Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

  1. Megat Muhammad Asri Salleh, Normah Jusoh
    Kajian ini adalah bertujuan untuk meneliti hubungan antara pengambilan kafein dan tahap keagresifan dalam kalangan atlet Kor SUKSIS. Kajian ini berbentuk kaedah tinjauan dengan menggunakan borang soal selidik berkaitan pengambilan kafein dan tahap keagresifan The Judgements About Moral Behavior in Youth Sport (JAMBYSQ). Peserta kajian terdiri daripada 80 orang atlet sukan berpasukan SUKSIS yang dipilih secara rawak. Data telah dianalisis menggunakan ujian statistik deskriptif, ujian t tidak bersandar dan korelasi Pearson. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa terdapat perbezaan signifikan (p = 0.014) bagi tahap kekerapan pengambilan kafein antara atlet lelaki (2.00 ± 0.87) dan atlet perempuan (1.50 ± 0.76). Selain itu, bagi tahap keagresifan pula tidak terdapat perbezaan signifikan antara atlet lelaki (3.37 ± 0.60) dan atlet perempuan (3.23 ± 0.66) serta tidak terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara pengambilan kafein dengan tahap keagresifan semasa bersukan (r = 0.024, n = 80, p =0.831). Kesimpulannya, walaupun kekerapan pengambilan kafein berbeza mengikut jantina tetapi ia tidak mempengaruhi tahap keagresifan dalam kalangan atlet Kor SUKSIS. Oleh itu, terdapat keperluan untuk mengkaji dos kafein yang sesuai yang dapat mencetus tahap keagresifan dalam kalangan atlet
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment
  2. Buratto LG, Pottage CL, Brown C, Morrison CM, Schaefer A
    PLoS One, 2014;9(10):e110211.
    PMID: 25330251 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110211
    Memory performance is usually impaired when participants have to encode information while performing a concurrent task. Recent studies using recall tasks have found that emotional items are more resistant to such cognitive depletion effects than non-emotional items. However, when recognition tasks are used, the same effect is more elusive as recent recognition studies have obtained contradictory results. In two experiments, we provide evidence that negative emotional content can reliably reduce the effects of cognitive depletion on recognition memory only if stimuli with high levels of emotional intensity are used. In particular, we found that recognition performance for realistic pictures was impaired by a secondary 3-back working memory task during encoding if stimuli were emotionally neutral or had moderate levels of negative emotionality. In contrast, when negative pictures with high levels of emotional intensity were used, the detrimental effects of the secondary task were significantly attenuated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment/physiology
  3. Zainuddin Z, Huong LK, Pauline O
    Australas Med J, 2013;6(5):308-14.
    PMID: 23745153 DOI: 10.4066/AMJ.2013.1640
    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal analysis is indispensable in epilepsy diagnosis as it offers valuable insights for locating the abnormal distortions in the brain wave. However, visual interpretation of the massive amounts of EEG signals is time-consuming, and there is often inconsistent judgment between experts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment
  4. Rahman NA, Ali Z, Zuharah WF, Fadzly N
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2016 Aug;27(2):1-12.
    PMID: 27688847 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2016.27.2.1
    We conducted several aviary experiments to investigate the influence of colours in quantity judgments of two species of birds; house crow (Corvus splendens) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Different quantity (in seven different food proportions) of mealworms were presented nonsequentially to all birds using artificially coloured red mealworms, for experiment 1, and using artificially coloured green mealworms, for experiment 2. Both red and green coloured mealworms have no significant effect on house crow's quantity judgments (red:
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment
  5. Aljrees T, Cheng X, Ahmed MM, Umer M, Majeed R, Alnowaiser K, et al.
    PLoS One, 2023;18(7):e0287298.
    PMID: 37523404 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0287298
    The proliferation of fake news has severe effects on society and individuals on multiple fronts. With fast-paced online content generation, has come the challenging problem of fake news content. Consequently, automated systems to make a timely judgment of fake news have become the need of the hour. The performance of such systems heavily relies on feature engineering and requires an appropriate feature set to increase performance and robustness. In this context, this study employs two methods for reducing the number of feature dimensions including Chi-square and principal component analysis (PCA). These methods are employed with a hybrid neural network architecture of convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) model called FakeNET. The use of PCA and Chi-square aims at utilizing appropriate feature vectors for better performance and lower computational complexity. A multi-class dataset is used comprising 'agree', 'disagree', 'discuss', and 'unrelated' classes obtained from the Fake News Challenges (FNC) website. Further contextual features for identifying bogus news are obtained through PCA and Chi-Square, which are given nonlinear characteristics. The purpose of this study is to locate the article's perspective concerning the headline. The proposed approach yields gains of 0.04 in accuracy and 0.20 in the F1 score, respectively. As per the experimental results, PCA achieves a higher accuracy of 0.978 than both Chi-square and state-of-the-art approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment
  6. Stephen ID, Perera AT
    PLoS One, 2014;9(1):e86302.
