Five different brands of Malaysian commercial beef frankfurters were analyzed for quality characteristics. The proximate contents showed significant differences among the samples. The range of moisture content was 63.0-73.9%; the protein content was 10.63-16.43% while the fat content was 1.71-12.22%. The lightness value (L*) of the uncooked frankfurters, which was in the range of 47.02-52.28, was significantly different among the samples. The lightness of the cooked frankfurters, showed a decrease in all the samples compared to the uncooked samples. No significant differences were observed for the folding test; where all samples showed no cracks after they were folded in half. However, significant differences were observed for the texture analysis. The hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, springiness, gumminess and shear force ranged between 4.59-10.30 kg, 0.26-0.35, 16.15-51.72 kgmm, 12.73-14.79 mm, 1.17-3.49 kg and 1.67-7.08 kg respectively. The results of the study showed that Malaysian commercial beef frankfurters were significantly different in their physicochemical properties.
In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products.
The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (p<0.05) blood loss and lower residual hemoglobin in muscle compared to LFHB. The LFHB meat had higher (p<0.05) TBARS value than other treatments on d 7 and 14 d postmortem. Slaughtering methods had no effect on protein oxidation. Higher bacterial counts were observed in LFHB meat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging.
In order to examine differences of meat quality traits depending on pH values post-mortem, the pH range was classified
according to initial pH (pH45min) and ultimate pH (pH24hr) post-mortem. The differences of meat quality traits depending
on sex were not changed by a number of amount, except for backfat thickness and fat content. The value of pH45min was
positively correlated with pHdif, whereas pH24hr was negatively associated with lightness (CIE L*) and protein content. At
pH45min post-slaughter, collagen content, fat content, shear force, water holding capacity and yellowness (CIE b*) showed
lower values at the higher pH range of pH>6.7 than those of other ranges, but CIE L* and redness (CIE a*) presented
the lowest value at the intermediate pH range of pH6.3~6.7. Conversely, at pH24hr post-slaughter, fat and moisture
contents maintained the highest average values at the higher pH range of pH>6.1, but protein content showed higher
value at the lower pH range of pH<5.7. Higher pH24hr appeared significantly lower shear force, but higher water holding
capacity. CIE L*, a*, and b* values showed significantly higher values at the lowest region of pH24hr. Since meat quality
characteristics seemed to be favored by consumers in rather than at the range of pH5.7~6.1, which showed significant
differences of meat color, appearance, and meat juiciness, it is suggested that production of pork meat to appropriate
pH value is performed by pig breeders and control measures taken during pre- and post-slaughters.
Burgers were prepared using duck surimi-like material (DSLM) with polydextrose added (SL) and DSLM with sucrose-sorbitol added (SS), and the properties of these burgers were compared with those of burgers made of chicken meat (CB) and duck meat (DB). Quality characteristics such as chemical composition, cooking loss, diameter shrinkage, color, and texture were measured. The DB had a lower moisture content (55.58%) and higher fat content (21.44%) and cooking loss (11.01%) compared with other samples, whereas CB, SS, and SL did not differ significantly in moisture (65.21-66.10%) and fat (10.42-11.16%) content or cooking loss (5.32-6.15%). The SS and SL were positioned below CB and above DB in terms of hardness, chewiness, and springiness. Ten trained panelists assessed the burgers using quantitative descriptive analysis. Among the burgers, CB had the greatest brightness of color, hardness, springiness, and chewiness. The SS had greater sweetness than the other burgers. Both SL and SS had significantly less animalic odor, meaty flavor, oiliness, juiciness, and saltiness compared with DB. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of burgers prepared from DSLM approached those of burgers made of chicken.
Four zoonotic parasites, Sarcocystis spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp were screened in exotic meats. A total of forty-six (n=46) meat samples from various species of exotic animals were received from all the 14 states in Malaysia from January 2012 to April 2012. All exotic meat samples were examined macroscopically and histologically for the four zoonotic parasites. Results by histological examination of exotic meats showed the presence of Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma cysts at 8.7% (n=4) and 4.3% (n=2) respectively. No Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp. were found.
The study was carried out to determine the effect of cooking method on Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAs) concentration in grilled chicken and beef (satay). Six common HAs were investigated: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2amino 3,4dimethylimidazo [4,5f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8 trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8trimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Chicken and beef satay samples were grilled to medium and well done level of doneness. Charcoal grilled (treatment A), microwave pre-treatment prior to grilling (treatment B), and microwave-deep fried (treatment C) were applied to beef and chicken satay samples. The satay samples which were microwaved prior to grilling (B) showed significantly (p<0.05) lower HAs concentration as compared to those charcoal grilled (A). Both medium and well done cooked beef and chicken satay samples that were microwaved and deep fried (C) as an alternative method to grilling were proven to produce significantly lesser HAs as compared to charcoal-grilled (A) and microwaved prior to grilling (B).
This study evaluated the effect of partial uropygialectomy (PU) on carcass traits of male and female Akar Putra chickens. Sixty chicks of each sex were evenly distributed into 5 treatment groups with 3 replicates per group containing 4 males and 4 females each, and reared for 12 wk. Homogeneity of the groups was satisfied with regard to the parity. Experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment (T1), and partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied on the second, third, fourth, and fifth treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. The chickens were fed ad libitum the same diets (1 to 13 d: starter; 14 d to slaughter: finisher). On the last d of the experiment, 12 birds were randomly selected from each treatment group (2 males and 2 females per replicate) and slaughtered to determine carcass characteristics, which included carcass weight, dressing percentage with or without eating giblets, and the relative weights of heart, liver, gizzard, thighs, wings, breast, back, and neck. From the results of the study, it was shown that the partial ablation of the uropygial gland at all ages had certain dependent effects concerning some carcass parameters, as shown by higher breast and back relative weights in males and breast relative weight in females. As a consequence, a positive effect also was noticed regarding the carcass morphology in terms of the increase in dressing percentage with or without eating giblets thus leading to an increase in the body weight and carcass weight. Furthermore, the best result was obtained in the second treatment when PU was applied at 3 wk of age compared with other experimental groups. Moreover, the current study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chicken particularly.
Sarcocystosis in meat-producing animals is a major cause of reduced productivity in many countries, especially those that rely on agriculture. Although several diagnostic methods are available to detect sarcocystosis, many are too time-consuming for routine use in abattoirs and meat inspection centers, where large numbers of samples need to be tested. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of the methylene blue tissue preparation, unstained tissue preparation and nested PCR in the detection of sarcocysts in tissue samples. Approximately three-fold more sarcocysts were detected in methylene blue-stained tissue compared to unstained controls (McNemar's test: P<0.01). Test sensitivity was comparable to that of the gold standard for sarcocyst detection, nested polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that methylene blue can be used in tissue compression as a rapid, safe, and inexpensive technique for the detection of ruminant sarcocystosis in abattoirs.
The role of selenium (Se) in human health and diseases has been discussed in detail in several recent reviews, with the main conclusion being that selenium deficiency is recognised as a global problem which urgently needs resolution. Since selenium content in plant-based food depends on its availability from soil, the level of this element in food and feeds varies among regions. In general, eggs and meat are considered to be good sources of selenium in human diet. When considering ways to improve human selenium intake, there are several potential options. These include direct supplementation, soil fertilisation and supplementation of food staples such as flour, and production of functional foods. Analysing recent publications related to functional food production, it is evident that selenium-enriched eggs can be used as an important delivery system of this trace mineral for humans. In particular, developments and commercialisation of organic forms of selenium have initiated a new era in the availability of selenium-enriched products. It has been shown that egg selenium content can easily be manipulated to give increased levels, especially when organic selenium is included in hens' diet at levels that provide 0.3-0.5 mg/kg selenium in the feed. As a result, technology for the production of eggs delivering approximately 50% (30-35 microg) of the human selenium RDA have been developed and successfully tested. Currently companies all over the world market selenium-enriched eggs including the UK, Ireland, Mexico, Columbia, Malaysia, Thailand, Australia, Turkey, Russia and the Ukraine. Prices for enriched eggs vary from country to country, typically being similar to free-range eggs. Selenium-enriched chicken, pork and beef can also be produced when using organic selenium in the diet of poultry and farm animals. The scientific, technological and other advantages and limitations of producing designer/modified eggs as functional foods are discussed in this review.
The overhunting of wildlife for food and commercial gain presents a major threat to biodiversity in tropical forests and poses health risks to humans from contact with wild animals. Using a recent survey of wildlife offered at wild meat markets in Malaysia as a basis, we review the literature to determine the potential zoonotic infection risks from hunting, butchering and consuming the species offered. We also determine which taxa potentially host the highest number of pathogens and discuss the significant disease risks from traded wildlife, considering how cultural practices influence zoonotic transmission. We identify 51 zoonotic pathogens (16 viruses, 19 bacteria and 16 parasites) potentially hosted by wildlife and describe the human health risks. The Suidae and the Cervidae families potentially host the highest number of pathogens. We conclude that there are substantial gaps in our knowledge of zoonotic pathogens and recommend performing microbial food safety risk assessments to assess the hazards of wild meat consumption. Overall, there may be considerable zoonotic risks to people involved in the hunting, butchering or consumption of wild meat in Southeast Asia, and these should be considered in public health strategies.
Adzuki bean is high in protein and fiber with a potential to be used as meat extender and fat replacer in the meat product. Replacement of both the corn flour and fat with different percentages of adzuki beans flour (ABF) has successfully produced acceptable reduced fat meatballs. Meatballs with 100% (w/w) ABF replacement exhibited highest cooking yield and higher moisture content compared to meatballs without the flour, which indicates its ability to bind water. Increasing the ABF content also increased the hardness and chewiness of the meatballs, whilst decreasing their lightness and yellowness. Replacing the corn flour and fat contents with ABF has obviously decreased the fat and calorie contents of the meatballs, yet their protein and carbohydrate contents remained the same compared to control. The sensory test revealed that meatball samples with 25% (w/w) and 50% (w/w) ABF showed no significant difference compared to control but received highest overall acceptability among the panelists. This indicates that replacement of corn flour and fat with ABF especially at 50% (w/w) in the production of reduced fat meatballs resulted with better physicochemical properties and acceptable sensory compared to original meatballs.
Population growth and rise in per capital income have influenced the demand for convenience foods and a meat protein-rich diet. The per capital consumption of beef which had increased from 3.89 kg in 1980 to 5.49 kg in 2006 (DVS, 2006/2007) had resulted in an increased in demand for beef at the rate of 6.2% annually. The local beef production although recorded a 2.5% increased over the last 10 years, is still unable to meat the increasing national demand for beef. In 2008, local production of beef is about 38,250 mt. could only meet about 26.7% of the national demand (DVS, 2008). The gap between supply and demand for beef is expected to widen in the next decades unless efforts is been made to accelerate local production. The lack of number of quality breeding stocks and unorganized breeding system had been the major factors that contribute to the slow growth of the local beef industry.
The use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric techniques to differentiate butter from beef fat (BF) was investigated. The spectral bands associated with butter, BF, and their mixtures were scanned, interpreted, and identified by relating them to those spectroscopically representative to pure butter and BF. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the selected fingerprint regions of 1500-1000 cm-1, with the values of coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) are 0.999 and 0.89% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with BF. Using 6 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 2.42% (v/v). These results proved that FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibration can be used for the detection and quantification of BF in butter formulation for authentication use.
Mushrooms are well known to be healthy because they are low in calories, fat and cholesterol level but rich in vitamin and other essential nutrients. The grey oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC), is a common edible mushroom and is now grown commercially around the world for food and food products. The ability of PSC in changing physical characteristics and sensory properties of beef patty formulated with this fungus were investigated. Result shows beef patty added with 50% ground PSC recorded the highest concentration total dietary fibre (TDF) at 9.95 g/100g compared to beef patty containing 25% of PSC (7.00 g/100g) and control (3.90g/100g). Beef which was replaced with 25% of PSC, recorded the highest cooking yield (76.62%) and moisture retention (59.80%) respectively. On the other physical traits, beef patty containing 25%
PSC recorded fat retention at 89.04% and was not significant (P
