The stearin fraction of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAGS) was produced from dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG). Bakery shortening blends were produced by mixing PDAGS with either palm mid fraction, PMF (PDAGS/PMF), palm olein, POL(PDAGS/POL) or sunflower oil, SFO (PDAGS/SFO) at PDAGS molar fraction of XPDAGS=0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%. The physicochemical results obtained indicated that C16:0 and C18:1 were the dominant fatty acids for PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/POL, while C18:1 and C18:2 were dominant in the PDAGS/SFO mixtures. SMP and SFC of the PDAGS were reduced with the addition of PMF, POL and SFO. Binary mixtures of PDAGS/PMF had better structural compatibility and full miscibility with each other. PDAGS/PMF and PDAGS/SFO crystallised in β'+β polymorphs in the presence of 0.4-0.5% PDAGS while PDAGS/POL resulted in β polymorphs crystal. The results gave indication that PDAGS: PMF at 50%:50% and 60%:40% (w/w) were the most suitable fat blend to be used as bakery shortening.
Several binary and ternary medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT)-enriched margarine formulations were examined for their solid fat content, heating profile, polymorphism and textural properties. MLCT feedstock was produced through enzymatic esterification of capric and stearic acids with glycerol. The binary formulations were produced by mixing MLCT feedstock blend (40%–90%) and palm olein (10%–60%) with 10% increments (w/w). Solid fat profiles of commercial margarines were used as a reference to determine the suitability of the formulations for margarine production. The solid fat content of the binary formulations of MO 82 and MO 91 (M, MLCT, O, palm olein) were similar to the commercial margarines at 25°C which met the basic requirement for efficient dough consistency. Ternary formulations using reduced MLCT feedstock blend proportion (from 80%–90% to 60%–70%) were also developed. The reduction of MLCT feedstock blend was
done as it had the highest production cost (3USD/kg) in comparison to palm olein (0.77USD/kg) and palm stearin (0.7USD/kg). The proportions of 5%–15% of palm stearin were substituted with palm olein in MO 64 and MO 73 (M, MLCT; O, palm olein) formulations with 5% increment (w/w). As a result, MOS 702010 and MOS 603010 (M, MLCT; O, palm olein; S, palm stearin) margarine formulations showed similar SFC % to the commercial margarines at 25ºC. These formulations were subsequently chosen to produce margarines. The onset melting and complete melting points of MLCT-enriched margarine formulations were high (51.04ºC –57.93ºC) due to the presence of a high amount of long chain saturated fatty acids. Most of the formulations showed β΄- crystals. MOS 702010 was selected as the best formulation due to values for textural parameters comparable (P
Palm oil (PO ; iodin value = 52), palm stearin (POs1; i.v. = 32 and POs2; i.v. = 40) and palm kernel oil (PKO; i.v. = 17) were blended in ternary systems. The blends were then studied for their physical properties such as melting point (m.p.), solid fat content (SFC), and cooling curve. Results showed that palm stearin increased the blends melting point while palm kernel oil reduced it. To produce table margarine with melting point (m.p.) below 40 degrees C, the POs1 should be added at level of < or = 16%, while POs2 at level of < or = 20%. At 10 degrees C, eutectic interaction occur between PO and PKO which reach their maximum at about 60:40 blending ratio. Within the eutectic region, to maintain the SFC at 10 degrees C to be < or = 50%, POs1 may be added at level of < or = 7%, while POs2 at level of < or = 12%. The addition of palm stearin increased the blends solidification Tmin and Tmax values, while PKO reduced them. Blends which contained high amount of palm stearin showed melting point and cooling curves quite similar to that of pastry margarine.
Optimum processing conditions on palm oil-based formulations are required to produce the desired quality margarine. As oils and fats contribute to the overall property of the margarine, this paper will review the importance of beta' tending oils and fats in margarine formulation, effects of the processing parameters -- emulsion temperature, flow-rate, product temperature and pin-worker speed -- on palm oil margarines produced and their subsequent behaviour in storage. Palm oil, which contributes the beta' crystal polymorph and the best alternative to hydrogenated liquid fats, and the processing conditions can affect the margarine consistency by influencing the solid fat content (SFC) and the types of crystal polymorph formed during production as well as in storage. Palm oil, or hydrogenated palm oil and olein, in mixture with oils of beta tending, can veer the product to the beta' crystal form. However, merely having beta' crystal tending oils is not sufficient as the processing conditions are also important. The emulsion temperature had no significant effect on the consistency and polymorphic changes of the product during storage, even though differences were observed during processing. The consistency of margarine during storage was high at low emulsion flow-rates and low at high flow rates. The temperature of the scraped-surface tube-cooler is the most important parameter in margarine processing. High temperature will produce a hardened product with formation of beta-crystals during storage. The speed of the pin-worker is responsible for inducing crystallization but, at the same time, destroys the crystal agglomerates, resulting in melting.
The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of olein and stearin fractions obtained from non-interesterified (NIE), chemically interesterified (CIE) and enzymatically interesterified (EIE) 50:50 palm oil and palm kernel oil blend. The potential applications of both olein and stearin fractions were also identified. Stearin and olein fractions were obtained through a single stage dry fractionation at 25°C. The physicochemical properties analysed include percent yield, fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV), smoke point, cloud point, slip meting point (SMP) and solid fat content. Results indicated that the percent olein yield was higher from the EIE (85%) and NIE blends (82.2%) than in CIE blend (41.8%). The EIE blend produce liquid fraction with the highest amount of unsaturated fatty acid (~50%). Hence, the olein fraction of EIE blend best met the requirement to be used as frying oil based on the highest smoke point (265.1°C) and lowest cloud point (6.2°C). On the other hand, the stearin fraction of CIE blend might be suitable to be used in margarine formulation as it has SMP close to body temperature.
Blends of palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) at certain proportions were formulated using a mixture design based on simplex-lattice (Design Expert 8.0.4 Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis, 2010). All the 10 oil blends were subjected to chemical interesterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal properties (DSC), polymorphism and microstructural properties were studied. Palm-based trans-free table margarine containing ternary mixture of PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31 (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple isosolid diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profile as compared to the commercial table margarine. This study has shown chemical interesterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their mixtures.
The ability of palm oil (PO) to crystallize as beta prime polymorph has made it an attractive option for the production of margarine fat (MF). Palm stearin (PS) expresses similar crystallization behavior and is considered one of the best substitutes of hydrogenated oils due to its capability to impart the required level of plasticity and body to the finished product. Normally, PS is blended with PO to reduce the melting point at body temperature (37 °C). Lipid phase, formulated by PO and PS in different ratios were subjected to an emulsification process and the following analyses were done: triacylglycerols, solid fat content (SFC), and thermal behavior. In addition, the microstructure properties, including size and number of crystals, were determined for experimental MFs (EMFs) and commercial MFs (CMFs). Results showed that blending and emulsification at PS levels over 40 wt% significantly changed the physicochemical and microstructure properties of EMF as compared to CMF, resulting in a desirable dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol content of less than 36.1%. SFC at 37 °C, crystal size, crystal number, crystallization, and melting enthalpies (ΔH) were 15%, 5.37 μm, 1425 crystal/μm(2), 17.25 J/g, and 57.69J/g, respectively. All data reported indicate that the formation of granular crystals in MFs was dominated by high-melting triacylglycerol namely dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol, while the small dose of monoacylglycerol that is used as emulsifier slowed crystallization rate. Practical Application: Most of the past studies were focused on thermal behavior of edible oils and some blends of oils and fats. The crystallization of oils and fats are well documented but there is scarce information concerning some mechanism related to crystallization and emulsification. Therefore, this study will help to gather information on the behavior of emulsifier on crystallization regime; also the dominating TAG responsible for primary granular crystal formations, as well as to determine the best level of stearin to impart the required microstructure properties and body to the finished products.
This study aims to investigate the textural properties and sensory qualities of cookies made from medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT)-enriched margarines. Margarine with formulations of MLCT:palm olein:palm stearin, 60:30:10 and 70:20:10, were selected to produce cookies. The textural properties of cookies were determined using a texture analyser. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and acceptance test were carried out to describe the attributes and to evaluate the degree of liking of cookies, respectively.
A sensitive and rapid reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, δ-), tocotrienols (α-, β-, γ-, δ-), α-tocopherol acetate and α-tocopherol nicotinate is described. The separation was achieved using a Kinetex pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column (150 × 2.1mm, 2.6 µm) with both photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence (FL) detectors that were connected in series. Column was thermostated at 42°C. Under a gradient system consisting of methanol and water at a constant flow rate of 0.38 mL min(-1), all the ten analytes were well separated in less than 9.5 min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, precision and recoveries. Calibration curves of the ten compounds were well correlated (r(2)>0.999) within the range of 100 to 25,000 μg L(-1) for α-tocopherol acetate and α-tocopherol nicotinate, 10 to 25,000 μg L(-1) for α-tocotrienol and 5 to 25,000 μg L(-1) for the other components. The method is simple and sensitive with detection limits (S/N, 3) of 1.0 to 3.0 μg L(-1) (FL detection) and 30 to 74 μg L(-1) (PDA detection). Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day retention times (<1%) and peak areas (≤ 4%) were obtained. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin E in vegetable oils (extra virgin olive, virgin olive, pomace olive, blended virgin and refined olive, sunflower, soybean, palm olein, carotino, crude palm, walnut, rice bran and grape seed), margarines and supplements.
Inter-esterification is one of the processes used to modify the physico-chemical characteristics of oils and fats. Inter-esterification is an acyl-rearrangement reaction on the glycerol molecule. On the other hand, hydrogenation involves addition of hydrogen to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to health implications of trans fatty acids, which are formed during hydrogenation, the industry needs to find alternatives to hydrogenated fats. This paper discusses some applications of inter-esterified fats, with particular reference to inter-esterified palm products, as alternatives to hydrogenation. Some physico-chemical properties of inter-esterified fats used in shortenings are discussed. With inter-esterification, more palm stearin can be incorporated in vanaspati. For confectionary fats and infant formulations, enzymatic inter-esterification has been employed.
Palm pressed fiber (PPF) is a by-product from oil extraction of oil palm fruits. It has unique characteristics resulting from the combination of palm mesocarp fiber, kernel shell and crushed kernel. The present study on different extraction methods for PPF indicated that conventional hexane cold extraction would be the more preferable method compared to soxhlet and reflux method due to the yield recovered (4.35%) and diacylglycerol (19.93% ± 0.07) obtained. Acylglycerol composition using cold extraction gave high Diaclyglycerol and Triacylglycerol (67.04% ± 0.05) with reasonable amount of Monoaclyglycerol / Free Fatty Acid (13.02% ± 0.02). Lauric acid which was not present in crude palm oil were found to be significant in PPF (5.89 to 9.09%), thus making this oil suitable for application in the food industry in products such as shortening and margarine.
Fats and oils in human diets are the main sources of essential fatty acids for the body. However, there is a mounting concern about the intake of foods containing trans fatty acids (TFAs) due to their deleterious effects on human. Thus, the accurate detection of fatty acids (FAs) and TFAs is needed to control and correct nutrition labeling in dietary fat samples. Accordingly, a method for the identification and quantification of FAs and TFAs in food fats by gas chromatography (GC) based on the extraction of lipids and derivatization using base catalyzed followed by trimethylsilyl-diazomethane (TMS-DM) was developed. The proposed method was evaluated to standard mixture of oleic acid (OA) (C18:1cis 9) and Elaidic acid (EA) (C18:1 trans 9) and its application to three samples of commercial margarines was demonstrated. Based on the results obtained, recovery values (R) from all the samples were close to 100%. Repeatability (RSD) values ranged between 0.78 and 2.47%, while Reproducibility (RSD) values ranged between 1.14 and 3.65%. Consequently, the proposed method is sensitive, accurate and suitable for FAs and TFAs analysis of food fats and oils and can be applied to nutritional, medicine and food studies.
In recent years, issues regading safety and wellness of dietary oils and fats have received major attention. This is particularly so in the case of structured modified fats, which are being used extensively to meet the product-specific demand primarily in bakery industry as shortenings, cocoa butter substitutes in confectionary industry, and in margarine preparation, as butter substitute. During modification stages, native oils and fats are subjected to different physical and chemical treatments such as fractionation, hydrogenation and interesterification in order to produce fats with desirable
physical as well as functional properties. Numerous studies have demonstrated the adverse health effects of these modified oils and fats, especially trans fatty acids, using animal models as well as human volunteers. Consequently, the decadesold process of partial hydrogenation of oils has been abandoned in most nations. However, alternative technologies to hydrogenation are on rise, creating new trends in modified oils and fats synthesis to cater food industry needs that may have unforeseeable consequences on human health.
A capillary electrophoresis (CE)-capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) method for the simultaneous separation of eleven underivatized fatty acids (FAs), namely, lauric, myristic, tridecanoic (internal standard), pentadecanoic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids is described. The separation was carried out in normal polarity mode at 20 °C, 30 kV and using hydrodynamic injection (50 mbar for 1 s). The separation was achieved in a bare fused-silica capillary (70 cm × 75 μm i.d.) using a background electrolyte of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (~6 mM) and heptakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (~8 mM) dissolved in a mixture of Na2HPO4/KH2PO4 (5 mM, pH 7.4):ACN:MeOH:n-octanol (3:4:2.5:0.5, v/v/v/v). C(4)D parameters were set at fixed amplitude of 100 V and frequency of 1000 kHz. The developed method was validated. Calibration curves of the ten FAs were well correlated (r(2)>0.99) within the range of 5-250 μg mL(-1) for lauric acid, and 3-250 μg mL(-1) for the other FAs. The method was simple and sensitive with detection limits (S/N=3) of 0.9-1.9 μg mL(-1) and good relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day for migration times and peak areas (≤9.7%) were achieved. The method was applied to the determination of FAs in margarine samples. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over the GC and HPLC methods, especially in terms of simplicity (without derivatization) and sensitivity.