The kinetics of lipid extraction utilizing microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) from Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae were studied using a low cost and green solvent, namely brine (NaCl) solution. The kinetic modelling of the lipid extraction was performed to evaluate the mechanism of the lipid mass transfer using different extraction models, including Fick's Law, First and Second-order Rate Law and the Patricelli mathematical model. The Patricelli mathematical model described the kinetics of lipid extraction well, with the highest average values of determination coefficient (R2 ≥ 0.952) and the lowest average values of mean relative percentage deviation (MRPD ≤ 8.666%). The lipid analysis indicated a positive influence of the microwave temperature and time on the quantity and quality of extracted lipids. SEM analysis of spent microalgae clearly shows an increase in the distorted cell with increase microwave temperature and time, which could be directly correlated to the mechanism of the MAE-brine technique.
Kerengga (Oecophylla smaragdina) adalah satu komuniti serangga yang penting di kanopi pokok. Walau bagaimanapun, kajian tentang aktiviti pencarian makanan kerengga adalah terhad. Oleh sebab itu, satu kajian lapangan dijalankan untuk mengkaji pemilihan makanan dan aktiviti pencarian makanan oleh semut ini dijalankan selama tiga hari. Pemilihan makanan oleh kerengga ini dikaji dengan menggunakan tiga jenis makanan (tuna, kulit ayam, dan susu tepung) yang mengandungi protein, lipid, dan karbohidrat. Aktiviti pencarian makanan dikaji berdasarkan dua parameter iaitu suhu persekitaran dan kelembapan relatif yang direkod sepanjang tempoh experimen. Keputusan experimen menunjukkan O. smaragdina lebih menggemari makanan berprotein berbanding makanan berlipid dan berkabohidrat, serta aktiviti pencarian makanan dipengaruhi oleh suhu persekitaran dan kelembapan relatif. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan bagaimana kerengga bertindak balas terhadap tiga jenis makanan yang berbeza dan secara tidak langsung, menunjukkan aktiviti pencarian makanan yang strategik untuk memaksimumkan bekalan makanan kepada koloni mereka.
Meibomian gland is one of the anatomical eye structures to provide oily lipid layer to the anterior part of the eye. Textural analysis by using Mean Histogram Method was proposed as a method of estimating area of Meibomian Gland Loss (MGL). Objective: The main objective of this study was to objectively measure the meibomian gland image by using textural analysis.
Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour and non-fatty materials) from crude fats and oils to yield purified glycerides. There is a need to optimize the bleaching process of crude ostrich oil prior to its use for therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to establish an effective method to bleach ostrich oil using peroxide value as an indicator of refinement. In our study, we showed that natural earth clay was better than bentonite and acid-activated clay to bleach ostrich oil. It was also found that 1 hour incubation at a 150 °C was suitable to lower peroxide value by 90%. In addition, the nitrogen trap technique in the bleaching process was as effective as the continuous nitrogen flow technique and as such would be the recommended technique due to its cost effectiveness.
Palm oil is natural oil packed with important compounds and fatty acids ready to be exploited in lipid-based formulations and drug delivery. Palm oil and palm kernel oil contain long-chain and medium-chain triglycerides, respectively, including phytonutrients such as tocotrienol, tocopherol and carotenes. The exploitation of these compounds in a lipid-based formulation would be able to address hydrophobicity, lipophilicity, poor bioavailability and low water-solubility of many current drugs. The utilisation of palm oil as part of the drug delivery system seemed to improve the bioavailability and solubility of the drug, stabilising emulsification of formulation between emulsifier and surfactant, promoting enhanced drug permeability and performance, as well as extending the shelf-life of the drug. Despite the complexity in designing lipid-based formulations, palm oil has proven to offer dynamic behaviour in providing versatility in drug design, form and delivery. However, the knowledge and application of palm oil and its fractions in lipid-based formulation are scarce and interspersed. Therefore, this study aims to focus on the research and outcomes of using palm oil in lipid-based formulations and drug delivery systems, due to the importance of establishing its capabilities and benefits.
