METHODOLOGY: Dental pulp stem cells from healthy (DPSCs) and carious teeth (DPSCs-CT) were isolated from young donors. Both cell lines were expanded in identical culture conditions and subsequently differentiated towards DAergic-like cells using pre-defined dopaminergic cocktails. The dopaminergic efficiencies were evaluated both at gene and protein as well as at secretome levels.
RESULTS: The efficiency of DPSCs-CT to differentiate into DAergic-like cells was not equivalent to that of DPSCs. This was further reflected in both gene and protein generation whereby key neuronal markers such as nestin, NURR1 and beta-III-tubulin were expressed significantly lower as compared to differentiated DPSCs (P
METHODS: By using a microarray-based global gene expression profiling system, this study aimed to decipher the underlying molecular pathways that may mediate the immunosuppressive activity of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) on activated T cells.
RESULTS: In the presence of UC-MSCs, the proliferation of activated T cells was suppressed in a dose-depended manner by cell-to-cell contact mode via an active cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The microarray analysis revealed that particularly, IFNG, CXCL9, IL2, IL2RA and CCND3 genes were down-regulated, whereas IL11, VSIG4, GFA1, TIMP3 and BBC3 genes were up-regulated by UC-MSCs. The dysregulated gene clusters associated with immune-response-related ontologies, namely, lymphocyte proliferation or activation, apoptosis and cell cycle, were further analyzed.
CONCLUSIONS: Among the nine canonical pathways identified, three pathways (namely T-helper cell differentiation, cyclins and cell cycle regulation, and gap/tight junction signalling pathways) were highly enriched with these dysregulated genes. The pathways represent putative molecular pathways through which UC-MSCs elicit immunosuppressive activity toward activated T cells. This study provides a global snapshot of gene networks and pathways that contribute to the ability of UC-MSCs to suppress activated T cells.