METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials and CINAHL. Clinical trials were eligible if they compared palm oil-rich diets with diets rich in MUFAs or PUFAs. We pooled results of included studies using a random effects model and assessed the quality of the evidence and certainty of conclusions using the GRADE approach.
RESULTS: Intake of palm oil intake compared to oils rich in MUFA was associated with increased levels of total cholesterol (TC) [mean difference (MD)=0.27 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.45], LDL-C (MD=0.20 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.37) and HDL-C (MD=0.06 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.10). Similarly, for comparison with oils rich in PUFAs, palm oil showed increased in TC (MD=0.38 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.62), LDL-C (MD= 0.44 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.88) and HDL-C (MD=0.08 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.13). For both comparisons, there were no significant effects on triglycerides.
CONCLUSIONS: Even though palm oil increases marginally the level of serum lipids, the evidence is mostly of low to moderate quality.
RESULTS: The results showed that lipid content of cell dry weight in Snf-β knockout strain was increased by 32 % (from 19 to 25 %). However, in Snf-β overexpressing strain, lipid content of cell dry weight was decreased about 25 % (from 19 to 14.2 %) compared to the control strain. Total fatty acid analysis revealed that the expression of the Snf-β gene did not significantly affect the fatty acid composition of the strains. However, GLA content in biomass was increased from 2.5 % in control strain to 3.3 % in Snf-β knockout strain due to increased lipid accumulation and decreased to 1.83 % in Snf-β overexpressing strain. AMPK is known to inactivate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in lipid synthesis. Snf-β manipulation also altered the expression level of the ACC1 gene which may indicate that Snf-β control lipid metabolism by regulating ACC1 gene.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that Snf-β gene plays an important role in regulating lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides WJ11. Moreover, it will be interesting to evaluate the potential of other key subunits of AMPK related to lipid metabolism. Better insight can show us the way to manipulate these subunits effectively for upscaling the lipid production. Up to our knowledge, it is the first study to investigate the role of Snf-β in lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides.