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  1. Zahari Z, Siong LC, Musa N, Mohd Yasin MA, Choon TS, Mohamad N, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2016 Jan;29(1):239-46.
    PMID: 26826835
    Poor sleep quality was frequently reported by opioid dependence patients during methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). The study investigated a sample of patients on MMT to investigate the severity and prevalence of sleep problems in MMT patients. We evaluated sleep quality and disturbances of 119 Malay male patients from MMT clinics in Kelantan, Malaysia between March and July 2013 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)-Malay version. Patients' demographic, clinical data, past drug history and methadone treatment variables were recorded. Patients averaged 37.5 years of age (SD 6.79) and their mean age of first time illicit drug use was 19.3 years (SD 4.48). Their mean age of entering MMT was 34.7 years (SD 6.92) and the mean duration in MMT was 2.8 years (SD 2.13). The mean current daily dosage of methadone was 77.8 mg (SD 39.47) and ranged from 20 to 360 mg. The mean global PSQI score was 5.6 (SD 2.79) and 43.7% patients were identified as 'poor sleepers' (global PSQI scores >5). This study confirms the poor overall sleep quality among patients on MMT. The prevalence and severity of sleep problems in MMT patients should not be underestimated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  2. Manan MM, Ali SM, Khan MA, Jafarian S
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Sep;28(5):1705-11.
    PMID: 26408891
    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments may burden Methadone Maintenance Clinic patients. Since treatment is fully subsidized by the government, financial constraint might lead to patients being made to pay or be given incentive for inconvenience of therapy. This study thus evaluates the characteristic and commitment of methadone therapy patient's in terms of OOP cost, Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) and Willingness-To-Accept (WTA) concept. This survey utilizes the questionnaire by Boris ova & Goodman (2003) on the OOP, WTP and WTA. The forty adult patient's selected medical records from year 2009-2011 were from an urban government methadone clinic. Subject's selection was by convenient sampling based on the predetermined criteria. Most were male (95%) and Malay (60%) was the predominant group. Patients were group into three income groups; ≤ RM1000, ≥ RM1000 -≤ RM2000 and ≥ RM3000. The average OOP cost per month was RM391.30 (s.d RM337.50), which is about 35% of employed patient's monthly income. The wide variation could be attributed by high inter-individual and significant differences between patients in terms of transport, times taken to clinic, cost per trip and weekly household income (p=<0.05). Patients with income of less than RM1000 showed the highest tendency to pay for treatment, asked for the least money for inconvenience and many are unwilling to accept any payments. These findings showed that WTP and WTA is less of a concern for patients in the low-income group. To conclude, OOP payment is not a treatment barrier for most of the urban MMT patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  3. Robson N, Rashid R, Nazar M, Habil H
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2015 Mar;7(1):121-5.
    PMID: 23857876 DOI: 10.1111/j.1758-5872.2012.00194.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  4. Zahari Z, Lee CS, Ibrahim MA, Musa N, Mohd Yasin MA, Lee YY, et al.
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 2016 09;42(5):587-596.
    PMID: 27284701 DOI: 10.3109/00952990.2016.1172078
    BACKGROUND: Methadone is a substrate of the permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter, which is encoded by the ABCB1 (MDR1) gene. Large interindividual variability in serum methadone levels for therapeutic response has been reported. Genetic variations in ABCB1 gene may be responsible for the variability in observed methadone concentrations.
    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the associations of ABCB1 polymorphisms and serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval in opioid-dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT).
    METHODS: One hundred and forty-eight male opioid-dependent patients receiving MMT were recruited. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from whole blood and genotyped for ABCB1 polymorphisms [i.e. 1236C>T (dbSNP rs1128503), 2677G>T/A (dbSNP rs2032582), and 3435C>T (dbSNP rs1045642)] using the allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the dose. Serum methadone concentrations were measured using the Methadone ELISA Kit.
    RESULTS: Our results revealed an association of CGC/TTT diplotype (1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, and 3435C>T) with dose-adjusted serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval. Patients with CGC/TTT diplotype had 32.9% higher dose-adjusted serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval when compared with those without the diplotype [mean (SD) = 8.12 (0.84) and 6.11 (0.41) ng ml-1mg-1, respectively; p = 0.033].
    CONCLUSION: There was an association between the CGC/TTT diplotype of ABCB1 polymorphisms and serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval among patients on MMT. Genotyping of ABCB1 among opioid-dependent patients on MMT may help individualize and optimize methadone substitution treatment.
    Study site: Psychiatric Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), and other MMT clinics in Kelantan,
    Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  5. Zahari Z, Lee CS, Ibrahim MA, Musa N, Mohd Yasin MA, Lee YY, et al.
    J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2016;19(1):127-36.
    PMID: 27096697 DOI: 10.18433/J3NS49
    PURPOSE: This study compared pain sensitivity among opioid dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and opioid naive subjects.

