Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Nuruddin MF, Khan SU, Shafiq N, Ayub T
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:387259.
    PMID: 24707202 DOI: 10.1155/2014/387259
    The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC) have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK) as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27) mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods*
  2. Mirzapour Mounes S, Karim MR, Khodaii A, Almasi MH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:764218.
    PMID: 24526919 DOI: 10.1155/2014/764218
    A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting).
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods*
  3. May Z, Alam MK, Mahmud MS, Rahman NAA
    PLoS One, 2020;15(11):e0242022.
    PMID: 33186372 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0242022
    Damage assessment is a key element in structural health monitoring of various industrial applications to understand well and predict the response of the material. The big uncertainty in carbon fiber composite materials response is because of variability in the initiation and propagation of damage. Developing advanced tools to design with composite materials, methods for characterizing several damage modes during operation are required. While there is a significant amount of work on the analysis of acoustic emission (AE) from different composite materials and many loading cases, this research focuses on applying an unsupervised clustering method for separating AE data into several groups with distinct evolution. In this paper, we develop an adaptive sampling and unsupervised bivariate data clustering techniques to characterize the several damage initiations of a composite structure in different lay-ups. An adaptive sampling technique pre-processes the AE features and eliminates redundant AE data samples. The reduction of unnecessary AE data depends on the requirements of the proposed bivariate data clustering technique. The bivariate data clustering technique groups the AE data (dependent variable) with respect to the mechanical data (independent variable) to assess the damage of the composite structure. Tensile experiments on carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates (CFRP) in different orientations are carried out to collect mechanical and AE data and demonstrate the damage modes. Based on the mechanical stress-strain data, the results show the dominant damage regions in different lay-ups of specimens and the definition of the different states of damage. In addition, the states of the damage are observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Based on the AE data, the results show that the strong linear correlation between AE and mechanical energy, and the classification of various modes of damage in all lay-ups of specimens forming clusters of AE energy with respect to the mechanical energy. Furthermore, the validation of the cluster-based characterization and improvement of the sensitivity of the damage modes classification are observed by the combined knowledge of AE and mechanical energy and time-frequency spectrum analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods
  4. Kamruzzaman M, Jumaat MZ, Sulong NH, Islam AB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:702537.
    PMID: 25243221 DOI: 10.1155/2014/702537
    In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods
  5. Akib S, Liana Mamat N, Basser H, Jahangirzadeh A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:128635.
    PMID: 25247201 DOI: 10.1155/2014/128635
    The present study examines the use of collars and geobags for reducing local scour around bridge piles. The efficiency of collars and geobags was studied experimentally. The data from the experiments were compared with data from earlier studies on the use of single piles with a collar and with a geobag. The results showed that using a combination of a steel collar and a geobag yields the most significant scour reduction for the front and rear piles, respectively. Moreover, the independent steel collar showed better efficiency than the independent geobag below the sediment level around the bridge piles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods
  6. Liu KF, Chai HK, Mehrabi N, Yoshikazu K, Shiotani T
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:194295.
    PMID: 24737961 DOI: 10.1155/2014/194295
    Imaging techniques are high in demand for modern nondestructive evaluation of large-scale concrete structures. The travel-time tomography (TTT) technique, which is based on the principle of mapping the change of propagation velocity of transient elastic waves in a measured object, has found increasing application for assessing in situ concrete structures. The primary aim of this technique is to detect defects that exist in a structure. The TTT technique can offer an effective means for assessing tendon duct filling of prestressed concrete (PC) elements. This study is aimed at clarifying some of the issues pertaining to the reliability of the technique for this purpose, such as sensor arrangement, model, meshing, type of tendon sheath, thickness of sheath, and material type as well as the scale of inhomogeneity. The work involved 2D simulations of wave motions, signal processing to extract travel time of waves, and tomography reconstruction computation for velocity mapping of defect in tendon duct.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods*