    PMID: 24466014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086302
    Recent research has shown facial adiposity (apparent weight in the face) to be a significant predictor of both attractiveness and health, thus making it an important determinant of mate selection. Studies looking at the relationship between attractiveness and health have shown that individuals differentiate between the two by preferring a lower weight for attractiveness than for health in female faces. However, these studies have either been correlational studies, or have investigated weight perceived from only the face. These differences have been discussed with regard to sociocultural factors such as pressure from parents, peers and also media, which has been seen to have the highest influence. While exposure to media images has been shown to influence women's own-body image, no study has yet directly tested the influence of these factors on people's preferred weight in other women's bodies. Here we examine how a short exposure to images of models influences men's and women's judgments of the most healthy looking and attractive BMI in Malaysian Chinese women's bodies by comparing differences in preferences (for attractiveness and health) between groups exposed to images of models of varying attractiveness and body weight. Results indicated that participants preferred a lower weight for attractiveness than for health. Further, women's but not men's preferred BMI for attractiveness, but not health, was influenced by the type of media images to which they were exposed, suggesting that short term exposure to model images affect women's perceptions of attractiveness but not health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment*
  7. Loh KC, Chan LC, Phang LF
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 01;75(1):18-23.
    PMID: 32008014
    INTRODUCTION: People often judge others and make decisions based on the physical appearance of an individual. This study assesses the perception and psychosocial judgment on patients with acne vulgaris compared to those with clear skin.

    METHODS: This survey was conducted in Penang from October 2016 to June 2017. Respondents were those who were ≥18 years. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire which consists of three randomly selected facial pictures, with at least one acne skin and one clear skin picture.

    RESULTS: A total of 435 respondents were recruited. Two third of the respondents (76%) suffered or had suffered from acne. The skin was the first thing noticed by 76.1% respondents when viewing pictures with acne compared with 24.8% with clear skin (p <0.05). People with acne were perceived as being unattractive, sad, lonely, distant, unhealthy, disheveled and shy as compared to people with clear skin (p<0.05). People with clear skin were perceived to be healthier, confident, happy, attractive, successful and intelligent (p<0.05). Respondents were more willing to engage socially with people with clear skin rather than those with acne skin. A significantly higher proportion of respondents were likely to hire or vote for those with clear skin as compared to acne skin. People with acne were also perceived to have a lower educational level and poorer leadership quality.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this survey showed that there were significantly negative perception and psychological judgement toward individuals with acne vulgaris. These negative impacts may affect social life of the acne sufferers, their prospect of employment and career opportunities.

    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment*
  8. James RJ, O'Malley C, Tunney RJ
    Front Psychol, 2016;7:46.
    PMID: 26869955 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00046
    Manipulating different behavioral characteristics of gambling games can potentially affect the extent to which individuals persevere at gambling, and their transition to problematic behaviors. This has potential impact for mobile gambling technologies and responsible gambling interventions. Two laboratory models pertinent to this are the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) and the trial spacing effect. Both of these might speed up or delay the acquisition and extinction of conditioned behavior. We report an experiment that manipulated the rate of reinforcement and inter trial interval (ITI) on a simulated slot machine where participants were given the choice between gambling and skipping on each trial, before perseverative gambling was measured in extinction, followed by measurements of the illusion of control, depression and impulsivity. We hypothesized that longer ITI's in conjunction with the low rates of reinforcement observed in gambling would lead to greater perseverance. We further hypothesized, given that timing is known to be important in displaying illusory control and potentially in persevering in gambling, that prior exposure to longer intervals might affect illusions of control. An interaction between ITI and rate of reinforcement was observed, as low reinforced gamblers with a long ITI gambled for longer. Respondents also displayed extinction and a PREE. Gamblers exposed to a higher rate of reinforcement gambled for longer in acquisition. Impulsivity was associated with extended perseverance in extinction, and more depressed gamblers in the high reinforcement short ITI group persevered for longer. Performance in the contingency judgment failed to support the second hypothesis: the only significant contrast observed was that participants became better calibrated as the task progressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment
  9. Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff, Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim
    Education in Medicine Journal, 2012;4(2):100-104.