The study explores on upstream and downstream process in Microcystis aeruginosa for biodiesel production. The alga was isolated from temple tank, acclimatized and successfully mass cultivated in open raceway pond at semi-continuous mode. A two step combined process was designed and harvested 99.3% of biomass, the daily dry biomass productivity was recorded up to 28gm(-2)day(-1). The lipid extraction was optimized and achieved 21.3%; physicochemical properties were characterized and found 11.7% of FFA, iodine value 72% and 99.2% of ester content. The lipid was transesterified by a two step simultaneous process and produced 90.1% of biodiesel; the calorific value of the biodiesel was 38.8MJ/kg. Further, the physicochemical properties of biodiesel was characterized and found to be within the limits of American ASTM D6751. Based on the areal and volumetric biomass productivity estimation, M. aeruginosa can yield 84.1 tons of dry biomass ha(-1)year(-1).
Gelucire 50/13 alone and solid dispersions in this material containing two model drugs (10% w/w caffeine and paracetamol) have been studied with a view to establishing the mechanism underpinning changes in drug-release characteristics as a function of storage time and temperature. The lipid systems were fabricated into tablets and stored for up to 180 days at temperatures of 20 and 37 degrees C. The dispersions were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy, and dissolution testing. DSC studies indicated that the Gelucire 50/13 exists in two principal melting forms (melting points 38 and 43 degrees C) that undergo transformation to the higher melting form on storage at 37 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the systems exhibit "blooming," with crystal formation on the surface being apparent on storage at both temperatures. The dissolution rate increased on storage, with the effect being particularly marked at higher storage temperatures and for the paracetamol systems. However, whereas these changes corresponded well to those seen for the morphology, the correlation between the changes in dissolution and those of the DSC profiles was poor. The study has suggested a novel explanation for the storage instability of Gelucire 50/13 whereby the change in dissolution is associated not with molecular rearrangement as such but with the gross distribution of the constituent components, this in turn altering the physical integrity of the lipid bases.
The delivery of drugs and bioactive compounds via the lymphatic system is complex and dependent on the physiological uniqueness of the system. The lymphatic route plays an important role in transporting extracellular fluid to maintain homeostasis and in transferring immune cells to injury sites, and is able to avoid first-pass metabolism, thus acting as a bypass route for compounds with lower bioavailability, ie, those undergoing more hepatic metabolism. The lymphatic route also provides an option for the delivery of therapeutic molecules, such as drugs to treat cancer and human immunodeficiency virus, which can travel through the lymphatic system. Lymphatic imaging is useful in evaluating disease states and treatment plans for progressive diseases of the lymph system. Novel lipid-based nanoformulations, such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, have unique characteristics that make them promising candidates for lymphatic delivery. These formulations are superior to colloidal carrier systems because they have controlled release properties and provide better chemical stability for drug molecules. However, multiple factors regulate the lymphatic delivery of drugs. Prior to lymphatic uptake, lipid-based nanoformulations are required to undergo interstitial hindrance that modulates drug delivery. Therefore, uptake and distribution of lipid-based nanoformulations by the lymphatic system depends on factors such as particle size, surface charge, molecular weight, and hydrophobicity. Types of lipid and concentration of the emulsifier are also important factors affecting drug delivery via the lymphatic system. All of these factors can cause changes in intermolecular interactions between the lipid nanoparticle matrix and the incorporated drug, which in turn affects uptake of drug into the lymphatic system. Two lipid-based nanoformulations, ie, solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, have been administered via multiple routes (subcutaneous, pulmonary, and intestinal) for targeting of the lymphatic system. This paper provides a detailed review of novel lipid-based nanoformulations and their lymphatic delivery via different routes, as well as the in vivo and in vitro models used to study drug transport in the lymphatic system. Physicochemical properties that influence lymphatic delivery as well as the advantages of lipid-based nanoformulations for lymphatic delivery are also discussed.