    METHODS: The three hundred participants comprised 152 opioid naive subjects and 148 opioid dependent patients. Opioid naive subjects had not taken any opioids including morphine and methadone to their best knowledge and were presumed so after two consecutive negative urine screenings for drugs. All opioid dependent patients were stabilized in treatment, defined as having been enrolled in the program for more than one month with no change of methadone dosage over the past one month. Excluded from the study were individuals with chronic or ongoing acute pain and individuals with a history of analgesics ingestion within 3 d before the cold pressor test (CPT). Pain tolerance to CPT was evaluated at 0 h, and at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post-methadone dose.

    RESULTS: Patients exhibited a significantly shorter mean pain tolerance time of 34.17 s (95% CI 24.86, 43.49) versus 61.36 (52.23, 70.48) [p < 0.001] compared with opioid naive subjects. Time-dependent mean pain tolerance was also significantly different when naive subjects were compared to patients (p = 0.016).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed hyperalgesia amongst patients on MMT, as manifested by their quicker hand withdrawal. The complaints of pain in this population should not be underestimated and the pain should be evaluated seriously and managed aggressively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  6. Manan MM, Ali SM, Khan MA, Jafarian S, Hameed MA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2013 Jul;26(4):841-6.
    PMID: 23811468
    This study is an observational cross-sectional study aimed to examine the possible demographic and social characteristics of patients enrolled at the Methadone Maintenance Therapy Adherence Clinic (MMTAC) in Malaysia. Medical records from year 2009 - 2011 were Reviewed. Demographic, social characteristics and laboratory examinations such as age, gender, race, clinic attendances and urine analysis were recorded. Subjects were selected by means of convenient sampling but based on the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were analyzed by either Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test Mann-Whitney U-test, with the limit of significance was set at p < 0.05. Demographically, this study found that the ratio of Malays, Chinese and Indian enrolled to the MMTAC program is similar to the distribution of races in Malaysia. Their starting age for drug use was between 14-35 years and the age to enrolment between 30-58 years. Socially, many are unemployed, lowly educated and married. Most are drug users with a high percentage of HCV accompanied with impaired liver function. Retention rate was 87% but illicit drug use was at 57.50%. However, percentage of employment increased significantly after therapy. The study managed to identify several demographical and social distributions of patients attending the MMTAC. Although attendance rate was high, many were on illicit drug use. Nevertheless, employment rate improved significantly.
    Study site: government methadone clinic in Klang, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  7. Nik Jaafar NR, Mislan N, Abdul Aziz S, Baharudin A, Ibrahim N, Midin M, et al.
    J Sex Med, 2013 Aug;10(8):2069-76.
    PMID: 23445463 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12105
    INTRODUCTION: While methadone effectively treats opiate dependence, the side effect of erectile dysfunction (ED) may interfere with treatment adherence and benefits.
    AIM:To determine the rate of ED and the associated factors which predict ED in male patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in a Malaysian population.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were the International Index of Erectile Function-15 (IIEF-15) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
    METHODS: A total of 108 participants diagnosed with heroin dependence were assessed. We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders (SCID-I) on subjects who received MMT, and they were assessed using the IIEF-15, the BDI, and measures of other clinical and sociodemographic variables.
    RESULTS: The rate of ED among men on MMT was 68.5% (mild ED, 36.1%; mild to moderate ED, 22.2%; severe ED, 3.7%). The mean age of the participants was 43.45 years. Older age (P = 0.002), concurrent illicit heroin use (P = 0.024), and having an older partner (P = 0.039) were significantly associated with ED. Following multivariate analysis, it was found that older age was the only significant predictor of ED, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.07 (95% CI = 1.02-1.16). Methadone dose and duration of methadone treatment were not significantly associated with ED.
    CONCLUSION: ED was highly prevalent among male patients on MMT. This suggests that there is a need for routine assessment of sexual function in patients on methadone. Among the risk factors, age was the only factor that was significantly associated with ED. The current use of MMT in Malaysia in terms of dosage and duration did not pose a significant risk for ED.
    KEYWORDS: Erectile Dysfunction; Methadone Therapy; Opiate Dependence
    Study site: outpatient clinic for opiate substitution therapy, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  8. NoorZurani MH, Vicknasingam B, Narayanan S
    Drug Alcohol Rev, 2009 Nov;28(6):688-90.
    PMID: 19930027 DOI: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00128.x
    Methadone, a pharmacological agent used to treat heroin dependence is relatively safe, but may cause cardiac arrhythmias in the concurrent presence of other risk factors. APPROACH AND KEY FINDINGS: This case report highlights the risk of torsade de pointes, a life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia, in a heroin-dependent patient receiving methadone substitution therapy who was prescribed itraconazole for vaginal thrush. The patient presented to the accident and emergency department for chest discomfort and an episode of syncope following two doses of itraconazole (200 mg). Electrocardiogram monitoring at the accident and emergency department showed prolonged rate-corrected QT interval leading to torsade de pointes. The patient was admitted for cardiac monitoring, and electrocardiogram returned to normal upon discontinuation of methadone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  9. Noordin NM, Merican MI, Rahman HA, Lee SS, Ramly R
    Lancet, 2008 Sep 27;372(9644):1149-50.
    PMID: 18926274 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61479-8
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  10. Azbel L, Rozanova J, Michels I, Altice FL, Stöver H
    Harm Reduct J, 2017 07 10;14(1):43.
    PMID: 28693573 DOI: 10.1186/s12954-017-0168-8
    BACKGROUND: Kyrgyzstan, where HIV is concentrated in prisons and driven by injection drug use, provides a prison-based methadone maintenance therapy program as well as abstinence-oriented therapeutic community based on the 12-step model called the "Clean Zone." We aimed to qualitatively assess how prisoners navigate between these treatment options to understand the persistence of the Clean Zone despite a lack of evidence to support its effectiveness in treating opioid use disorders.

    METHODS: We conducted an analysis of policy documents and over 60 h of participant observation in February 2016, which included focus groups with a convenience sample of 20 therapeutic community staff members, 110 prisoners across three male and one female prisons, and qualitative interviews with two former Clean Zone participants. Field notes containing verbatim quotes from participants were analyzed through iterative reading and discussion to understand how participants generally perceive the program, barriers to entry and retention, and implications for future treatment within prisons.

    RESULTS: Our analyses discerned three themes: pride in the mission of the Clean Zone, idealism regarding addiction treatment outcomes against all odds, and the demonization of methadone.

    CONCLUSION: Despite low enrollment and lack of an evidence base, the therapeutic community is buttressed by the strong support of the prison administration and its clients as an "ordered" alternative to what is seen as chaotic life outside of the Clean Zone. The lack of services for Clean Zone patients after release likely contributes to high rates of relapse to drug use. The Clean Zone would benefit from integration of stabilized methadone patients combined with a post-release program.

    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use
  11. Yee A, Hoong MC, Joyce YC, Loh HS
    Subst Use Misuse, 2018 01 28;53(2):276-285.
    PMID: 28857640 DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1342661
    BACKGROUND: Nicotine use disorder is highly prevalent among methadone maintenance patients with its tobacco-related problems. However, the treatment modalities for nicotine use disorder remain limited.
    OBJECTIVE: Our meta-analysis aims to examine the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment in this group of patients.
    METHODS: A total of 1358 participants were recruited from 9 eligible studies, published from the start of studies in this field till Feb 2016, identified from PubMed, OVID, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each report based on predefined inclusion criteria. Pooled odd ratios or weighted mean difference was performed using random effects.
    RESULTS: The treatments for smoking cessation among MMT patients are behavioral and pharmacological therapies. Smoking cessation was better achieved with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) especially with adjunctive behavioral therapy. The pooled odds ratio of smokers' abstinence of smoking by the end of the treatment between NRT and placebo group was 6.32 (95% CI = 1.18 to 33.75, p = 0.03) and is statistically significant. Any additional behavior therapy among MMT patients who received the smoking cessation pharmacotherapy as the primary treatment was not better than those who only received standard care (Odds ratio was 2.53, 95% CI = 0.75 to 8.56, p = 0.14).
    CONCLUSIONS: Although NRT is proven to be effective in smoking cessation, more studies are warranted to prove the effects of other pharmacotherapy in smoking cessation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use
  12. Mukherjee TI, Wickersham JA, Desai MM, Pillai V, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2016 07 01;164:120-7.
    PMID: 27207155 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.04.037
    INTRODUCTION: Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is crucial for HIV prevention and treatment in people who inject opioids. In Malaysia, a large proportion of the prison population is affected by both HIV and opioid use disorders. This study assessed individual preferences and factors associated with interest in receiving MMT among male prisoners meeting criteria for opioid dependence in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A convenience sample of 96 HIV-positive and 104 HIV-negative incarcerated men who met pre-incarceration criteria for opioid dependence was interviewed using a structured questionnaire to examine participant characteristics and attitudes toward MMT. Factors associated with interest in prison-based MMT initiation were identified using logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: Among all participants, 85 (42.5%) were interested in receiving MMT within prison. Independent correlates of interest in prison-based MMT were being previously married (AOR=4.15, 95% CI: 1.15, 15.02), previously incarcerated (AOR=5.68, 95% CI: 1.54, 21.02), depression (AOR=3.66, 95% CI: 1.68, 7.98), daily heroin use in the 30days prior to incarceration (AOR=5.53, 95% CI: 1.65, 18.58), and more favorable attitudes toward MMT (AOR=19.82, 95% CI: 6.07, 64.74).