    Introduction: Ratings are known to have a generosity error, provide limited discrimination and distorted interpretation, and often fail to document serious deficits. A potential source of these problems is rater judgement. These problems compromise the capability of raters to maintain the standards of rating. The authors propose a simple grading system to improve this situation including providing feedback to raters. Method: The authors developed a grading system named the Discrepancy-Agreement Grade (DAG) to provide feedback on rater judgments. Dependent-t and intraclass correlation tests were applied to determine discrepancy and agreement levels of raters. Rater judgments were then classified into grades A, B, C or D. This grading system was tested in an examination and a student selection interview to assess rating judgments of examiners and interviewers. The purpose was to evaluate the practicability of the grading system to provide feedback on examiners’ and interviewers’ rating judgements. Results: in the examination, five short essays were rated by five pairs of senior lecturers. Out of 5 pairs, 2 (40%) obtained grade A and 3 (60%) obtained grade B. In the student selection interview, a total of 48 pairs of interviewers interviewed ten applicants. Out of 48 pairs, 20 (41.7%) obtained grade A, 1 (2.1%) obtained grade B, 23 (47.9%) obtained grade C and 4 (8.3%) obtained grade D. Conclusion: The grading system showed variability of rater judgments on medical students’ and applicants’ performance in an examination and interview session respectively. It provided feedback on the examiners’ and interviewers’ judgments on candidate performances. This exercise demonstrated practicability of the grading system to provide feedback on rater judgements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment
  10. Gunasekaran, S.S., Ahmad, M.S., Mostafa, S.A.
    The collaborative and competitive nature of multi-agent systems (MAS) is visible through the simple social mode of communication that emerges between human-agent interactions or agent-to-agent interactions. A simple mode of communication involves the fundamental actions carried out by individual agents in achieving their desired goal. The sum of these achievements contribute to the overall group goal. Comparatively, the collective intelligence (CI) of a MAS simply means that these agents should work together to produce better solutions than those made possible when using the traditional approach. In designing MAS with CI properties, formalisation of a higher level deliberation process is essential. A high level deliberation process refers to the judgement comprehension of tasks, reasoning and problem solving and planning. In this paper, we propose our Collective Intelligence Model, CIM, which has the potential to control and coordinate a high-level deliberation process of a MAS. CIM is inspired by the emerging processes of controlled discussion, argumentation and negotiation between two or more intelligent human agents. These processes screen and validate the deliberation process through a crossfertilisation approach. The emergent property of the cross-fertilised ideas results in an intelligent solution that solves optimisation-related tasks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment
  11. Mahjouri M, Ishak MB, Torabian A, Manaf LA, Halimoon N
    J Environ Health Sci Eng, 2018 Dec;16(2):181-192.
    PMID: 30728990 DOI: 10.1007/s40201-018-0306-6
    Background: Environmental policies should be developed in a contextual decision-making process regarding local environmental concerns emphasizing the economic, technical, social and institutional considerations. Establishing emission limit levels, especially in the industrial sector, is one of the most problematic environmental issues in developing countries, for which it is essential to include several criteria that reflect their country-specific constraints and capacities. Since Best Available Technology (BAT) is acknowledged to be the reference element for sustainable development and a basis for Emissions Limit Values (ELVs), the objective of this study is to present a reliable methodology for establishing ELVs thresholds with an emphasis on the BAT concept for national regulation at the sector level.

    Methods: A hybrid fuzzy multiple-criteria decision-making (FMCDM) process, consisting of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (fuzzy TOPSIS) method, is structured to aggregate the different criteria and rank different ELV alternatives in this complicated evaluation. In order to use the most profound knowledge and judgment of a professional expert team, this qualitative assessment highlights the importance of supportive information.

    Results: The results obtained indicate that experts have considered the country-specific information as a reliable reference in their decisions. Among different key evaluation criteria in effluent standard setting, the highest experts' priority is "Environmental protection". For both the conventional and toxic pollutants, the influence of all other criteria namely "Economic feasibility", "Technology viability" and "Institutional capacity", as constraining criteria in developing countries, have not reduced the responsibility towards the environmental objectives. In ELVs ranking, experts have made their decisions with respect to the specific characteristics of each pollutant and the existing capacities and constraints of the country, without emphasizing on any specific reference.

    Conclusions: This systematic and transparent approach has resulted in defensible country-specific ELVs for the Iron and Steel industry, which can be developed for other sectors. As the main conclusion, this paper demonstrates that FMCDM is a robust tool for this comprehensive assessment especially regarding the data availability limitations in developing countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment
  12. Jones BC, DeBruine LM, Flake JK, Liuzza MT, Antfolk J, Arinze NC, et al.
    Nat Hum Behav, 2021 01;5(1):159-169.
    PMID: 33398150 DOI: 10.1038/s41562-020-01007-2
    Over the past 10 years, Oosterhof and Todorov's valence-dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgements of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear whether these findings apply to other regions. We addressed this question by replicating Oosterhof and Todorov's methodology across 11 world regions, 41 countries and 11,570 participants. When we used Oosterhof and Todorov's original analysis strategy, the valence-dominance model generalized across regions. When we used an alternative methodology to allow for correlated dimensions, we observed much less generalization. Collectively, these results suggest that, while the valence-dominance model generalizes very well across regions when dimensions are forced to be orthogonal, regional differences are revealed when we use different extraction methods and correlate and rotate the dimension reduction solution. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The stage 1 protocol for this Registered Report was accepted in principle on 5 November 2018. The protocol, as accepted by the journal, can be found at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7611443.v1 .
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment
  13. Mohd Rizal Abdul Manaf
    Int J Public Health Res, 2012;2(1):129-136.
    Introduction Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine. As a scholarly discipline, medical ethics encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, and sociology. The medical profession has long subscribed to a body of ethical statements developed primarily for the benefit of the patient. A physician must recognize responsibility to patients first and foremost, as well as to society, to other health professionals, and to self. This paper presents some information regarding medical ethics, including the values and principles of ethical conduct. Later the requirements of consent form is presented to guide the researchers before conducting a study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment
  14. Shahid Hassan, Mohamad Najib Mat Pa, Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
    Background: Summative assessment in postgraduate examination globally employs multiple measures. A standard-setting method decides on pass or fail based on an arbitrarily defined cut-off point on a test score, which is often content expert’s subjective judgment. Contrary to this a standard-setting strategy primarily practices two approaches, a compensatory approach, which decides on overall performance as a sum of all the test scores and a conjunctive approach that requires passing performance for each instrument. However, the challenge using multiple measures is not due to number of measurement tools but due to logic by which the measures are combined to draw inferences on pass or fail in summative assessment. Conjoint University Board of Examination of Masters’ of Otolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS) in Malaysia also uses multiple measures to reach a passing or failing decision in summative assessment. However, the standard setting strategy of assessment is loosely and variably applied to make ultimate decision on pass or fail. To collect the evidences, the summative assessment program of Masters’ of ORL-HNS in School of Medical Sciences at Universiti Sains Malaysia was analyzed for validity to evaluate the appropriateness of decisions in postgraduate medical education in Malaysia. Methodology: A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the validity of the conjoint summative assessment results of part II examination of USM candidates during May 2000-May 2011. The Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression tests were used to determine the discriminant and convergent validity of assessment tools. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analyzed the association between assessment tools and the multiple linear regression compared the dominant roles of factor variables in predicting outcomes. Based on outcome of the study, reforms for standard-setting strategy are also recommended towards programming the assessment in a surgical-based discipline. Results: The correlation coefficients of MCQ and essay questions were found not significant (0.16). Long and short cases were shown to have good correlations (0.53). Oral test stood as a component to show fair correlation with written (0.39-0.42) as well as clinical component (0.50-0.66). The predictive values in written tests suggested MCQ predicted by oral (B=0.34, P
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment
  15. Shahid Hassan, Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim, Mohamad Najib Mat Pa, Mohd Nor Gohar Rahman, Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
    Introduction: A clear concept and understanding about the measure and the measuring tools is essential for good practice of assessment. Assessors need to have information about the full range of assessment tools inclusive of psychometric validity and purpose of its use. Subjective inferences drawn from the readily available data as numbers of summative scores over the years and statistical evidences of reliability and validity of assessment tools used to measure student’s performance are good sources of feedback for competent assessment program. It also provides meaningful evaluation of learning and teaching in medical education. Method: A retrospective study of 119 candidates was carried out to analyze the summative assessment scores of their certifying examination of Masters of Surgery in School of Medical Sciences (SMS) at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Subjective judgment of raw data followed by internal consistency as reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity as constructs of individual assessment tool was analyzed. Finally each assessment tool as a measure of written or clinical construct was evaluated against six aspects of Messick’s criteria for quality control. Result: The correlation coefficient for validity and Cronbach’s alpha for reliability was evaluated for clinical measures. However, the test of internal reliability was not possible for essay being the only measure in written construct of summative assessment in surgery. All measures of clinical construct were found highly reliable with Cronbach’s alpha between 0.962-0.979. Long case and the short cases have shown excellent correlations (r=0.959 at p
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment
  16. Aksentijevic A, Elliott MA
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove), 2017 Aug;70(8):1535-1548.