Fat remains a hot topic because of concerns over associations between consumption of fats and the incidence of some chronic conditions including coronary artery disease, diabetes, cancer and obesity. Dietary fats serve multiple purposes. The effects of dietary fats generally reflect the collective influences of multiple fatty acids in the diet or food. This presentation highlights some recent developments on the role of dietary fats and oils in health and disease. Debate continues over the role of dietary modification in coronary prevention by lipid lowering. The degree to which a recommended diet will result in health benefits for an individual is difficult to predict, because the outcome will depend on the influence of other factors such as a person's genetic constitution, level of physical activity and total diet composition. There can now be little doubt about the importance of genetic factors in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and cancer. The importance of antioxidant status in the prevention of cardiovascular disease as well as many cancers is being increasingly recognised. It is now evident that not all saturated fatty acids are equally cholesterolemic. Recent accounts evaluating palm oil's effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins suggest that diets incorporating palm oil as the major dietary fat do not raise plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels to the extent expected from its fatty acid composition. Palm oil is endowed with a good mixture of natural antioxidants and together with its balanced composition of the different classes of fatty acids, makes it a safe, stable and versatile edible oil with many positive health and nutritional attributes. In recent times, adverse health concerns from the consumption of trans fatty acids arising from hydrogenation of oils and fats have been the subject of much discussion and controversy. Trans fatty acids when compared with cis fatty acids or unhydrogenated fats have been shown to lower serum HDL cholesterol, raise serum LDL cholesterol and when substituted for saturated fatty acids, increase lipoprotein Lp (a) level, an independent risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. The idea of which foods, nutrients and supplements are "healthy" is often being amended as new scientific data is presented and then simplified for the consumers. What was once perceived as a healthy diet is often no longer considered as such and vice versa. Dietary recommendations have to change with time and the evidence available. Nutritional recommendations should encourage eating a great variety of nutrient sources within our food supply in moderation. Various lifestyle options to improve health should also be promoted.
Anopheles maculatus Theobald sensu lato is a species complex now consisting of eight sibling species; An. maculatus is still represented by two cytologically distinct forms; i.e., the widely distributed sensu strictu or B, and E from southern Thailand and adjacent areas in northern Malaysia. Cuticular lipid profiles in conjunction with principal component analysis was used to separate An. maculatus form E from sensu stricto form B in a preliminary survey of the An. maculatus complex at five locations spanning peninsular Malaysia. The relative rank orders, from the areas of the five gas chromatographic peaks used to determine lipid differences for specimens from peninsular Malaysia, matched well with those from cytogenetically identified colony specimens of An. maculatus forms B and E. The two-dimensional principal component pattern of specimens identified as form E was highly clumped, which indicated that very similar cuticular lipids were present within this putative malaria vector. Both forms coexisted in peninsular Malaysia, but form E may be dominant except in the south.
Surgical operations are impossible without administering proper analgesia. Advancement in the field of anesthesia has invariably resulted in the accomplishment of all surgical processes without any inconvenience. Admittedly, the use of noble gas is on the decline. The noble gases may not interact chemically with any other substance under normal temperature and pressure but they may interact with proteins and lipids. Different anesthetic molecules may stimulate either proteins or lipids in membrane. There is a connection between the anesthetic molecules and the hydrophobic region of the membrane. In the present review, we attempt to highlight the interaction between the anesthetic molecule with proteins and lipids and their effects. We sketched few noble gases and some other existing molecules such as halothane and alcohol which interacted with proteins and lipids.
The ability of oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi to efficiently produce lipids when cultivated on sap extracted from felled oil palm trunk (OPT) as a novel inexpensive renewable carbon source was evaluated. OPT sap was found to contain approximately 98 g/L glucose and 32 g/L fructose. Batch fermentations were performed using three different OPT sap medium conditions: regular sap, enriched sap, and enriched sap at pH 5.0. Under all sap medium conditions, the cell biomass and lipid production achieved were approximately 30 g/L and 60% (w/w), respectively. L. starkeyi tolerated acidified medium (initial pH ≈ 3) and produced considerable amounts of ethanol as well as xylitol as by-products. The fatty acid profile of L. starkeyi was remarkably similar to that of palm oil, one of the most common vegetable oil feedstock used in biodiesel production with oleic acid as the major fatty acid followed by palmitic, stearic and linoleic acids.
The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) have been widely extolled for the application in managing various solid organic wastes. Owing to the saprophagous nature of BSFL, a rapid valorization of solid organic wastes can be accomplished with the simultaneous production of valuable biochemical compounds derived from larval biomass. In the present works, the mixed waste coconut endosperm (w-CE) and soybean curd residue (SC-r) substrates with increasing protein nutritional constituent were administered to BSFL. The correlations between protein from larval feed substrates and nutritional profiles of BSFL biomasses were ultimately unveiled. The protein from larval feed substrates could be increased by increasing of SC-r portion against w-CE. At the w-CE:SC-r ratio of 3:2, the highest larval total weight gained and growth rate were attained; indicating an optimum protein nutritional constituent in mixed organics (12.4%) that could enhance the BSFL palatability. Further increment of protein nutritional constituent in mixed organics was found acidifying the residual larval feed substrate progressively, undermining the growth of BSFL. By feeding the BSFL with optimum mixed organics, the maximum accumulations of larval lipid and protein could be achieved. Transesterification of extracted lipid had demonstrated high in monounsaturated fatty acids (73%) which was suitable for biodiesel. The BSFL palatability was finally confirmed from the bioconversion viewpoint of mixed organic wastes. Again, achieving the highest bioconversion efficiency of 14% into larval biomass after accounting the metabolic loss of 54%. Therefore, a total of 68% of mixed w-CE and SC-r could be successfully bioconverted.
Yeast growth and biomass production are greatly influenced by the length of the
incubation period during cultivation. Therefore, this study was conducted to
investigate the growth kinetics of five Lipomyces starkeyi strains as determined by
biomass production. The five L. starkeyi strains, namely L. starkeyi ATCC 12659, L.
starkeyi MV-1, L. starkeyi MV-4, L. starkeyi MV-5 and L. starkeyi MV-8, were inoculated
in sterilized Yeast Malt broth, and, incubated for 192 hr at ambient temperature.
Biomass yields were assessed and calculated gravimetrically every 24 hr. Results
indicated that the optimal biomass production of L. starkeyi ATCC 12659, L. starkeyi
MV-1, L. starkeyi MV-4, L. starkeyi MV-5 and L. starkeyi MV-8 were at 120, 168, 144,
168 and 120 hr, with the concentrations of 6.64, 6.43, 9.78, 11.23 and 8.56 g/L,
respectively. These results indicate that each L. starkeyi strain requires specific
incubation period for the optimum production of fungal biomass. Therefore, by
cultivating each L. starkeyi strain at the predetermined incubation period, biomass
yields could significantly be improved for further downstream applications such as
single cell protein and lipid production.
Algae biomass comprises variety of biochemicals components such as carbohydrates, lipids and protein, which make them a feasible feedstock for biofuel production. However, high production cost mainly due to algae cultivation remains the main challenge in commercializing algae biofuels. Hence, extraction of other high value-added bioproducts from algae biomass is necessary to enhance the economic feasibility of algae biofuel production. This paper is aims to deliberate the recent developments of conventional technologies for algae biofuels production, such as biochemical and chemical conversion pathways, and extraction of a variety of bioproducts from algae biomass for various potential applications. Besides, life cycle evaluation studies on microalgae biorefinery are presented, focusing on case studies for various cultivation techniques, culture medium, harvesting, and dewatering techniques along with biofuel and bioenergy production pathways. Overall, the algae biorefinery provides new opportunities for valorisation of algae biomass for multiple products synthesis.
Phytohormones comprise a variety of trace bioactive compounds that can stimulate cell growth and promote metabolic shifts. In the present work, a two-stage screening strategy was innovatively established to identify positive phytohormones for enhancement of astaxanthin and lipid coproduction in microplate-based cultures of mixotrophic Chromochloris zofingiensis. The results showed that auxins were the most efficient stimulators for astaxanthin accumulation. The maximum content of 13.1 mg/g and yield of 89.9 mg/L were obtained using indole propionic acid (10 mg/L) and indoleacetic acid (7.8 mg/L), representing the highest levels of astaxanthin in this microalga reported to date. Total lipids with the highest content (64.5% DW) and productivity (445.7 mg/L/d) were coproduced with astaxanthin using indoleacetic acid. Statistical analysis revealed close relations between phytohormones and astaxanthin and lipid biosynthesis. This study provides a novel original strategy for improving astaxanthin and lipid coproduction in C. zofingiensis using the selected phytohormones as positive stimulators.