  7. Izzati WA, Arief YZ, Adzis Z, Shafanizam M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:735070.
    PMID: 24558326 DOI: 10.1155/2014/735070
    Polymer nanocomposites have recently been attracting attention among researchers in electrical insulating applications from energy storage to power delivery. However, partial discharge has always been a predecessor to major faults and problems in this field. In addition, there is a lot more to explore, as neither the partial discharge characteristic in nanocomposites nor their electrical properties are clearly understood. By adding a small amount of weight percentage (wt%) of nanofillers, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of polymers can be greatly enhanced. For instance, nanofillers in nanocomposites such as silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) play a big role in providing a good approach to increasing the dielectric breakdown strength and partial discharge resistance of nanocomposites. Such polymer nanocomposites will be reviewed thoroughly in this paper, with the different experimental and analytical techniques used in previous studies. This paper also provides an academic review about partial discharge in polymer nanocomposites used as electrical insulating material from previous research, covering aspects of preparation, characteristics of the nanocomposite based on experimental works, application in power systems, methods and techniques of experiment and analysis, and future trends.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods*
  8. Gholizadeh H, Abu Osman NA, Eshraghi A, Ali S, Arifin N, Wan Abas WA
    Biomed Eng Online, 2014;13:1.
    PMID: 24410918 DOI: 10.1186/1475-925X-13-1
    Good prosthetic suspension system secures the residual limb inside the prosthetic socket and enables easy donning and doffing. This study aimed to introduce, evaluate and compare a newly designed prosthetic suspension system (HOLO) with the current suspension systems (suction, pin/lock and magnetic systems).
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods*
  9. Talebi E, Tahir MM, Zahmatkesh F, Yasreen A, Mirza J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:672629.
    PMID: 24526915 DOI: 10.1155/2014/672629
    The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB) elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core's surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods*
  10. Saidu MF, Mashita M, Khadijah K, Fazan F, Khalid KA
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:85-6.
    PMID: 15468831
    Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate bioceramic that has been shown by many authors to be biocompatible with bioactive properties. It is widely accepted as the best synthetic material available for surgical use as a bone graft substitute. HA granules produced by AMREC-SIRIM from local materials underwent 5 types of sterilisation techniques with different ageing periods. Samples were tested for chemical and phase composition and microbial contamination before and after being sterilised. From the microbiological tests done, none of the unsterilised positive control yielded a positive culture. Results from X-Ray diffraction studies found that all the sterilisation techniques did not chemically degrade or structurally change the HA granules significantly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods*
  11. Thiagamani SMK, Krishnasamy S, Muthukumar C, Tengsuthiwat J, Nagarajan R, Siengchin S, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Nov 01;140:637-646.
    PMID: 31437507 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.08.166
    This work focuses on the fabrication of hybrid bio-composites using green epoxy as the matrix material, hemp (H) and sisal (S) fibre mats as the reinforcements. The hybrid composite with sisal/hemp fibres were fabricated by cost effective hand lay-up technique, followed by hot press with different stacking sequences. Static properties of the composites such as tensile, compressive, inter-laminar shear strengths (ILSS) and hardness were examined. The physical properties such as density, void content, water absorption and thickness swelling were also analyzed. The experimental results indicate that hybrid composites exhibited minor variation in tensile strength when the stacking sequence was altered. The hybrid composite with the intercalated arrangement (HSHS) exhibited the highest tensile modulus when compared with the other hybrid counterparts. Hybrid composites (SHHS and HSSH) offered 40% higher values of compressive strength than the other layering arrangements. HHHH sample exhibited the highest ILSS value of 4.08 MPa. Typical failure characteristics of the short beam test such as inter-laminar shear cracks in the transverse direction, micro-buckling and fibre rupture were also observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods
  12. Hamidi H, Mohammadian E, Junin R, Rafati R, Manan M, Azdarpour A, et al.
    Ultrasonics, 2014 Feb;54(2):655-62.
    PMID: 24075416 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2013.09.006
    Theoretically, Ultrasound method is an economical and environmentally friendly or "green" technology, which has been of interest for more than six decades for the purpose of enhancement of oil/heavy-oil production. However, in spite of many studies, questions about the effective mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery still existed. In addition, the majority of the mechanisms mentioned in the previous studies are theoretical or speculative. One of the changes that could be recognized in the fluid properties is viscosity reduction due to radiation of ultrasound waves. In this study, a technique was developed to investigate directly the effect of ultrasonic waves (different frequencies of 25, 40, 68 kHz and powers of 100, 250, 500 W) on viscosity changes of three types of oil (Paraffin oil, Synthetic oil, and Kerosene) and a Brine sample. The viscosity calculations in the smooth capillary tube were based on the mathematical models developed from the Poiseuille's equation. The experiments were carried out for uncontrolled and controlled temperature conditions. It was observed that the viscosity of all the liquids was decreased under ultrasound in all the experiments. This reduction was more significant for uncontrolled temperature condition cases. However, the reduction in viscosity under ultrasound was higher for lighter liquids compare to heavier ones. Pressure difference was diminished by decreasing in the fluid viscosity in all the cases which increases fluid flow ability, which in turn aids to higher oil recovery in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Higher ultrasound power showed higher liquid viscosity reduction in all the cases. Higher ultrasound frequency revealed higher and lower viscosity reduction for uncontrolled and controlled temperature condition experiments, respectively. In other words, the reduction in viscosity was inversely proportional to increasing the frequency in temperature controlled experiments. It was concluded that cavitation, heat generation, and viscosity reduction are three of the promising mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery under ultrasound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods*
  13. Hermawan H, Mantovani D
    Acta Biomater, 2013 Nov;9(10):8585-92.
    PMID: 23665503 DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.04.027
    Biodegradable stents are considered to be a recent innovation, and their feasibility and applicability have been proven in recent years. Research in this area has focused on materials development and biological studies, rather than on how to transform the developed biodegradable materials into the stent itself. Currently available stent technology, the laser cutting-based process, might be adapted to fabricate biodegradable stents. In this work, the fabrication, characterization and testing of biodegradable Fe-Mn stents are described. A standard process for fabricating and testing stainless steel 316L stents was referred to. The influence of process parameters on the physical, metallurgical and mechanical properties of the stents, and the quality of the produced stents, were investigated. It was found that some steps of the standard process such as laser cutting can be directly applied, but changes to parameters are needed for annealing, and alternatives are needed to replace electropolishing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods*
  14. Abd Samad H, Jaafar M, Othman R, Kawashita M, Abdul Razak NH
    Biomed Mater Eng, 2011;21(4):247-58.
    PMID: 22182792 DOI: 10.3233/BME-2011-0673
    In present study, a new composition of glass-ceramic was synthesized based on the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass system. Heat treatment of glass powder was carried out in 2 stages: 600 °C as the nucleation temperature and different temperature on crystallization at 850, 950 and 1000 °C. The glass-ceramic heat-treated at 950 °C was selected as bioactive filler in commercial PMMA bone cement; (PALACOS® LV) due to its ability to form 2 high crystallization phases in comparison with 850 and 1000 °C. The results of this newly glass-ceramic filled PMMA bone cement at 0-16 wt% of filler loading were compared with those of hydroxyapatite (HA). The effect of different filler loading on the setting properties was evaluated. The peak temperature during the polymerization of bone cement decreased when the liquid to powder (L/P) ratio was reduced. The setting time, however, did not show any trend when filler loading was increased. In contrast, dough time was observed to decrease with increased filler loading. Apatite morphology was observed on the surface of the glass-ceramic and selected cement after bioactivity test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods
  15. Yunus N, Rashid AA, Azmi LL, Abu-Hassan MI
    J Oral Rehabil, 2005 Jan;32(1):65-71.
    PMID: 15634304
    Nylon denture base material could be a useful alternative to poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in special circumstances such as patient allergy to the monomer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural properties of a nylon denture base material (Lucitone FRS), a conventional compression-moulded heat-polymerized (Meliodent), a compression-moulded microwave-polymerized (Acron MC) and an injection-moulded microwave-polymerized (Lucitone 199) PMMA polymers. The effect of aldehyde-free, oxygen releasing disinfectant solution (Perform) on these properties was also investigated. The flexural modulus and the flexural strength were assessed with a three-point bending test. Specimens were stored in water at a temperature of 37 degrees C for 30 days. For each material, half of the prepared specimens were randomly selected and immersed in the disinfectant 24 h prior to testing. Results were compared statistically at a confidence level of 95%. The result showed that in both the control and disinfected groups, the flexural modulus of nylon was significantly lower than the three PMMA polymers. The flexural strength of nylon was significantly lower than those of Meliodent and Acron MC but was comparable with Lucitone 199. A 24-h immersion in the disinfecting solution increased the rigidity of nylon denture base material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods
  16. Shahinuzzaman M, Yaakob Z, Moniruzzaman M
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2016 Jun;15(2):185-93.
    PMID: 26777540 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12209
    Soap is the most useful things which we use our everyday life in various cleansing and cosmetics purposes. Jatropha oil is nonedible oil which has more benefits to soap making. It has also cosmetics and medicinal properties. But the presence of toxic Phorbol esters in Jatropha oil is the main constrains to use it. So it is necessary to search a more suitable method for detoxifying the Jatropha oil before the use as the main ingredient of soap production. This review implies a more suitable method for removing phorbol esters from Jatropha oil. Several parameters such as the % yield of pure Jatropha oil soap, TFM value of soap, total alkali content, free caustic alkalinity content, pH, the antimicrobial activity, and CMC value of general soap should be taken into consideration for soap from detoxified Jatropha oil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods
  17. Md Rezali KA, Griffin MJ
    Ergonomics, 2018 Sep;61(9):1246-1258.
    PMID: 29628001 DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2018.1462407
    This study investigated effects of applied force on the apparent mass of the hand, the dynamic stiffness of glove materials and the transmission of vibration through gloves to the hand. For 10 subjects, 3 glove materials and 3 contact forces, apparent masses and glove transmissibilities were measured at the palm and at a finger at frequencies in the range 5-300 Hz. The dynamic stiffnesses of the materials were also measured. With increasing force, the dynamic stiffnesses of the materials increased, the apparent mass at the palm increased at frequencies greater than the resonance and the apparent mass at the finger increased at low frequencies. The effects of force on transmissibilities therefore differed between materials and depended on vibration frequency, but changes in apparent mass and dynamic stiffness had predictable effects on material transmissibility. Depending on the glove material, the transmission of vibration through a glove can be increased or decreased when increasing the applied force. Practitioner summary: Increasing the contact force (i.e. push force or grip force) can increase or decrease the transmission of vibration through a glove. The vibration transmissibilities of gloves should be assessed with a range of contact forces to understand their likely influence on the exposure of the hand and fingers to vibration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods
  18. Noroozi S, Ong ZC, Khoo SY, Aslani N, Sewell P
    Prosthet Orthot Int, 2019 Feb;43(1):62-70.
    PMID: 30051756 DOI: 10.1177/0309364618789449
    BACKGROUND:: The current method of prescribing composite running-specific energy-storing-and-returning feet is subjective and is based only on the amputee's static body weight/mass.