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, interest in receiving prison-based MMT was low, and was associated with adverse social, mental health, and drug use consequences. Incarceration provides a unique opportunity to initiate MMT for those who need it, however, optimal scale-up efforts must be systemic and address modifiable factors like improving attitudes toward and motivation for MMT. Informed or shared decision-making tools may be useful in improving expectations and acceptability of MMT.

    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  13. Yee A, Danaee M, Loh HS, Sulaiman AH, Ng CG
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(1):e0147852.
    PMID: 26820154 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147852
    INTRODUCTION: Methadone has long been regarded as an effective treatment for opioid dependence. However, many patients discontinue maintenance therapy because of its side effects, with one of the most common being sexual dysfunction. Buprenorphine is a proven alternative to methadone. This study aimed to investigate sexual dysfunction in opioid-dependent men on buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The secondary aim was to investigate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and the quality of life in these patients.

    METHODS: Two hundred thirty-eight men participated in this cross-sectional study. Four questionnaires were used, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Opiate Treatment Index, Malay version of the International Index of Erectile Function 15 (Mal-IIEF-15), and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between MMT and BMT and the Mal-IIEF 15 scores while controlling for all the possible confounders.

    RESULTS: The study population consisted of 171 patients (71.8%) on MMT and 67 (28.2%) on BMT. Patients in the MMT group who had a sexual partner scored significantly lower in the sexual desire domain (p < 0.012) and overall satisfaction (p = 0.043) domain compared with their counterparts in the BMT group. Similarly, patients in the MMT group without a sexual partner scored significantly lower in the orgasmic function domain (p = 0.008) compared with those in the BMT group without a partner. Intercourse satisfaction (p = 0.026) and overall satisfaction (p = 0.039) were significantly associated with the social relationships domain after adjusting for significantly correlated sociodemographic variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sexual functioning is critical for improving the quality of life in patients in an opioid rehabilitation program. Our study showed that buprenorphine causes less sexual dysfunction than methadone. Thus, clinicians may consider the former when treating heroin dependents who have concerns about sexual function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use
  14. Polonsky M, Rozanova J, Azbel L, Bachireddy C, Izenberg J, Kiriazova T, et al.
    AIDS Behav, 2016 12;20(12):2950-2960.
    PMID: 27011378
    In this study, we use data from a survey conducted in Ukraine among 196 HIV-infected people who inject drugs, to explore attitudes toward drug addiction and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT), and intentions to change drug use during incarceration and after release from prison. Two groups were recruited: Group 1 (n = 99) was currently incarcerated and Group 2 (n = 97) had been recently released from prison. This paper's key finding is that MMT treatment and addiction recovery were predominantly viewed as mutually exclusive processes. Group comparisons showed that participants in Group 1 (pre-release) exhibited higher optimism about changing their drug use, were less likely to endorse methadone, and reported higher intention to recover from their addiction. Group 2 participants (post-release), however, reported higher rates of HIV stigma. Structural equation modeling revealed that in both groups, optimism about recovery and awareness of addiction mediated the effect of drug addiction severity on intentions to recover from their addiction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  15. Bachireddy C, Weisberg DF, Altice FL
    Addiction, 2015 Dec;110(12):1869-71.
    PMID: 26464200 DOI: 10.1111/add.13055
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use
  16. Culbert GJ, Waluyo A, Iriyanti M, Muchransyah AP, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2015 Apr 1;149:71-9.
    PMID: 25659895 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.018
    In Indonesia, incarceration of people who inject drugs (PWID) and access to drugs in prison potentiate within-prison drug injection (WP-DI), a preventable and extremely high-risk behavior that may contribute substantially to HIV transmission in prison and communities to which prisoners are released.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use
  17. Yee A, Loh HS, Hisham Hashim HM, Ng CG
    Int. J. Impot. Res., 2014 Sep-Oct;26(5):161-6.
    PMID: 24990199 DOI: 10.1038/ijir.2014.18