    PMID: 27244533 DOI: 10.1080/17470218.2016.1192657
    Dynamic distortion of the visual field has been shown to affect perceptual judgment of visual dimensions such as size, length, and distance. Here, we report four experiments demonstrating that the different aspects of a triangle differently influence judgments of distance. Specifically, when the base of the triangle faces the centre of the display, participants consistently underestimate and overestimate the distance of a small dot from the unmarked centre of the display relative to conditions in which the vertex of the triangle faces the centre. When the dot is close to the figure, the distance of the dot to the centre is underestimated. Conversely, when the dot is close to the figure, the distance to the centre is overestimated. The effect is replicated when the internal distances are equalized and when ellipses are used instead of triangles. These results support a ripple model of spatial distortion in which local curvature acts to attract or repel objects. In conclusion, we suggest some implications of our findings for theories of perceptual organization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment/physiology*
  17. Stephen ID, Perera AT
    Body Image, 2014 Mar;11(2):183-6.
    PMID: 24405818 DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.11.007
    Perceived weight in the face and body size have been shown to be significant predictors of both attractiveness and health. Studies looking at the relationship between attractiveness, perceived health, and perceived weight in faces have found that individuals prefer a lower weight for attractiveness than for apparent health. Here, a group of twenty-four Asian participants were allowed to manipulate the apparent body mass indices (BMIs) of full-length photographs of young Malaysian Chinese women to enhance their perceived healthiness and attractiveness. Results showed that both men and women differentiated between attractiveness and health by preferring a lower BMI for attractiveness than health, suggesting a consistency in the preferred ideal BMI for attractiveness and healthy appearance across both sexes. Results also suggested that BMI provides important cues to judgments of attractive and healthy appearance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment*
  18. Swami V, Tovée MJ
    Body Image, 2007 Dec;4(4):391-6.
    PMID: 18089286
    Ninety-six Malaysian and British men rated for physical attractiveness a set of photographs of real women in profile, with known body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Results showed that BMI accounted for the greater amount of variance in all settings. There were also significant differences in preferences for body weight, with low resource, low socioeconomic status (SES) raters preferring a significantly heavier partner than high resource, high SES raters. The disparity with previous findings using line drawings of women in profile was discussed in terms of the weaknesses of line-drawn stimuli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment*
  19. Looft WR, Rayman JR, Rayman BB
    J Soc Psychol, 1972 Apr;86(2):181-5.
    PMID: 5013924
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment*
  20. Teoh Y, Wallis E, Stephen ID, Mitchell P
    Cognition, 2017 02;159:48-60.
    PMID: 27886521 DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2016.11.003
    Past research tells us that individuals can infer information about a target's emotional state and intentions from their facial expressions (Frith & Frith, 2012), a process known as mentalising. This extends to inferring the events that caused the facial reaction (e.g. Pillai, Sheppard, & Mitchell, 2012; Pillai et al., 2014), an ability known as retrodictive mindreading. Here, we enter new territory by investigating whether or not people (perceivers) can guess a target's social context by observing their response to stimuli. In Experiment 1, perceivers viewed targets' responses and were able to determine whether these targets were alone or observed by another person. In Experiment 2, another group of perceivers, without any knowledge of the social context or what the targets were watching, judged whether targets were hiding or exaggerating their facial expressions; and their judgments discriminated between conditions in which targets were observed and alone. Experiment 3 established that another group of perceivers' judgments of social context were associated with estimations of target expressivity to some degree. In Experiments 1 and 2, the eye movements of perceivers also varied between conditions in which targets were observed and alone. Perceivers were thus able to infer a target's social context from their visible response. The results demonstrate an ability to use other minds as a window onto a social context that could not be seen directly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Judgment*
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