    OBJECTIVES:: The aim was to investigate their dynamic characteristics and create a relationship between these dynamic data and the prescription of foot.

    STUDY DESIGN:: Experimental Assessment.

    METHODS:: This article presents the modal analysis results of the full range of Össur Flex-Run™ running feet that are commercially available (1LO-9LO) using experimental modal analysis technique under a constant mass at 53 kg and boundary condition.

    RESULTS:: It was shown that both the undamped natural frequency and stiffness increase linearly from the lowest to the highest stiffness category of foot which allows for a more informed prescription of foot when tuning to a matched natural frequency. The low damping characteristics determined experimentally that ranged between 1.5% and 2.0% indicates that the feet require less input energy to maintain the steady-state cyclic motion before take-off from the ground. An analysis of the mode shapes also showed a unique design feature of these feet that is hypothesised to enhance their performance.

    CONCLUSION:: A better understanding of dynamic characteristics of the feet can help tune the feet to the user's requirements in promoting a better gait performance.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The dynamic data determined from this study are needed to better inform the amputees in predicting the natural frequency of the foot prescribed. The amputees can intuitively tune the cyclic body rhythm during walking or running to match with the natural frequency. This could eventually promote a better gait performance.

    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods
  19. Singh VA, Wei CC, Haseeb A, Shanmugam R, Ju CS
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2019 2 26;27(1):2309499018822247.
    PMID: 30798727 DOI: 10.1177/2309499018822247
    PURPOSE: Bone cement is commonly used as a void filler for bone defects. Antibiotics can be added to bone cement to increase local drug delivery in eradicating infection. After antibiotic elution, nonbiodegradable material becomes an undesirable agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of addition of vancomycin on the compressive strength of injectable synthetic bone substitute, JectOS®. JectOS, a partially biodegradable cement that over time dissolves and is replaced by bone, could be potentially used as a biodegradable antibiotic carrier.

    METHODS: Vancomycin at various concentrations was added to JectOS and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Then, the cement was molded into standardized dimensions for in vitro testing. Cylindrical vancomycin-JectOS samples were subjected to compressive strength. The results obtained were compared to PMMA-vancomycin compressive strength data attained from historical controls. The zone of inhibition was carried out using vancomycin-JectOS and vancomycin-PMMA disk on methicillin-resistant strain culture agar.

    RESULTS: With the addition of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% vancomycin, the average compressive strengths reduced to 8.01 ± 0.95 MPa (24.6%), 7.52 ± 0.71 MPa (29.2%), and 7.23 ± 1.34 MPa (31.9%). Addition of vancomycin significantly weakened biomechanical properties of JectOS, but there was no significant difference in the compressive strength at increasing concentrations. The average diameters of zone of inhibition for JectOS-vancomycin were 24.7 ± 1.44 (2.5%) mm, 25.9 ± 0.85 mm (5%), and 26.8 ± 1.81 mm (10%), which outperformed PMMA.

    CONCLUSION: JectOS has poor mechanical performance but superior elution property. JectOS-vancomycin cement is suitable as a void filler delivering high local concentration of vancomycin. We recommended using it for contained bone defects that do not require mechanical strength.

    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods*
  20. Jaganathan SK, Mani MP
    An Acad Bras Cienc, 2020;92(1):e20180369.
    PMID: 32236296 DOI: 10.1590/0001-3765202020180369
    Ayurveda oil contains numerous source of biological constituents which plays an important role in reducing the pain relief caused during bone fracture. The aim of the study is to fabricate the polyurethane (PU) scaffold for bone tissue engineering added with ayurveda amla oil using electrospinning technique. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the fabricated nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (758 ± 185.46 nm) than the pristine PU (890 ± 116.91 nm). Fourier Infrared Analysis (FTIR) revealed the existence of amla oil in the PU matrix by hydrogen bond formation. The contact angle results revealed the decreased wettability (116° ± 1.528) of the prepared nanocomposites compared to the pure PU (100° ± 0.5774). The incorporation of amla oil into the PU matrix improved the surface roughness. Further, the coagulation assay indicated that the addition of amla oil into PU delayed the blood clotting times and exhibited less toxic to red blood cells. Hence, the fabricated nanocomposites showed enhanced physicochemical and better blood compatibility parameters which may serve as a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Materials Testing/methods*
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