and feed to gain ratios were improved significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to control broilers for broilers fed diets containing 0.05 or 0.10% LC, but not 0.15% LC, at 21 and 42 DOA. Coliform counts in the cecum of birds receiving 0.05% LC at 10, 20, and 30 DOA, and 0.10% at 10 and 20 DOA were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control birds. The total aerobes, total anaerobes, lactobacilli, and streptococci in the small intestines and ceca of the control birds were not significantly different from those of the treated groups. Serum cholesterol levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the three diets containing LC at 30 DOA, and in the birds fed 0.05 or 0.10% LC at 20 DOA.
Recurrent outbreaks of muscular sarcocystosis among tourists visiting islands in Malaysia have focused international attention on sarcocystosis, a disease once considered rare in humans. Sarcocystis species require two hosts, definitive and intermediate, to complete their life cycle. Humans can serve as definitive hosts, with intestinal sarcocystosis for two species acquired from eating undercooked meat: Sarcocystis hominis, from beef, and Sarcocystis suihominis, from pork. Symptoms such as nausea, stomachache, and diarrhea vary widely depending on the number of cysts ingested but appear more severe with pork than with beef. Humans serve as intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis nesbitti, a species with a reptilian definitive host, and possibly other unidentified species, acquired by ingesting sporocysts from feces-contaminated food or water and the environment; infections have an early phase of development in vascular endothelium, with illness that is difficult to diagnose; clinical signs include fever, headache, and myalgia. Subsequent development of intramuscular cysts is characterized by myositis. Presumptive diagnosis based on travel history to tropical regions, elevated serum enzyme levels, and eosinophilia is confirmed by finding sarcocysts in muscle biopsy specimens. There is no vaccine or confirmed effective antiparasitic drug for muscular sarcocystosis, but anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce symptoms. Prevention strategies are also discussed.
Small bowel phytobezoars are rare and almost always obstructive. There have been previously reported cases of phytobezoars in the literature, however there are few reports on radiological findings for small bowel bezoars. Barium studies characteristically show an intraluminal filling defect of variable size that is not fixed to the bowel wall with barium filling the interstices giving a mottled appearance. On CT scan, the presence of a round or ovoid intraluminal mass with a 'mottled gas' pattern is believed to be pathognomonic. Since features on CT scans are characteristics and physical findings are of little assistance in the diagnosis of bezoar, the diagnostic value of CT needs to be emphasised.
Intestinal knot formation was first described by Riverius in 16th century and later by Rokitansky in 1836. We report a very rare cause of small bowel gangrene caused by appendiceal knotting on to the ileum in a previously healthy mid aged lady. Patient underwent laparatomy and right hemicolectomy and primary anastomosis. The intra operative findings were the appendix was twisting (knotting) the small bowel about 40cm from the terminal ileum and causing gangrene to the segment of small bowel. Appendicitis is a common condition and management is usually straightforward. However we must be aware of rare complications which may arise that require a change from the standard treatment of acute appendicitis.
Computed tomography (CT) is currently the diagnostic modality of choice in the evaluation of clinically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma, including the assessment of blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries. CT signs of bowel and/or mesenteric injuries are bowel wall defect, free air, oral contrast material extravasation, extravasation of contrast material from mesenteric vessels, mesenteric vascular beading, abrupt termination of mesenteric vessels, focal bowel wall thickening, mesenteric fat stranding, mesenteric haematoma and intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal fluid. This pictorial essay illustrates CT features of bowel and/or mesenteric injuries in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Pitfalls in interpretation of images are emphasized in proven cases.
Hand, foot and mouth disease is mainly caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), but EV-A71 is also associated with severe neurological complications. Host factors may contribute to the different clinical outcomes of EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections. A neurovirulent EV-A71 strain (EV-A71/UH1) from a fatal case, a non-neurovirulent EV-A71 strain (EV-A71/Sha66) and a CV-A16 strain (CV-A16/22159) from cases of uncomplicated HFMD were used. Replication of the viruses in SK-N-MC (neuronal) and HT-29 (intestinal) cell lines correlated with the severity of clinical disease associated with each virus. EV-A71/UH1 showed the greatest replication in neuronal cells. In HT-29 cells, both EV-A71 strains replicated well, but CV-A16/22159 showed no effective replication. The proteomes of mock and infected SK-N-MC and HT-29 cell lines were compared by 2D-SDS-PAGE. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. There were 46 and 44 differentially expressed proteins identified from SK-N-MC and HT-29 cells, respectively, categorized under apoptosis, stress, cytoskeletal, energy metabolism proteins and others. Western blot validation showed that EV-A71/UH1 and CV-A16 also differentially induced proteins involved in viral RNA translation and host cell stress responses in neuronal and intestinal cell lines.