    Methadone maintenance treatment is proven to be effective treatment for opioid dependence. Of the many adverse events reported, sexual dysfunction is one of the most common side effects. However, there may be other clinical factors that are associated with sexual dysfunction among methadone users. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the clinical factors associated with sexual dysfunction among male patients on methadone and buprenorphine treatments, of which eligible studies were selected using prior defined criteria. A total of 2619 participants from 16 eligible studies, published from inception till December 2012, were identified from the PubMed, OVID and EMBASE databases. The included studies provided prevalence estimates for sexual dysfunction among methadone users with a meta-analytical pooled prevalence of 52% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-0.65). Only four studies compared sexual dysfunction between the two groups, with a significantly higher combined odds ratio in the methadone group (odds ratio=4.01, 95% CI, 1.52-10.55, P=0.0049). Our study shows that eight clinical factors are associated with sexual dysfunction among men receiving opioid substitution treatment, namely age, hormone assays, duration of treatment, methadone dose, medical status, psychiatric illness, other current substance use and familial status, and methadone versus buprenorphine treatment. Despite the methodological limitations, the findings of this meta-analysis study may offer better insights to clinicians in dealing with both sexual dysfunction and its related problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use
  18. Rashid RA, Kamali K, Habil MH, Shaharom MH, Seghatoleslam T, Looyeh MY
    Int. J. Drug Policy, 2014 Nov;25(6):1071-5.
    PMID: 25107831 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.07.003
    BACKGROUND: This paper describes the rationale, implementation and operation of a "world first" Islamic inspired methadone maintenance treatment project delivered in a mosque setting and presents the outcome for the first group of participants. The project explored the viability of expanding addiction recovery services through the network of mosques in Muslim communities.
    METHODS: The project combined methadone maintenance with peer and religious counseling. Participants consisted of 36 male Muslim heroin users who went through the project. Urine tests and self-reported measures on various dimensions relevant to drug use and quality of life were collected at baseline and 12 months.
    RESULTS: The project had a 12 month retention rate of 80%. At 12 months all but one participant tested negative for opioids and other substances. Self-report measures showed significant reductions in the degree and variety of drug use, improvements in general health, and psychological and social functioning of participants. Qualitative data showed that availability of methadone, convenient location and religion were the main reasons drawing participants to the program.
    CONCLUSIONS: Mosques are viable venues for offering medication assisted recovery services and offer an alternative approach for managing addiction in Muslim communities. The prospect of mobilizing community resources to offer community-oriented long-term recovery management programs in mosques and other places of worship deserves consideration.
    KEYWORDS: Islamic intervention; MMT in mosque; Malaysia; Methadone maintenance
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  19. Baharudin A, Mislan N, Ibrahim N, Sidi H, Nik Jaafar NR
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:67-73.
    PMID: 23857840 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12069
    INTRODUCTION: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in men. The aim of the study was to determine the depressive symptoms and associated factors among men on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT).
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 108 subjects who attended the Drug Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur. The instruments used include the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition Axis-I Disorder, Beck Depression Inventory and the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function.
    RESULTS: The rate of depression was 44.4%. There were significant associations between Malay ethnicity, secondary education level and concurrent illicit cannabis use with depression (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  20. Musa R, Abu Bakar AZ, Ali Khan U
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2012 Sep;24(5):826-32.
    PMID: 21490111 DOI: 10.1177/1010539511404396
    BACKGROUND: The commencement of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in 2005 represents a quantum leap in the management of heroin dependence in Malaysia.
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the 2-year outcomes of this modality in the treatment of heroin dependence with respect to the quality of life (QOL), heroin abstinence, and rate of employment among heroin dependants attending the Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital (HTAA) MMT clinic.
    METHOD: This was an experimental study in which the second QOL assessment was conducted 2 years after treatment initiation.
    RESULTS: A total of 172 patients enrolled at the point of entry to the MMT program. The authors examined 107 patients who remained in the program 2 years later (62.6% retention rate). A paired t test demonstrated significant improvements in all 4 domains of QOL (physical, psychological, social relationships, and environment; P < .001). The most marked improvement was noted in the psychological domain.
    CONCLUSION: The MMT program at HTAA is effective in improving the QOL among heroin dependants.
    Study site: MMT clinic, Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital (HTAA), Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
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