Hiperkolesterolemia merupakan suatu keadaan yang dikaitkan dengan perubahan aras lipid serum serta peningkatan aras peroksidaan lipid. Kajian ini dilakukan untuk melihat kesan ekstrak akues isi dan kulit buah Hylocereus polyrhizus (HP) terhadap jumlah kolesterol dan trigliserid (TG) serum serta aras malonaldehid (MDA-TBAR) hati tikus teraruh hiperkolesterolemia. Tikus Sprague dawley jantan diaruh menjadi hiperkolesterolemia dengan pemberian diet rat chow bersama 15% minyak sapi selama 8 minggu dan 0.02 g kolesterol secara suap paksa dua kali seminggu. Tikus-tikus diberi perlakuan ekstrak isi dan kulit buah HP, 300 mg/kg secara suap paksa selama 10 hari. Hasil menunjukkan aras kolesterol menurun secara signifikan (p<0.05) pada kedua-dua kumpulan hiperkolesterolemia yang diberi rawatan ekstrak isi dan kulit buah HP sebanyak 43.53% dan 51.36% berbanding tikus kawalan hiperkolesterolemia. Aras TG menunjukkan penurunan secara signifikan (p<0.05) sebanyak 38.0% bagi kumpulan tikus yang diberi rawatan ekstrak isi dan 42.98% bagi rawatan dengan ekstrak kulit buah HP. Peningkatan aras MDA-TBAR hati telah direncat dengan penurunan aras MDA-TBAR sebanyak 56.85% bagi kumpulan tikus yang diberi ekstrak kulit serta sedikit penurunan iaitu 10.27% bagi tikus yang diberi ekstrak isi berbanding tikus kawalan hiperkolesterolemia. Kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa kedua-dua ekstrak akues isi dan kulit buah HP merendahkan aras lipid serum serta aras MDA-TBAR hati pada tikus teraruh hiperkolesterolemia. Walau bagaimanapun, kesan ekstrak kulit lebih jelas berbanding ekstrak isi yang mungkin disebabkan oleh kandungan betasianin yang lebih tinggi dalam kulit berbanding isi buah HP.
Kajian ini adalah mengenai peranan sterol sebagai penunjuk bio-lipid untuk mengenal pasti variasi dan sumber bahan organik yang hadir bersama sedimen permukaan dari Kuala Selangor, Selangor. Kajian melibatkan kaedah pengekstrakan sterol daripada sampel sedimen dan seterusnya dianalisis menggunakan GC-MS untuk menentukan kehadiran sebatian tersebut. Sepuluh sebatian sterol dikenal pasti hadir dengan fitosterol merupakan sebatian dominan di kawasan kajian iaitu 79% daripada jumlah keseluruhan sterol. Ini diikuti oleh kolesterol serta sterol kumbahan masing-masing menyumbangkan 6% daripada jumlah keseluruhan sterol manakala selebihnya berada dalam julat 1-5%. Indeks Sumber Sterol (SSI) juga menunjukkan kandungan fitosterol yang tinggi walaupun hadir pada kadar yang berbeza di setiap stesen pensampelan. Penilaian pencemaran kumbahan menggunakan nisbah koprostanol/kolesterol, koprostanol/(koprostanol+kholestanol) serta epikoprostanol/koprostanol menunjukkan kawasan kajian tidak mengalami pencemaran kumbahan walaupun sterol daripada sumber kumbahan hadir di persekitarannya. Kesimpulannya sedimen permukaan di Kuala Selangor, Selangor mengandungi campuran sterol daripada pelbagai sumber yang hadir di persekitarannya dengan didominasi oleh fitosterol yang berasal daripada tumbuhan terestrial.
Microalgae are autotroph organisms that utilise light energy to synthesize various high-value bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Due to its fast growth rate and capability to survive in harsh environment, microalgae nowadays are applied in various industrial areas. The process of obtaining microalgae-based biomolecules starts with the selection of suitable microalgae strain, cultivation, followed by downstream processing of the biomass (i.e., pre-treatment, harvesting, extraction and purification). The end products of the processes are biofuels and other valuable bioproducts. Nevertheless, low production yield and high-cost downstream processes are the emerging bottlenecks which need to be addressed in the upscaling of extracted compounds from microalgae biomass. To conclude, tremendous efforts are required to overcome these challenges to revolutionize microalgae into a novel and green factory of different bioactive compounds for industrial necessities to satisfy and fulfil global demands.