Using the Malaysian Household Expenditure Survey 2004/2005 data, this study investigated Malaysian consumers’ preference for beef quantity, quality, and lean beef. Demand and price models that incorporated consumer socio-economic variables were estimated via two-stage least squares (2SLS). This study showed that Malaysian consumers tend to demand for more quantity rather than quality of beef products. Malaysian consumers are also more responsive to price changes rather than fat reduction in beef products. It is more profitable for beef market players to increase their production as Malaysian consumers are expected to consume increasing amounts of beef products.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) extract at different concentrations on chemical characteristics of raw beef under frozen storage. Nutmeg extracts at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.65%, 1.25%, 2.50% and 5.00% (g/ml) were used to treat raw beef (2.5 × 2.5 × 1.0 cm; 4 ± 0.5 g) with dilution method. Treated samples were then individually packed in overwrapped trays and stored for 3 weeks at -18 ± 1oC. The effects of the extract on the chemical characteristics such as lipid oxidation, colour, pH, moisture, fat, and protein content of raw beef were evaluated at 0, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days of storage. Lipid oxidation was evaluated based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) content. Colour of beef was observed by spectrophotometer in colorimetic parameters CIELabs. Values of pH were measured using pH meter. Moisture, fat and protein content were determined using method by Analysis Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). The result showed that extract at concentration of 1.25% inhibited TBARS value meaning that extract of 1.25% or more was able to maintain the oxidative stability of beef at -18oC. A 1.25% of extract was also able to maintain the redness (a*) of treated beef compared to untreated during frozen storage. The pH values of all samples beef decreased starting from 10th day of storage. Untreated samples (0.00%) showed the lowest pH values compared to other treated samples at the end day of storage. There was no significant different in term of protein content in all treated or untreated samples. However, fat and moisture content were significantly affected by the concentration of nutmeg extract. Treated beef was able to retain its moisture with only loss of moisture ranging from 0.2% – 2.00% while untreated samples had 5.00% loss of moisture. The fat content of untreated samples (0.00%) showed a reduction of 0.2% of fat content at the end of storage compared to all treated sample with only loss of 0.1% - 0.05%. Overall, nutmeg extract can be used to maintain the chemical characteristics of raw beef during storage for 3 weeks.
A total of 112 burger patties (35 beef burger patties, 39 chicken burger patties and 38 fish burger patties) which are commercially available at retail level were investigated for the presence and number of Listeria monocytogenes. These samples were analyzed using MPN-PCR method and conventional culturing methods. L. monocytogenes was detected in 33.3% of chicken burger patties, 22.9% of beef patties, and 10.5% of fish patty samples. From all contaminated raw burger patties, the estimated count of L. monocytogenes was ranged from 3 to 75 MPN/g. The results suggest that burger act as a potential source of listeriosis if the contaminated burger patty is consumed without adequate cooking. The risk associated with consumption of these samples was found to be high particularly for processed food at retail level in Malaysia. Therefore, food manufacturers play an important role in monitoring the manufacturing process and conduct a periodical surveillance on microbiological quality assessment on the processing plants. Besides, there is a need to increase awareness of consumers and food handlers to practice proper cooking of the burger patties before the point of consumption, to reduce the risk of listeria infection.
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a serious food-borne pathogen for immunocompromised individuals. L. monocytogenes is capable of producing biofilm on the surface of food processing lines and instruments. The biofilm transfers contamination to food products and impose risk to public health. Transfers contamination to food products, and impose risk hazard to public health. The aim of this study was to investigate biofilm producing ability of L. monocytogenes isolates. Microtitre assay was used to measure the amount of biofilm production by ten L. monocytogenes isolates from minced chicken / meat, sausages and burgers. Results showed that all 10 L. monocytogenes isolates were able to form biofilm after 24 h at 20˚C on polystyrene surface (the common surface in food industries). Some strains were capable of forming biofilm more than the others. All strains showed a slight raise in the quantities of attached cells over 48 and 72 h. L. monocytogenes strains isolated from minced chicken, minced meat and burgers were better biofilm-producers comparing to the strains isolated from sausages.
Pork and bovine collagen incorporated into meat products showed promising
functional properties as food ingredients but has the halal issue. This study
investigated the effect of incorporating fish collagen hydrolysate (FCH) as a fat replacer
in buffalo patties in terms of proximate values, texture and colour properties. There
were five different formulations including a control (10% fat, 0% FCH), A (7.5% fat, 2.5%
FCH), B (5% fat, 5% FCH), C (2.5% fat, 7.5% FCH), and D (0% fat, 10% FCH). There were
no significant differences (p>0.05) between all formulations in terms of cooking yield,
shrinkage, water-holding capacity, and pH value. The sensory test showed no
significant difference (p>0.05) between all formulations in terms of colour,
appearance, juiciness, aroma, and overall acceptability, while sample D with 10% FCH
had significantly lower (p